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University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The University of Nebraska–Lincoln is a public research university in Lincoln, Nebraska. It is the largest in the University of Nebraska system; the state legislature chartered the university in 1869 as a land-grant university under the 1862 Morrill Act, two years after Nebraska became a state. Around the turn of the 20th century, the university began to expand hiring professors from eastern schools to teach its new professional programs and conducting groundbreaking research in agricultural sciences; the "Nebraska method" of ecological study developed during this time pioneered grassland ecology and laid the foundation for research in theoretical ecology for the rest of the century. The university is organized into eight colleges on two campuses in Lincoln with over 100 classroom buildings and research facilities. Nebraska's athletic programs, known as the Cornhuskers, compete in NCAA Division I and are a member of the Big Ten Conference. NU's football team has won 46 conference championships and claims five national championships, with an additional nine unclaimed.

The school's volleyball team has won five titles and appeared in the national semifinal nine other times. NU plays its home football games at Memorial Stadium and has sold out every game since 1962; the stadium's capacity of 91,585 people is famously larger than the population of Nebraska's third-largest city. The University of Nebraska was created by an act of the Nebraska state legislature in 1869, two years after Nebraska was admitted into the Union as the 37th state; the law described the new university's aims: "The object of such institution shall be to afford to the inhabitants of the state the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of literature and the arts." The school received an initial land grant of about 130,000 acres through the Morrill Act of 1862. Campus construction began in September 1869 with University Hall at 11th and S Streets, two years the University welcomed its inaugural class of 20 collegiate students along with 110 preparatory students. By 1873, the University of Nebraska had offered its first two degrees to its inaugural graduating class.

The school's enrollment and budget remained small until about 20 years after its founding, when its high school programs were taken over by a new state education system. From 1890 to 1895 enrollment rose from 384 to about 1,500. Shortly after, a law school and a graduate school were created, the latter making NU the first university west of the Mississippi River to establish a graduate school. By 1897, the school had the 15th-highest total enrollment in the United States. Throughout the early 20th century, the university attempted to balance its identity as both a pragmatic, frontier establishment and an academic, intellectual institution. Around this time, NU founded several noteworthy campus organizations, including a football team, a debate team, its first fraternities and sororities. In 1913, a fierce debate ensued over whether to keep the university in downtown Lincoln or to move it out of town; the issue was not resolved until a statewide referendum decided the school would remain at its current location.

After purchasing property in the downtown area, the school funded several new buildings, both on the new property and its farming campus in east Lincoln. The school would not experience another expansion of this magnitude until the late 1940s, when the sudden arrival of thousands of soldiers seeking education after returning from World War II forced the school to seek further expansion. In 1908, Nebraska was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of research universities. In recent years, Nebraska ranked near the bottom of the AAU's statistical criteria for members, a ranking attributed in part to the university's extensive agricultural research funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, not included in the AAU's rankings because it is not awarded by peer-reviewed grants. Nebraska retained its AAU membership after a 2000 challenge, which provided the school with an advantage when the Big Ten was looking to expand in 2010, as all of its members at that time were AAU members.

Nebraska Chancellor Harvey Perlman stated "I doubt that our application would've been accepted had we not been a member of the." However, in 2011, after an extended campaign to retain its membership and a close, contentious vote, Nebraska became the only institution to be removed from the AAU membership by a vote of the membership In June 2018, the American Association of University Professors voted to censure the university for violations of academic freedom. In 2017, an adjunct instructor was filmed by a student as the instructor expressed a political opinion about the student's activist activities. State lawmakers demanded that the university hold the instructor accountable and the university subsequently fired her, a move the AAUP contends was a violation of her academic freedom; the University of Nebraska system is governed by its board of regents. The board consists of eight voting members elected by district for six-year terms, a non-voting student regent from each campus, who serve during their tenure as student body president.

The board directs all expenditures of each university. The university has nine colleges, combining to offer more than 150 undergraduate majors, 20 pre-professional programs, 100 graduate programs. NU offers programs at its campus from other University of Nebraska institutions, including the University of Nebraska at Omaha

Victoria Bridge (Penrith)

The Victoria Bridge known as the Victoria Bridge over Nepean River and known as The Nepean Bridge, is a heritage-listed former railway bridge and now wrought iron box plate girder road bridge across the Nepean River on the Great Western Highway in the western Sydney suburb of Penrith in the City of Penrith local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The bridge was designed by John Whitton, the Engineer–in–Chief of New South Wales Government Railways, built from 1862 to 1867 by William Piper, Peto Brassey and Betts, William Watkins, it is known as Victoria Bridge, The Nepean Bridge and RTA Bridge No. 333. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 27 May 2016; the bridge carried rail and horse–drawn traffic, was converted in 1907 to carry the Great Western Highway. The bridge is managed by Maritime Services; the bridge is the oldest surviving crossing of the Hawkesbury–Nepean River. As at 2009, Roads and Maritime Services estimated that Victoria Bridge carried an average daily traffic of 25,000 vehicles per day.

Until 1856 travelers who wished to cross the Nepean River were required to use either the Emu Ford or a punt, located south of the present day Victoria Bridge on Punt Road. This arrangement meant that in times of flood, travellers were delayed at Penrith for days or weeks waiting to cross the river. A small village developed near Emu Ford to cater to the people waiting to cross the river. With the discovery of gold west of the Great Dividing Range the flow of people and animals through Penrith and across the river increased dramatically, it was no coincidence that attempts were made to build a permanent structure across the river, resulting in two timber road bridges located near to the eventual Victoria Bridge site being constructed. Prior to the construction of the Victoria Bridge, a punt service was located at the site of the bridge. Following the discovery of gold in the west of the Great Dividing Range demand for a permanent river crossing increased. A timber bridge was constructed with private funds.

