Arthur Lee Shell Jr. is an American former collegiate and professional football player in the American Football League and in the National Football League, a Hall of Fame offensive tackle, a two-time former head coach of the Oakland Raiders. He holds the distinction of becoming the second African-American head coach in the history of professional football, the first in the sport's modern era. Shell was inducted to the College Football Hall of Fame in 2013 and the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1989. Shell was drafted by the American Football League's Oakland Raiders from Maryland State College. Playing offensive tackle, Shell participated in 24 playoff contests, including Super Bowls XI and XV, was named to eight Pro Bowls. Shell was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1989. In 1999, he was ranked number 55 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Football Players. Through Al Davis, Shell is a member of the Sid Gillman coaching tree; as coach of the Raiders, Shell compiled a record of 54 wins, 38 losses, was named AFC Coach of the Year in 1990, when the Raiders won the AFC West division with a 12–4 record, advanced to the AFC championship game in the playoffs, becoming the first African-American coach to lead the team to the Conference Championship game.
Al Davis, owner of the Raiders, fired Shell after a 9–7 season in 1994, a move Davis called "a mistake". After leaving the Raiders, Shell went on to coaching positions with the Kansas City Chiefs and Atlanta Falcons, before serving as a senior vice president for the NFL, in charge of football operations. Shell was re-hired by the Raiders as head coach on February 11, 2006. After leading the team to its worst record since 1963, despite having one of the best defenses, Shell was fired for the second time as head coach of the Raiders on January 4, 2007. Shell has worked under four NFL head coaches: Tom Flores, Los Angeles Raiders Mike Shanahan, Los Angeles Raiders Marty Schottenheimer, Kansas City Chiefs Dan Reeves, Atlanta Falcons Five of Shell's assistant coaches have become NFL or NCAA head coaches: Mike White, Oakland Raiders Gunther Cunningham, Kansas City Chiefs, Jim Haslett, New Orleans Saints, St. Louis Rams John Fox, Carolina Panthers, Denver Broncos, Chicago Bears Chuck Pagano, Indianapolis Colts Jim McElwain, Colorado State Rams, Florida Gators, Central Michigan Chippewas Shell attended Bonds-Wilson High School in North Charleston, South Carolina.
The school is no longer in existence. Shell is an alumnus of Maryland State College, now known as The University of Maryland Eastern Shore, located in Princess Anne, Maryland. Shell is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. In 2013, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, he hosts an annual celebrity golf tournament. Art Shell is the great uncle of Brandon Shell, a touted recruit out of high school who played offensive lineman for the South Carolina Gamecocks football team and was drafted in 2016 by the New York Jets. List of American Football League players Bay Area Sports Hall of Fame Career statistics and player information from NFL.com · Pro-Football-Reference Art Shell at the Pro Football Hall of Fame Art Shell at the College Football Hall of Fame
NCAA Bowling Championship
The NCAA Bowling Championship is a sanctioned women's championship in college athletics. Unlike many NCAA sports, only one championship is held each season with teams from Division I, Division II, Division III competing together. Twelve teams, eight of them automatic qualifiers and the other four being at-large selections, are chosen by the NCAA Bowling Committee to compete in the championships; the championship was first held in April 2004. The most successful team is Nebraska with 5 titles; the reigning champions are Stephen F. Austin, which won the 2019 title 4 games to 1 against the defending champions [; this is Stephen F. Austin's second NCAA Bowling Championship. Nebraska is the only program to qualify for all 16 NCAA Bowling Championships; the collegiate bowling season runs from late October through the end of March, the National Collegiate Women's Bowling Championship is held in April. The format for the championships from 2004-2017 began with qualifying rounds in which each team bowled one five-person regular team game against each of the other seven teams participating in the championship.
Teams would be seeded for bracket play based on their qualifying rounds win-loss record and competed in best-of-seven-games Baker matches in a double elimination tournament. In the Baker format, each of the five team members, in order, bowls one frame until a complete game is bowled. A Baker match tied 3½ games to 3½ games after seven games is decided by a tiebreaker, using the Modified Baker format, which takes the scoring from only frames 6 thru 10. In previous years, all eight participants received at-large bids. In 2018 the NCAA Women's Bowling Committee selected a field of ten participants. Six teams are automatic qualifiers from the conferences that have been granted an automatic bid, the other four receive at-large bids. At that time, the six conferences that fulfilled the criteria to be granted an automatic qualifier were the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference, Northeast Conference, Southland Bowling League, Southwestern Athletic Conference, plus the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association and East Coast Conference.
