First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive. The term is used to describe a woman seen to be at the top of her profession or art; the term is used to a non-monarchical heads of state or chief executives who don't have that kind of style in their own country. Some countries have a title, official or unofficial, or can be translated as first lady; the title is not used for the wife of a head of government, not head of state. First Gentleman is the male equivalent of the title in countries where the head of state's spouse has been a man, such as the Philippines or Malta. While there has never been a male spouse of a U. S. President, "First Gentleman" is used in the United States for the husband of a governor. First Spouse, a rare version of the title, can be used in either case where the spouse of a head of state is male or female; this term is used to promote gender gender neutrality. In the United States, the President of the United States and his spouse are known as the First Couple and, if they have children, they are referred to as the First Family.
The designation First Lady seems to have originated in the United States, where one of the earliest uses in print, in 1838, was in reference to Martha Washington. Other sources indicate that, in 1849, President Zachary Taylor called Dolley Madison "first lady" at her state funeral, while reciting a eulogy written by himself; the wife of the current President of Armenia is referred to as "Հայաստանի Առաջին տիկին", which translates as "First Lady of Armenia". The wife of the current President of Azerbaijan uses the term "Birinci xanım"; the wife of the current Prime Minister of Australia has been referred to as the country's "unofficial first lady". The wife of the President of Brazil is called "Primeira-Dama"; the wife of the President of Bulgaria is called "Първа дама". The term "Lok Chumteav" is used; the term "Primera Dama" is used. The terms Supruga Predsjednika Republike or Suprug Predsjednice Republike are most used in Croatia, while the terms Prva dama and Prvi gospodin are used, except by foreign sources.
The current husband of the President of Croatia is Jakov Kitarović. The wife of the Prime Minister has in exceptionally rare cases been referred to as the First Lady of Croatia, however as the spouses of Prime Ministers have maintained a low profile and have never been public figures, the title Supruga Predsjednika Vlade has been used in cases when such a reference is needed; the current wife of the Prime Minister is Ana Maslać Plenković. The term První dáma is used for wife of the President of the Czech Republic; the current first lady is Ivana Zemanová. Following a petition against a proposed change in her status that gathered more than 275,000 signatures, the French government announced that Brigitte Macron will not be holding the official title of "First Lady", will not be allocated an official budget for her activities. In an interview with French magazine Elle, she stated that a soon-to-be published transparency charter would clarify her "role and accompanying resources", including the composition and size of her staff.
The Prime Minister of Greece is the country's leading political figure and the active chief executive of its government. As such, the term "Proti Kyria" is unofficially used by the Press to refer to the wife of the country's Prime Minister; the term "First Lady" is less used in India. The term might be used at times to refer to the wife of the President of India in newspapers; the term "First Lady" is not used to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister. The term "Ibu Negara" is used for wife of the President of Indonesia. In the Republic of Ireland, the term "First Lady" is not used in official contexts, but is used in the media to refer to the wife of the President and, less to refer to the wife of the Taoiseach. During the first half of Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach, he was separated from his wife Miriam and the role of First Lady was filled by his domestic partner, Celia Larkin; the term "First Gentleman" has been used to describe the husband of a female President. Leo Varadkar was elected Taoiseach in the first homosexual person to hold either post.
