DOS Protected Mode Services

DOS Protected Mode Services is a set of extended DOS memory management services to allow DPMS-enabled DOS drivers to load and execute in extended memory and protected mode. Not being a DOS extender by itself, DPMS is a minimal set of extended DOS memory management services to allow modified DOS resident system extensions such as device drivers or TSRs to relocate themselves into extended memory and run in 16-bit or 32-bit protected mode while leaving only a tiny stub in conventional memory as an interface to communicate with the conventional DOS environment; the DPMS clients do so through DPMS services provided by a loaded DPMS server. The necessary size of the remaining stub depends on the type of driver, but can be reduced downto a few hundred bytes for just the header for complex drivers. By executing the driver in extended memory and freeing up conventional memory, DPMS not only allows large drivers to load and take advantage of the available memory, but to leave more memory available for normal DOS drivers to load or non-extended DOS applications to execute within the space constraints of the conventional memory area.

This will help increase the amount of free system resources under Windows. Providing unified interfaces for the software to allocate and use memory in protected mode without having to tunnel all requests through real mode DOS, DPMS at the same time can help improve system performance as well. DPMS was developed by Novell's Digital Research GmbH, Germany, in 1992, it is compatible with any DOS and can coexist with memory managers and DOS extenders such as DPMI, VCPI, etc. The DPMS API is reentrant and compatible with multitaskers such as the DR-DOS multitasker or DESQview. By providing a built-in DPMS VxD-driver, it is compatible with Windows 3.x and Windows 9x. The DPMS server must be loaded after the memory managers, either as a "DPMSXXX0" device driver per DEVICE statement in CONFIG. SYS, or as a TSR. For debug purposes, SDK-versions of EMM386. EXE 3.00 can alternatively provide DPMS services via EMM386 DPMS through a built-in DPMS. SYS module running at ring 1 instead of ring 0, as with the stand-alone version of DPMS.

EXE. The DPMS NOCR3 option allows debugging under older NuMega SoftICE versions. Depending on circumstances the server will occupy between about 700 to 1400 bytes of conventional memory by itself and cannot be loaded into UMBs; the DPMS server will require at least a 286 machine to run, but since DPMS-enabled software can be designed in a way so that it continues to execute in conventional memory if DPMS services are not available, the software does not need to give up compatibility with systems not providing DPMS services, either because DPMS is not loaded or not available. On 386 CPUs, the DPMS server will not only provide a set of 16-bit, but a set of 32-bit services. On these machines, DPMS can be forced to load only its 16-bit services using the DPMS 2 option. DPMS will allocate memory either depending on what kind of memory is available. VCPI will call down to XMS as well. Newer versions of DPMS can be forced to use one of these interfaces using the DPMS MEM=XMS|VCPI option. In some versions, it is possible to specify the maximum amount of extended memory to be allocated with DPMS MB=nnnn.

DPMS registering services can be disabled or re-enabled at any time after load using the DPMS OFF or DPMS ON command, this will only affect new drivers loaded, not those running and using DPMS. There are three revisions of the DPMS specification, DPMS beta, DPMS 1.0 and DPMS 1.1. The 1.0 specification continued to support the beta specification as well, whereas the 1.1 implementation does not. DPMS saw its debut in beta versions of DR DOS "Panther" in October 1992, besides others, came with DPMS-enabled versions of the Super PC-Kwik disk cache, Addstor's SuperStor disk compression, DEBUG as "stealth" protected mode system debugger. While DPMS was called "DOS Protected Mode Services" at this time, the DPMS. EXE/DPMS. SYS 0.10 driver would still display "DOS Protected Mode Server" startup messages. The PCMCIA card services. Retail products such as Novell DOS 7 and Personal NetWare 1.0 in December 1993 came with many DPMS-enabled drivers such as the file deletion tracking component DELWATCH 2.00, the adaptive disk cache NWCACHE 1.00, NWCDEX 1.00, a CD-ROM redirector extension, the peer-to-peer networking server SERVER 1.20, STACKER 3.12, the disk compression component.

DPMS was provided by Caldera OpenDOS 7.01, DR-DOS 7.02 and 7.03, which, at least in some releases, added DPMS-enabled issues of DRFAT32, LONGNAME and VDISK. DR-DOS 7.03 contains the latest version of DPMS 1.44. DPMS was provided by IBM's PC DOS 7.0 and PC DOS 2000, which came with an older version of Novell's DPMS server and a DPMS-enabled version of Stacker 4.02 bundled. Stac Electronics produced a DPMS-enabled stand-alone version of Stacker 4. PC-Kwik Corporation's Super PC-Kwik 6.xx for DOS and their Power Pak 4.0 for Windows included the DPMS-enabled disk cache SUPERPCK in 1994. Some third-party DOS driver suites such as the Eicon Diva or High Soft Tech GmbH Saphir CAPI ISDN drivers or PCMCIA/PCCard driver stacks such as Award's CardWare 2.5 are known to support DPMS as well. After Phoenix's acquisition of Award, their PCMCIA drivers 6.0 have been sold off to UniCore. Car

Kensington Square

Kensington Square is a garden square in Kensington, London, W8. It is the oldest such square in Kensington. 1–45 Kensington Square are listed Grade II for their architectural merit. In 1685, Thomas Young, a woodcarver, acquired land in Kensington which he sought to develop, as he described it in 1701, "did sett out and appoint a considerable part thereof to be built into a large Square of large and substantial Houses fit for ye Habitacion of persons of good Worth and Quality, with Courts and Yards before and Gardens lying backwards". In London, St. James's Square, Soho Square and Golden Square are a few years older, but in contrast with these Kensington Square still retains its residential character; the communal gardens are 0.3642 hectares in size. The garden is private and not open to the public, though it has taken part in the annual Open Garden Squares Weekend; until 2018 located at number 23 was Heythrop College, University of London,"the Specialist Philosophy and Theology College of the University of London," which included a library of books established "in 1614 in Louvain by the Society of Jesus for the study of philosophy and theology."

The square includes the former home of the composer Hubert Parry at number 17. The lawyer and Positivist Vernon Lushington had 36 Kensington Square as his family's London home, it was Lushington who had introduced Burne Jones to Dante Gabriel Rossetti at the Working Men's College. The Lushingtons and Parrys were in and out of each other's houses; the scholar and philanthropist Richard Buckley Litchfield lived at number 31 with his wife Henrietta Litchfield, Charles Darwin's daughter. Their niece, the artist Gwen Raverat, describes visits to the house in her memoir Period Piece. Between 1831 and 1896 the Kensington School was based in the square, starting at number 31 and occupying number 25–29; the school is notable as one of the founders of the Football Association in 1863. The school built fives courts in the gardens of the houses. In the 2016 film The Exception, protagonist Mieke de Jong coyly inscribes a copy of Beyond Good and Evil with: Squares in London List of city squares Kensington Square at OGSW