In 1850 the Government, reacting to lobbying by Penrith locals, passed an Act authorising the construction of a bridge at the western end of Jamison Road. This scheme never went ahead. A second Act was passed in 1851 authorising the formation of a company, allocating A£6,000 for the construction of the bridge and allowing for the collection of tolls on the bridge. Following this act the Penrith Nepean Bridge Company was formed. A further Act in 1854 increased the allocated funds to £20,000; the first directors of the Penrith Nepean Bridge Company were local entrepreneurs Robert Fitzgerald, James Thomas Ryan, Edwin Rouse, John Perry, Charles York, Henry Hall, Alexander Fraser. Construction of the bridge was under the supervision of a Scottish surveyor; the bridge, completed in December 1855, was 213 metres long and 9 metres wide, becoming the first bridge across the Nepean River in the area. McBeth received a £200 bonus on top of his £300 salary for the timely completion of the works, the toll rights for the first year were sold by the Penrith Nepean Bridge Company for £2,250 and traffic flowed across the bridge.

The successful Penrith Nepean Bridge Company held a celebration party costing £1,000 on the new bridge to celebrate its completion. Opened in January 1856, the bridge was destroyed by floods in 1857, again rebuilt. Surviving the February 1860 flood, it was again destroyed in May 1860; this success did not last long. In August 1857 a flood carried away the four centre spans, no doubt due to the poor security of the mid-stream timber piles which were frayed like mop heads where McBeth had attempted to drive them into rock. McBeth had lacked experience and knowledge in bridge building and although the piles close to the bank went in the mid-stream timber piles had struck rock and failed to achieve a secure penetration; the Penrith Nepean Bridge Company decided to rebuild the bridge and employed an engineer named Moriarty to supervise the works. The construction contract was awarded to William Lockhart for £9,000; the piles that remained from the first bridge were utilised in the new bridge design, against the advice of both Lockhart and Moriarty.

The new bridge was of a different, stronger design than the first and construction was completed in good time with the toll rights for one year selling for £2,850. The bridge withstood its first flood, but in 1860 the most devastating flood in New South Wales history until that time washed away the entire superstructure and deposited it on a bank down river; the structure was intact. Had the piles been replaced as suggested by the engineer and builder, the bridge might well have survived the flood; the Penrith Nepean Bridge Company was ruined by the destruction of the bridge and the directors lost large sums of money. Following the destruction of this second bridge the Government supplied two punts to convey people and goods across the river; the punts were irreparably damaged by a flood in 1867. The loss of the punts coincided with a period in which the Great Western Railway was in the advanced planning stages, including plans for the construction of a bridge over the Nepean River to link Penrith with Bathurst in the west, as part of the Penrith to Weatherboard Line.

It was decided that the required bridge would carry both a railway line and a single lane of road over the river, as a temporary solution. Victoria Bridge was designed by the Engineer-in-Chief of Railways in NSW, John Whitton and checked in Britain by his brother-in-law and renowned railway engineer John Fowler. Victoria Bridge was designed to carry two railway tracks as it

USS Forster (DE-334)

USS Forster was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U. S. Navy during World War II, she was launched on 13 November 1943 by Consolidated Steel Corporation, Texas, sponsored by Mrs. E. W. Forster, widow of Machinist Edward W. Forster, killed in action during the Battle of Savo Island, 9 August 1942 with the sinking of USS Vincennes. Forster was commissioned 25 January 1944 and served as an escort in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during World War II, she was decommissioned and placed in reserve at Green Cove Springs, Florida on 15 June 1946. She was turned over to the United States Coast Guard on 20 June 1951. Forster served on ocean station duty out of Honolulu; this included duty on Ocean Stations VICTOR, QUEEN, SUGAR and voyages to Japan. She conducted search and rescue duties, including finding and assisting the following vessels in distress: the M/V Katori Maru on 17 August 1952, assisting the M/V Chuk Maru on 29 August 1953, the M/V Tongshui on 1 – 3 October 1953, the M/V Steel Fabricator on 26 October 1953.

She was returned to the Navy on 25 May 1954. Return to US Navy service Forster was converted from DE to DER 334 in the late 1950s to early 1960s and served as a part of the DEW Line in the North Pacific, she was stationed out of Pearl Harbor in the 1960s and served in the Western Pacific on Operation Market Time in 1968-69 patrolling the South Vietnamese coast for contraband shipping and providing sea to shore fire when called upon. She served on patrol in the Formosa Straits in 1969, she was transferred to the Atlantic fleet in late 1969. Source: LT Harry Powell, USN served as Chief Engineer, Officer of the Deck and Command Duty Officer on Forster from February 1969 to December 1969, She returned to reserve in naval custody until recommissioned at Long Beach, California, 23 October 1956. In February 1966, Forster escorted the nine cutters comprising Division 13 of Coast Guard Squadron One from Naval Base Subic Bay to Vung Tau in South Vietnam, she served in the Navy until she was transferred on 25 September 1971 to the Republic of Vietnam Navy.

The Vietnamese reclassified her as a frigate and renamed her RVNS Trần Khánh Dư. In 1974, she participated in the Battle of the Paracel Islands, she was in a shipyard, in overhaul, when Saigon fell on 30 April 1975, was captured by North Vietnamese forces. The U. S. Navy wrote her off as "Transferred to Vietnam, 30 April 1975." The Vietnam People's Navy renamed her VPNS Dai Ky, she was still seaworthy in 1997 and was used as a training ship. By 1999, she was reduced to a training hulk. List of United States Navy ships World War II Destroyer escort Footnotes SourcesThis article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Larzelere, Alex; the Coast Guard at War, Vietnam, 1965–1975. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD. ISBN 978-1-55750-529-3. NavSource Online: Destroyer Escort Photo Archive - USS Forster