However, he has said that he does not plan for his domestic partner, Dr Matthew "Matt" Barrett, to fulfil First Gentleman roles. During the administration of President Kamuzu Banda, Malawi had an "Official Hostess" who served in the same capacity as "First Lady" because the President was unmarried. Banda was never married and therefore Cecilia Kadzamira served in this capacity for the nation; the title First Lady of Maldives is used by the office of the president, governmental offices, by visiting dignitaries. The term "first lady" is not used in New Zealand, but is sometimes used in the press and colloquially to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister; the term first lady has been used intermittently for the wife of the President of Nigeria. The spouse of the President has no official title, but receives the same style as the president, Excellency. A former president Shehu Shagari was a polygamist, none of his wives were referred to as the first lady. In Pakistan, the term خاتون اول is used for the wife of Moha
Marichen Jolandi Luiperth is a Namibian beauty queen who represented Namibia in Miss World 2007 in Sanya, China. She graduated with a focus in Information Studies from the University of Namibia with a bachelor's degree in Psychology
National Assembly (Namibia)
The National Assembly is the lower chamber of Namibia's bicameral Parliament. Since 2014 it has a total of 104 members. 96 members are directly elected through a system of closed list proportional representation and serve five-year terms. Eight additional members are appointed by the President. Namibia's National Assembly emerged on Independence Day on 21 March 1990 from the Constituent Assembly of Namibia, following the elections of November 1989; that election, following guidelines established by the United Nations, included foreign observers in a effort to ensure a free and fair election process. The current National Assembly was formed following elections on 28 November 2014. Since 2015, SWAPO member Peter Katjavivi has been the Speaker of the National Assembly. Despite being a one party dominant state since its independence in 1990, Namibian elections have been transparent and fair. National Council of Namibia - the upper chamber of Parliament History of Namibia List of National Assemblies of Namibia List of Speakers of the National Assembly of Namibia Legislative Branch List of national legislatures Official website
Ongwediva is a town in the Oshana Region in the north of Namibia. It is the district capital of the Ongwediva electoral constituency; as of 2010 it covered 4,102 hectares of land. Ongwediva has two private schools and 13 government-run schools. Most of the inhabitants speak Oshiwambo; the settlement of Ongwediva was established in the 1960s while Namibia was under South African occupation, in the area of headman Mr Nandjebo Mengela. Its purpose was to serve as a residential area for people employed by businesses and government in Oshakati and Ondangwa. All main educational institutions in the north of Namibia were situated here. Ongwediva hosts an annual trade fair, the Ongwediva Annual Trade Fair since 2000, after one initial trade fair, the Northern Namibia Trade Fair, was held in 1995. Opposite of the open market, there is a shopping mall. Ongwediva is an urban area, it had less than 11,000 inhabitants in 2001. Ongwediva is the second largest entertainment town in Namibia just behind the capital Windhoek.
Ongwediva is a fast-growing town in terms of development and status as a second most livable town in Namibia. It features one of the few private hospitals in Namibia. Ongwediva is governed by a town council that has seven seats. Oshana Region, to which Ongwediva belongs, is a stronghold of Namibia's ruling SWAPO party. In the 2015 local authority election SWAPO gained all seven council seats; the Rally for Democracy and Progress ran but gained only 166 votes. There are only two high schools in Ongwediva, Mweshipandeka High School and Gabriel Taapopi SSS. There are five primary schools; the newly created Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology of the University of Namibia is based in Ongwediva, started its first official academic year in 2009. There is an educational college for teachers. Benjamin Hauwanga, owner of Bennies Entertainment Park and Lodge and the BH Group of Companies Sunny Boy, hip hop and kwaito musician Erastus Uutoni and former mayor of the town Benson Shilongo, football player for the Namibian national team
Monica Geingos is a Namibian entrepreneur and First Lady of Namibia since 2015. She has been a board director within many of the country's large companies, she had chaired the Presidential Economic Advisory Council. In 2012, she was voted one of the 12 most influential people of Namibia. Geingos is a graduate of the University of Namibia, spent the early part of her career working for the Namibia Stock Exchange in Windhoek. Geingos served as Chairman of the Board of eBank Namibia and is the managing director of the financial undertaking Stimulus, General Director of Point Break. Geingos holds two legal degrees B. Juris and an LLB. Geingos married the then-President-elect of Namibia, Hage Geingob, on February 14, 2015, shortly before he was sworn into office, she has served as First Lady since March 2015. Http://www.op.gov.na/office-of-the-first-lady
Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
Samuel Shafiishuna Daniel Nujoma, is a Namibian revolutionary, anti-apartheid activist and politician who served three terms as the first President of the Republic of Namibia, from 1990 to 2005. Nujoma was a founding member and the first president of the South West Africa People's Organization in 1960. Prior to 1960, SWAPO was known as OPO, he played an important role as leader of the national liberation movement in campaigning for Namibia's political independence from South African rule. He established the People's Liberation Army of Namibia in 1962 and launched a guerrilla war against the apartheid government of South Africa in August 1966 at Omungulugwombashe, beginning after the United Nations withdrew the mandate for South Africa to govern the territory. Nujoma led SWAPO during the lengthy Namibian War of Independence, which lasted from 1966 to 1989. During World War I, South Africa defeated the German colonial forces in South West Africa and established martial law in the colony after making a peace treaty in July 1915.