The ten participants were seeded based on the criteria used by the selection committee. The top six seeds automatically entered the championship bracket; the four lowest-seeded teams played in on-campus opening round matches to determine the two participants advancing to the eight-team championship bracket. To minimize travel costs, the matchups were determined by geographical proximity rather than seedings. In 2019, the championship field expanded from 10 to 12 teams, coinciding with two new conferences fulfilling the criteria for automatic qualification—the Division II Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association and the Division III Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference. Accordingly, eight conference champions will now receive automatic bids, the NCAA Women's Bowling Committee will select four at-large teams to fill out the 12-team field; the top four teams will be seeded into the Championship bracket, while the eight remaining teams will compete in four play-in matches. The winners of these matches will be seeded into the eight-team championship bracket.
Qualifying rounds have been eliminated in favor of a seeded double elimination bracket. Each match within the bracket will consist of best-of-three matches using specified formats; the championship finals will be a best-of-seven match using Baker match play rules. The tiebreaker rule used through 2017 will still apply to Baker match play in the new format. Source: A total of 80 teams are competing in 2017–18, up from 77 in 2016–17: 34 from Division I 30 from Division II 16 from Division III Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association Central Intercollegiate Bowling Conference East Coast Conference Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association Northeast Conference Southland Bowling League Southwestern Athletic Conference National Tenpin Coaches Association NCAA bowling NCAA Women's Bowling Championship Tournament Records U. S. Bowling Congress intercollegiate champions
Emerson Boozer is a former running back in the American Football League and in the National Football League. In the last year of separate drafts by the AFL and the NFL, Boozer signed with the AFL's New York Jets, rather than with an NFL team, he played his entire professional career with the Jets. Boozer was a member of the Jets team that defeated the NFL's champion Baltimore Colts, 16–7, in Super Bowl III. Before joining the American Football League, Boozer played college football at the Maryland State College, now the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. Boozer's natural athletic ability came to the attention of football coaches at Lucy Craft Laney High School in Augusta, Georgia. Despite his proven talent there, football scholarships were not offered to the black star. Boozer excelled as well at the college level, where he showed open field ability as a back as well as strength and intensity as a player that exceeded his 5'11 190-pound size. Not sought by the NFL, Boozer was drafted by the Jets, who were assembling a team of talented and enthusiastic players under George Sauer and Wilbur "Weeb" Ewbank.
The team had fullback Matt Snell and figured Boozer to be paired with him at halfback. Sharing the job with Bill Mathis as a rookie, Boozer worked hard and became a starter in 1967, his ability to block with intensity earned him a league-wide reputation. In 1967, with Snell injured, the Jets turned to Boozer as a rusher. In the first half of that season, Boozer displayed talent, he broke tackles and excelled in the open field. He had ten touchdowns by mid-season and appeared ready to surpass the league record, but suffered a devastating knee injury against the Kansas City Chiefs that altered his career. Despite playing just half that year, he still led the AFL in rushing touchdowns for the season. Boozer's work ethic further revealed itself over the next two seasons. No longer a breakaway runner, he changed himself into more of an outstanding blocker and goal-line touchdown scorer. Ewbank utilized Boozer in pass blocking schemes new to football. In blocking for both Snell and Joe Namath, Boozer was part of two outstanding teams that narrowly lost just three games in 1968 and went 10–4 in 1969.
Boozer and Winston Hill were the blockers during Snell's famous touchdown run against the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III. Boozer's blocking freed Snell that day for effective running, key to the legendary 16–7 win. Namath turned to Boozer more as a third-down pass catcher in 1970. In 1971, with Snell down again, Boozer took up the slack with a career-high in carries. In 1972, with Joe Namath back from injuries himself, the Jets rated the top offense in football. Boozer's ability to block and score near the goal line impressed many as he led the NFL in rushing touchdowns for most of the year before injuries stopped him with 11 touchdowns in 11 games. In 1973, he was again the main back with 831 yards rushing before taking a spot next to John Riggins in 1974. Boozer scored the first regular-season overtime touchdown in NFL history on a short pass from Joe Namath in 1974 to beat the cross-town rival New York Giants, beginning an improbable six-game winning streak for the 1–7 Jet squad. Boozer was a player.
