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University of London

The University of London is a federal research university located in London, England. As of March 2020, the university consists of 17 member institutions and three central academic bodies; the university has around 48,000 distance learning external students and 178,735 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, moved to a federal structure in 1900, it is now incorporated by its fourth royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 2018. It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade the first to admit women to degrees.

In 1948 it became the first British university to appoint a woman as its vice chancellor. The university's member institutions house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the member institutions operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university; the largest colleges by enrolment as of 2016/17 are UCL, King's College London, Queen Mary, the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies, St George's, the Royal Veterinary College, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art, the Institute of Cancer Research. Imperial College London was a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, Heythrop College was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018.

City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016. Under the 2018 act, member institutions ceased to be termed colleges and gained the right to seek university status without having to leave the federal university: Birkbeck, Goldsmiths’, King’s College London, the LSE, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Queen Mary, the Royal Veterinary College, Royal Holloway, SOAS, St George's and UCL have all indicated that they intend to do so; as of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 3 Olympic gold medalists and the "Father of the Nation" of several countries. The university owns University of London Press. University College London was founded under the name “London University” in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established Church of England.

As a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment, King's College London was founded as an Anglican college by royal charter in 1829. In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university; this was rejected, but renewed in 1834. In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools; the idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests as the degrees of the new University of Durham were to be closed to non-Anglicans. In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name".

Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837; the university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university.

Beyond the

Mary Edna Hill Gray Dow

Mary Edna Hill Gray Dow was an American financier, school principal, correspondent. Dow was the president of the Dover, New Hampshire, horse car railroad, was the first woman in the world to hold such a position, she held the controlling stock of the road, which she bought up when she found that a syndicate of Boston men was trying to buy it. Prior to this position, she was a teacher of French and German in a seminary, a journalist, she made considerable money through real estate transactions. Mary Edna Hill was born in a daughter of Nathaniel Rogers Hill, she was of Puritan ancestry. Dow was educated in Dover. While she was yet a child, her parents removed to Boston, it was there she got the larger part of her schooling. At the age of 17, she graduated with high honors from Charlestown High School; when a girl, she developed business experience on account of the invalidism of her father, a farmer. For some years, she was a successful assistant principal of the Rochester, New Hampshire high school, afterwards went to St. Louis, where for three years, she was instructor in French and German in a female academy.

Dow worked as a correspondent for several newspapers, among them the Boston Journal and Traveller, New Hampshire Statesman, the Dover Enquirer, some southern papers. While in the West, she conceived a liking for the stage, because of her success in amateur theatricals, but the disapproval of friends caused her to abandon the idea. In October, 1875, she married a wealthy resident of Dover, George Frederick Gray, part owner and editor of the Dover Press, a Democratic weekly paper published there, they spent two years in Europe. Three children were born to them. During the marriage, she was entrusted with the care of what estate, he died in 1880. Five years after the death of Mr. Gray, she married Dr. Henry Dow, a physician of Dover, a gentleman owning considerable property. After spending some time in England, they returned to Dover where Mrs. Dow began to attract attention as a financier, her business capacity came rather conspicuously into notice as Dr. Dow was willing to have her take charge of his affairs.

In January, 1888, Dow was elected president of the Dover Horse Railway, an event that brought attention in railway circles. She was familiar with the circumstances of the road and had secured a majority of its stock; the road had been a failing enterprise. The patrons found fault with the accommodations and the excessiveness of fares, the stockholders were unhappy with the excessiveness of expenses and the small receipts. For years, the horse railway had paid only a small dividend. A Boston syndicate made overtures for possession of the whole stock, with such success that the board of directors reached the point of voting to sell. Mrs. Dow was out of town during these negotiations, but returned as the sale was about to be consummated, she held a small amount of the stock, was approached with an offer for it at something like one-third the price at which it had been bought. She at once decided that, if the stock were so low, yet the Boston syndicate expected to make the road pay, any other able financier might reasonably indulge the same hope.

Her attitude interrupted the syndicate's scheme, for some weeks, there was a contest of wits to see who would get control of the most blocks. When the next meeting was called, it was supposed that the property would be transferred to the Boston party, but it transpired that Mrs. Dow acquired more than half the stock, her election to the presidency was certain. As her own votes would elect the directorate, that body would be made up by those. Several among the Dover gentlemen, who desired to be on the board, said that they would not vote for a woman for president as it was preposterous and meant bankruptcy, but the matter was presented to the gentlemen in this form: Agree to vote for Mrs. Dow, you can hold office, they succumbed, but with trepidation. After her election to the presidency, her first moves as general manager were to double the insurance on the property, inaugurate a system of cash payments, thereby avoiding debts, getting on all bills a discount of ten per cent. People who dealt with the road had not been accustomed to receive ready money from it, the pleasant surprise caused them to make their discounts more liberal.

She raised the wages of the employees, reduced the fare from. US$0.05 to US$0.06. The reduction of fare augmented the receipts. Being a real judge of horses and material, she was able to save the road a considerable amount of expenditures, she added to the receipts by using tickets with advertisements relating to a favorite brand of tobacco, this little resort, although considered to be sharp business sense, was regarded as a poor choice for a woman. At the close of the year, under Mrs. Dow's administration, the affairs of the road showed an improved condition, a dividend of eleven per cent, was declared, she sold her interest at a profit. George Frederick Gray was born at Dover, he was survived by three children: George, an illustrator, with a studio in Boston. Mr Gray was prominent in politics in Strafford County, New Hampshire and was once a member of the Massachusetts State Senate, he was known in journalism and as editor of the Dover Gazette and as contributor to the Herald, was one of the pioneer and progressive newspaper men of the area.

Henry Dow was born at Dover, on the site of the old Strafford bank, an

Soldier Fuel

The Soldier Fuel bar known as Hooah! bar, is a dairy-based calcium-enriched energy bar created by the United States military in 1996. It was provided to military personnel packaged within a field ration, such as the Meal, Ready-to-Eat, Meal Cold Weather, or First Strike Ration; the name comes from the word "hooah", an expression of high morale and confidence most used by the United States Army. As the Marine Corps preferred the word "Oohrah!" instead, the bar had "HOOAH!" and the US Army seal on one side and "OOH-RAH!" and the US Marine Corps seal on the other. The commercial version features the United States roundel instead; the original military HOOAH! Bar came in apple-cinnamon, raspberry, cran-raspberry, peanut butter flavors; the smaller First Strike bars come except peanut butter. In 2004, D'Andrea Brothers LLC licensed "HOOAH!" for commercial sales, the company started marketing the bar to the public in 2004. The energy bar is now named "Soldier Fuel" instead of HOOAH!, provides 270 to 280 calories, 10 grams of protein, 8 or 9 grams of fat and 40 grams to 42 grams of carbohydrates.

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