After the war, the League of Nations assigned the former German colony to the United Kingdom as a mandate under the administration of South Africa. When the National Party won the 1948 election in South Africa, it passed laws establishing racial segregation known as apartheid, it applied these laws to South West Africa as well, which it governed as the de facto fifth province of South Africa. Apartheid reduced the rights of natives, in particular. Nujoma became involved in anti-colonial politics during the 1950s. In 1959, he cofounded and served as the first president of the Ovamboland People's Organization, a nationalist organization advocating an independent Namibia. In December 1958 he was an organizer of the Old Location resistance and was arrested and deported to Ovamboland. In 1960 he went into exile in Tanzania where he was welcomed by Julius Nyerere. Namibia achieved independence in 1990, holding its first democratic elections. SWAPO won a majority and Nujoma was elected as the country's first President on 21 March 1990.
He was re-elected for two more terms in 1994 and 1999. Nujoma retired as SWAPO party president on 30 November 2007, he published his autobiography Where Others Wavered in 2005. He has received multiple honors and awards for his leadership, including the Lenin Peace Prize, Indira Gandhi Peace Prize, the Ho Chi Minh Peace Prize; the Parliament of Namibia honored him with the titles "Founding President of the Republic of Namibia" and "Father of the Namibian Nation". In 2007 SWAPO named him as "Leader of the Namibian Revolution." Samuel Shafiishuna Daniel Nujoma was born at Etunda, a village in Ongandjera, near the town of Okahao, Southwest Africa on 12 May 1929. Nujoma was born to Daniel Uutoni Nujoma, he is the eldest of his parents' eleven children. He spent much of his early childhood looking after his siblings and tending to the family's cattle and traditional farming activities, his educational opportunities were limited. He started attending a Finnish missionary school at Okahao when he was ten and completed Standard Six, as high as possible for blacks during the time.
In 1946, at age 17, he moved to Walvis Bay to live with his aunt, where he began his first employment at a general store for a monthly salary of 10 Shillings. He would also work at a whaling station. While there he was exposed to world politics by meeting soldiers from Argentina and other parts of Europe who had come during World War II. In 1949, Nujoma moved to Windhoek where he started work as a cleaner for the South African Railways, while attending adult night school at St Barnabas Anglican Church School in the Windhoek Old Location with the aim of improving his English, he further studied for his Junior Certificate through correspondence at the Trans‐Africa Correspondence College in South Africa. Nujoma became involved in politics in the early 1950s through trade unions. Nujoma's political outlook was shaped by his work experiences, his awareness of the contract labour system, his increasing knowledge of the independence campaigns across Africa. In 1957, at age 29, Nujoma resigned from SAR.
In 1957, a group of Namibians working in Cape Town led by Andimba Toivo ya Toivo formed the Ovamboland People's Congress. OPC was opposed to South African policies in South West Africa including the inhumane contract labour system under which people were forced to work for meagre wages. In 1958, ya Toivo sent a petition to the United Nations to force the apartheid regime to relinquish South West Africa to the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations, he was expelled from Cape Town to Windhoek and to Ovamboland where he was restricted. On 19 April 1959, Nujoma and OPC cofounder Jacob Kuhangua adapted a copy of the OPC constitution and formed the Ovamboland People's Organization in Windhoek. At its first congress Nujoma was elected president. During the next year he travelled Namibia in secret mobilizing and setting up branch structures of OPO. In September 1959, the South West African National Union was formed as an umbrella body for anti-colonial resistance groups. Nujoma joined its executive committee representing OPO.
After the Old Location Massacre on 10 December 1959, Nujoma was arrested and charged for organising the resistance and faced threats of deportation to the north of the country. By the directive of OPO leadership and in collaboration with Chief Hosea Kutako, it was decided that Nujoma join the other Namibians in exile who were lobbying the United Nations on behalf of the anti-colonial cause for Namibia. In 1960, Nujoma petitioned the UN through letters and even