When injury robbed him of stardom, he reinvented himself and still had a remarkable career as a key contributor to a set of famous Jets teams. Boozer is a member of The Pigskin Club Of Washington, D. C. National Intercollegiate All-American Football Players Honor Roll. In 2010, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame; the Jets inducted him into their Ring of Honor in 2015. List of American Football League players Georgia Sports Hall of Fame Suffolk Sports Hall of Fame Friday Nights, Emerson Boozer, Me
There is substantial confusion about the role of merchandisers, much of this can be attributed to the loose manner in which the term is used by various industries. Merchandising in football refers to the range of goods sold to supporters by football clubs. Store managers at Zara will refer to department layout reorganization as “re-merchandising.” In fashion retailing, the visual merchandising team has the responsibility of managing the aesthetics of store and window displays. It is a separate function from merchandising, the two must not be confused. Merchandising, within fashion retail, refers to the stock planning and control process; this position requires well-developed quantitative skills, natural ability to discover trends, meaning relationships and interrelationships among standard sales and stock figures. Fashion merchandising involves the production of fashion designs and distribution of final products to the end consumer. Fashion merchandisers work with designers to ensure that designs will be affordable and desired by the target market.
Fashion merchandising involves apparel, accessories and housewares. The end goal of fashion merchandising in any of these departments is to earn a profit. Fashion merchandisers' decisions can impact the success of the manufacturer, designer, or retailer for which they work. During ancient times, individuals shopped in markets for goods; the ancients were attracted to rare fashions that brought excitement into their lives. These markets have transformed into today's department and discount retailers. For many years, business people in the fashion industry were convinced that they could persuade consumers to desire their particular products. Fashion executives wants of consumers. However, fashion personnel realized that they would have to adapt fashion items to the demands of consumers. In modern merchandising, distribution responsibilities are absent, focus is placed on planning and analysis. A separate team is tasked with distribution. Large organizations separate merchandisers by type. There are retail merchandisers and product merchandisers.
Retail merchandisers must maximize sales. Product merchandisers manage the flow of materials to suppliers and the flow of product to stores. Product merchandisers pass control of product to the retail merchandisers. Modern Structure Many large organizations have concluded that distribution requires detailed work and that it is necessary to have a team for that purpose; this is due to the fine details of allocation, which require focus on aspects such as colour and sizes for a specific store. This approach not only minimizes costs but extends to areas like better control of the overall process. Organizations that do not conduct distribution this way risk losing control of their stock at both the highest and lowest level; this is a result of the lack of oversight. The distribution team specializes not only in managing distribution, but they are focused on sales and profit, they employ accurate information about distribution points sourced from product planners. They possess the ability to manage dynamic stock demands.
They partner with buyers and merchandisers for any necessary repeat buying. Though they are positioned to manage stock, they still operate within the limits of the buying plan, merchandisers ensure they remain within this realm. Buyers provide guidelines for distribution such as the type of stores where product should be distributed; the team supports the goals of an organization through being instrumental in responding to trends. The nature of modern analysis has allowed many merchandisers to plan as much as four seasons ahead, they are expected to apply the data; this further increases the demands placed on their roles and emphasizes the need to task out minor details that do not require their input or much of their supervision. Fashion merchandisers follow the five rights of merchandising, or 5Rs, to ensure that they properly meet the needs of consumers; the five rights of merchandising include: the right merchandise at the right price at the right time in the right place in the right quantities.
By researching and answering the five rights of merchandising, fashion merchandisers can gain an understanding of what products consumers want and where they wish to make purchases, what prices will have the highest demand. Both fashion retailers and manufacturers utilize the 5Rs. Clothing manufacturers practice fashion merchandising differently than retailers. Manufacturer merchandisers forecast customers' preferences for silhouettes, colors and costs each season; when making decisions, manufacturer merchandisers must keep retailers and end consumers in mind. Following the forecasting stage, manufacturer merchandisers meet with designers to develop products that consumers will purchase most. By referring to the five rights of merchandising, manufacturer merchandisers determine the best fabric, product methods, promotions for products; these decisions all contribute to final retail costs. In comparison to manufacturer merchandisers, retailer merchandisers begin their process by forecasting industry and fashion trends with their target markets in mind.
Sales are predicted in beginning of the month stock. Similar to manufacturer merchandisers, retailer merchandisers must make all decisions regarding the final consumer. Decisions are made based on the past and future of the economy, sales and fashion trends and world event
Arkansas State University
Arkansas State University is a public research university in Jonesboro, Arkansas. It is the flagship campus of the Arkansas State University System and the second largest university by enrollment, it is located atop 1,376 acres on Crowley's Ridge. Arkansas State has Sun Belt rivalries with all West Division schools, their primary Sun Belt rivals are Little Rock, Louisiana-Monroe, Louisiana. A-State was founded as the First District Agricultural School in Jonesboro in 1909 by the Arkansas Legislature as a regional agricultural training school. Robert W. Glover, a Missionary Baptist pastor who served in both houses of the Arkansas Legislature from Sheridan, introduced in 1909 the resolution calling for the establishment of four state agricultural colleges, including the future ASU. In 1918, ASU began offering a two-year college program. In 1925, it became Mechanical College. A four-year degree program was begun in 1930. A & M College became Arkansas State College in 1933. In 1967, the Arkansas Legislature elevated the college to university status and changed the name to Arkansas State University.
In the fall of 2014, A-State welcomed its most academically prepared freshman class. The result of several years of growing both admission standards and increasing on-campus housing, A-State's incoming first-year first-time student composite ACT was 23.9 with an average high school GPA of 3.47. This was the third consecutive year of improvement for the ACT/GPA freshman classes for Arkansas State; the Arkansas State Honors College has grown 59% since 2009. The university posted back-to-back high graduate counts in spring 2012 and spring 2013, producing the most graduates in a two-year period in school history; the university contains the largest library in the state of the Dean B. Ellis Library. For other Arkansas State University campuses, see Arkansas State University System. Main campus, Arkansas Arkansas State University-Paragould, an instructional site of the Jonesboro campus Arkansas State University-Querétaro, a campus in Querétaro, inaugurated on September 21, 2017. Master's degree graduate programs were initiated in 1955, ASU began offering its first doctoral degree, in educational leadership, in the fall of 1992.
A second doctoral program, in environmental science, was begun in the fall of 1997, the doctoral program in heritage studies began in the fall of 2001. Newer doctoral programs are in molecular biosciences and physical therapy. In the fall of 2016, Arkansas State enrolled the first class of 115 students to its branch of the New York Institute of Technology's medical school; the medical school is located on campus in the historic Wilson Hall. Today, the institution has more than 90,000 alumni. Programs at the doctorate, specialist's, master's, bachelor's and associate degree levels are available through the various colleges: Agriculture, Engineering & Technology, Education & Behavioral Science, Liberal Arts & Communication, Nursing & Health Professions, Sciences & Mathematics, Undergraduate Studies; the ASU system includes campuses in Jonesboro, which offers degree programs through the doctoral level. Arkansas State University-Beebe became part of the ASU System in 1955, it associated with White River Vo-Tech at Newport in 1992.
The Mountain Home campus became ASU-Mountain Home on July 1, 1995. Delta Technical Institute at Marked Tree merged with ASU and became Arkansas State University Technical Center on July 1, 2001. A new campus was built for ASU-Heber Springs. Foothills Technical Institute at Searcy was merged with ASU-Beebe on July 1, 2003, is now ASU-Searcy, a technical institute of ASU-Beebe. ASU offers bachelor's degree programs, master's degree programs and upper level courses through ASU degree centers at ASU-Beebe, ASU-Mountain Home, three other cities -- Blytheville, Forrest City, West Memphis—where partnership agreements have been established in cooperation with the local community colleges. ASU operates an instructional site at nearby Paragould in Greene County. A-State has grown over the past 20 years. Current enrollment for the Jonesboro campus stands close to 14,000, the system has an enrollment of greater than 21,000. A-State's journalism program reorganized into the College of Media and Communication for fall 2013.
The College of Media and Communication is home to three student-led media outlets and a NPR affiliate radio station. The Herald, a weekly student newspaper, was founded in 1921 and has a circulation of 5,000. ASU-TV, a program under the Department of Radio-Television, gives students hands-on experience in the field of television broadcasting. Starting in fall 2013, an Internet-based student radio station, Red Wolf Radio, was added to the student media. Arkansas State is home to KASU, a 100,000-watt FM station, the oldest NPR affiliate west of the Mississippi River. Arkansas State participates as a member of the NCAA Division I Sun Belt Conference; the athletic teams known as the Indians, are now known as the Red Wolves. In 2012, the Red Wolves football team became Sun Belt Conference champions for a second straight year, finishing the regular season with a 9-3 record, capped off its successful season with its first bowl game victory since becoming a Division I-A program with a
Manhattan College is a private, Roman Catholic, liberal arts college in the Bronx in New York City. After being established in 1853 by the Brothers of the Christian Schools as an academy for day students, Manhattan College was incorporated as an institution of higher education through a charter granted by the New York State Board of Regents. In 1922, the College moved from Manhattan to the Riverdale section of the Bronx 6.4 miles north of its original location on 131st Street in the Manhattanville section of Manhattan. Manhattan College offers undergraduate programs in the arts, education, health and science. Graduate programs are offered for education and engineering. Manhattan College was founded as the Academy of the Holy Infancy in 1853 by five French De La Salle Christian Brothers in a small building on Canal Street; when the need to expand forced them from Lower Manhattan, the college moved to 131st Street and Broadway, in the Manhattanville section of Harlem. The school's name was changed to Manhattan College when it received its state charter in 1863, moved to its present location in the Riverdale section of the Bronx in 1922 as it outgrew its facilities in Manhattanville.
This is the cause of some confusion as the college is located outside of Manhattan but still within the city limits of New York City. Exclusive to men, Manhattan College established a cooperative program with the College of Mount Saint Vincent after the pair became coeducational in 1973 and 1974, respectively; this partnership lasted until 2008. Since Manhattan College and the College of Mount Saint Vincent have been separate. For 118 years, a boys' secondary school, Manhattan College High School, known to students and rivals as Manhattan Prep was located on campus. Founded in 1854, the school educated its young men in a Catholic college preparatory curriculum geared toward eventual university matriculation, it was, indeed, a "prep" school in the classic sense: coats and ties were mandatory for class attendance. The curriculum included 3 years of Latin. Throughout its existence, Manhattan Prep was a partner of its host institution with a significant percentage of its graduates continuing on to study at Manhattan College.
The High School was located in De La Salle Hall. Students shared the college chapel, cafeteria and athletic facilities, its sports teams bore the nickname, "the Jaspers" just as the Manhattan College teams; the "Prep" supported varsity teams in swimming, crew and kayak, cross country and indoor/outdoor track, of course and baseball as members of the Catholic High School Athletic Association. There were junior varsity and intramural sports; the school newspaper, published monthly, was called The Prepster. After admitting a small class of 1971, Manhattan Prep closed its doors in 1972 due to rising costs and a decline in Lasallian Brothers' vocations; the members of the class of 1972 either accelerated to graduate in 3 years with the class of 1971 or left for other area Catholic high schools. Despite the closure of the high school, the Brothers continue to maintain a presence on the college campus as members of the faculty and support staff. In 2014, as part of the College's Homecoming celebration, a plaque acknowledging the Prep's contribution to the College's growth and spirit was erected on the wall of de la Salle Hall on the Quadrangle.
The plaque was dedicated by Brother C. George Berrian FSC, one of the Prep's last principals, in a ceremony attended by about 50 Prep alumni. Manhattan College occupies a compact campus; the college is divided into a north and south campus, in the residential Riverdale section of the Bronx. The North campus overlooks Van Cortlandt Park, has as its focal point "the Quad", which sits at the center of the campus's four main buildings. Memorial Hall is the main entry onto campus and houses the office of the president as well as most of the other administrative offices on campus. Miguel Hall and De La Salle Hall are the main academic halls. Miguel hosts the arts department and classes, while De La Salle is used by the business school; the fourth side of the Quad is bordered by the chapel building, which houses Smith Auditorium on the first floor and the Chapel of De La Salle and His Brothers on the second floor, which features a painting of De La Salle and Brothers behind the altar, a large performing area where musical events and concerts take place on the altar, a grand piano, a pipe organ in the balcony.
Thomas Hall, one of the college's student life building, houses the offices of the Dean of Students, the student government, the musical ensembles, others. The college's two dining halls, Locke's Loft and Cafe 1853 are located in Thomas Hall; the brand new Kelly Commons, named after notable alumnus Raymond Kelly, is another student life building, completed in 2014. It holds a Starbucks, a Marketplace, a state-of-the-art gym for student and faculty use, the Multicultural Center, halls for lectures and events, the student bookstore and the office for the student-run newspaper, The Quadrangle; the O'Malley Library is a six-story structure, joined with the previous library, the Cardinal Hayes Pavilion. Built on a hill, the new library was built directly next to and above the old one combining the two and creating more floors, while enhancing technology and adding gro
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar