A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in academic monographs and scholarly journals. Most are nonprofit and an integral component of a large research university, they publish work, reviewed by scholars in the field. They produce scholarly works, but often have "popular" titles, such as books on religion or on regional topics; because scholarly books are unprofitable, university presses may publish textbooks and reference works, which tend to have larger audiences and sell more copies. Most university presses operate at a loss and are subsidized by their owners. Demand has fallen as library budgets are cut and the online sales of used books undercut the new book market. Many presses are experimenting with electronic publishing. Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press are the two oldest and largest university presses in the world, they have scores of branches around the world throughout the British Commonwealth. In the United States, colonial colleges required printers to publish university catalogs, ceremonial materials, a limited number of scholarly publications.
Following the 17th-century work of Harvard College printer Samuel Green, William Hilliard of Cambridge, began publishing materials under the name "University Press" in 1802. Modern university presses emerged in the United States in the late 19th century. Cornell University started one in 1869 but had to close it down; the University of Pennsylvania Press, University of Chicago Press, University of California Press, Northwestern University Press, Columbia University Press followed. The biggest growth came after 1945 as higher education expanded rapidly. There was a leveling off after 1970. In Scotland Archie Turnbull served as the long-time director of the Edinburgh University Press, 1952-87; the British university presses had strong expansion in the 1950s and 1960s. The Edinburgh University Press became the leading Scottish academic publisher, it was famous for publishing major books on the history and literature of Scotland, by enlisting others in Scotland. By the time of independence in 1947, India had a well-established system of universities, several leading ones developed a university press.
The main areas of activity include monographs by professors, research papers and theses, textbooks for undergraduate use. However, the basic problem faced by scholarly publishers in India is the use of multiple languages, which splintered and reduced the base of potential sales; as new universities opened in Africa after 1960, some developed a press based on the European model. In Nigeria for an example, scholarly presses played a central role in shaping and encouraging intellectual efforts and gaining international attention for the product; however the established European presses Oxford University Press, dominated the market, allowing a narrow niche for new local presses such as Ibadan University Press now University Press Plc. In 2008, the Association of American University Presses has 125 member presses, of which 95 were operated by universities. Growth has been sporadic, with 14 presses established in the 1940s, 11 in the 1950s. Since 1970, 16 universities have opened presses and several have closed.
Today, the largest university press in the United States is the University of Chicago Press. University presses tend to develop specialized areas of expertise, such as regional studies. For instance, Yale publishes many art books, the Chicago and Indiana publish many academic journals, the University of Illinois press specializes in labor history, MIT Press publishes linguistics and architecture titles, Northwestern University Press publishes in continental philosophy and the performing arts, the Catholic University of America Press publishes works that deal with Catholic theology and church history; the Distribution Services Division provides the University of Chicago Press's warehousing, customer service, related services. The Chicago Distribution Center began providing distribution services in 1991, when the University of Tennessee Press became its first client; the CDC serves nearly 100 publishers including Stanford University Press, University of Minnesota Press, University of Iowa Press, Temple University Press, Northwestern University Press, many others.
Since 2001, with development funding from the Mellon Foundation, the Chicago Digital Distribution Center has been offering digital printing services and the BiblioVault digital repository services to book publishers. In 2009, the CDC enabled the sales of electronic books directly to individuals and provided digital delivery services for the University of Michigan Press among others; the Chicago Distribution Center has partnered with an additional 15 presses including the University of Missouri Press, West Virginia University Press, publications of the Getty Foundation. Financially, university presses have come under growing pressure from their University sponsors to cut their losses. Only a few presses, such as Oxford, Harvard and Yale have endowments; the subsidies range from $150,000 to $500,000. Sales of academic books have been declining, however as University libraries cut back their purchases. At Princeton University Press in the 1960s, a typical hardcover monograph would sell 1660 copies in the five years after publication.
By 1984 that average had declined to 1003 and in after 2000 typical sales of monographs for all presses are below 500. University libraries
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill known as UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, or Carolina is a public research university in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. It is the flagship of the 17 campuses of the University of North Carolina system. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Among the claimants, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the only one to have held classes and graduated students as a public university in the eighteenth century; the first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and Sciences. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and Sciences from the time they obtain junior status.
Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, has since specialized in cancer care; the school's students and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels". UNC's faculty and alumni include 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 49 Rhodes Scholars. Additional notable alumni include a U. S. President, a U. S. Vice President, 38 Governors of U. S. States, 98 members of the United States Congress, 9 Cabinet members, 39 Henry Luce Scholars, 9 World Cup winners and 3 astronauts as well as founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies; the campus covers 729 acres of Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 recognized student organizations.
The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. In 2018, UNC was ranked amongst the top 30 universities in the United States according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, U. S. News & World Report. Internationally, UNC is ranked 33rd and 34th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities and U. S. News and World Report, respectively. UNC is regarded as a Public Ivy, an institution which provides an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, women's field hockey. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the university's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen because of its central location within the state.
The first public university chartered under the US Constitution, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities that claims to be the oldest public university in the United States and the only such institution to confer degrees in the eighteenth century as a public institution. During the Civil War, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some students from the draft, so the university was one of the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South, when student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction from December 1, 1870 until September 6, 1875. Despite initial skepticism from university President Frank Porter Graham, on March 27, 1931, legislation was passed to group the University of North Carolina with the State College of Agriculture and Engineering and Woman's College of the University of North Carolina to form the Consolidated University of North Carolina.
In 1963, the consolidated university was made coeducational, although most women still attended Woman's College for their first two years, transferring to Chapel Hill as juniors, since freshmen were required to live on campus and there was only one women's residence hall. As a result, Woman's College was renamed the "University of North Carolina at Greensboro", the University of North Carolina became the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." In 1955, UNC Chapel Hill desegregated its undergraduate divisions. During World War II, UNC Chapel Hill was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. During the 1960s, the campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began in Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance; the climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by communists on state campuses in North Carolina.
The law was criticized by university Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and university President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sh
East Carolina University
East Carolina University is a public research university in Greenville, North Carolina It is the fourth largest university in North Carolina. Founded on March 8, 1907 as a teacher training school, East Carolina has grown from 43 acres to 1,600 acres today; the university's academic facilities are located on six properties: Main Campus, Health Sciences Campus, West Research Campus, the Field Station for Coastal Studies in New Holland, North Carolina, the Millennial Research Innovation Campus in Greenville's warehouse district and an overseas campus in Certaldo Alto, Italy. ECU operates the Coastal Studies Institute; the nine undergraduate colleges, graduate school, four professional schools are located on these four properties. All of the non-health sciences majors are located on the main campus; the College of Nursing, College of Allied Health Sciences, The Brody School of Medicine, School of Dental Medicine are located on the health science campus. There are eleven social sororities, 16 social fraternities, four black sororities, five black fraternities, one Native American fraternity, one Native American sorority.
There are over 400 registered clubs on campus including sororities. Public Laws of North Carolina, 1907, Chapter 820 titled An Act to Stimulate High School Instruction in the Public Schools of the State and Teacher Training is the official law chartering East Carolina Teachers Training School on March 8, 1907 by the North Carolina General Assembly; the chairman of its original Board of Trustees, Thomas Jordan Jarvis, a former Governor of North Carolina now known as the "Father of ECU", participated in groundbreaking ceremonies for the first buildings on July 2, 1908 in Greenville, North Carolina and ECTTS opened its doors on October 5, 1909. Although its purpose was to train "young white men and women", there were no male graduates until 1932. In 1920, ECTTS became a four -- renamed East Carolina Teachers College. A master's degree program was authorized in 1929. Progress toward full college status was made in 1948 with the designation of the bachelor of arts as a liberal arts degree, the bachelor of science as a teaching degree.
A change of name to East Carolina College in 1951 reflected this expanded mission. Over the objections of Governor Dan K. Moore, who opposed the creation of a university system separate from the Consolidated University of North Carolina, ECC was made a regional university effective July 1, 1967, assumed its present name, East Carolina University; the university did not remain independent for long. Today, ECU is the third–largest university in North Carolina with 21,589 undergraduate and 5,797 graduate students, including the 308 medicine and 52 dental students. East Carolina is separated into three distinct campuses: Main Campus, Health Sciences Campus, West Research Campus, it owns two sports complexes: North Recreational Complex. It owns a field station in North Carolina; the main campus known as the east campus, is about 530 acres in an urban residential area of downtown Greenville. The 158 buildings on main campus comprise more than 4.6 million square feet of academic and residential space.
Many of the Main Campus buildings feature the Spanish–Mission style architecture. He wanted to bring the unique architecture to eastern North Carolina. On the main campus, there are five districts: Campus Core, Downtown District, Warehouse District, Athletic fields and the South Academic District. On the Campus Core, there are 15 residence halls which are divided into three separate neighborhoods; the distinct feature of the main campus is the mall, a large tree–laden grassy area where many students go to relax. In the middle of the mall is the replica of the cupola on the original Austin building; the varsity athletics fields are located south of the College Hill residential neighborhood. Fourteenth Street divides College Hill to the north, with the athletic fields to the south. Charles Boulevard borders the fields to the west and Greenville Boulevard borders it to the south. A residential neighborhood and Elmhurst Elementary School are the eastern borders; the northern portion of the area sits Dowdy–Ficklen Stadium, Minges Coliseum, Minges Natatorium, along with parking.
The Murphy Center, the primary strength and conditioning, banquet building, is located between Dowdy-Ficklen and Minges Coliseum. The Tennis Complex, Ward Sports Medicine Building, Scales Field House, the Pirate Club Building surround Dowdy-Ficklen; the Ward Sports Medicine Building houses offices for football and basketball, Pirate Club, media relations, the director of athletics. The Scales Field House provides locker rooms and equipment storage; the Pirate Club Building houses a ticket office, other offices, an area for Pirate Club members. South of those facilities is the Cliff Moore Practice Facility which has a pair of natural grass fields and one FieldTurf field designed for the football team. On the southern border of the practice facility is Clark-LeClair Stadium, the men's baseball stadium, it seats 3,000 in permanent seating with another 2,000 located in the outfield. At the southern end of the fields is the Olympic Sports Complex, which include women's soccer stadium, softball stadium and field facility, Olympic Sports Team building.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Chapel Hill is a town in Orange and Durham counties in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Its population was 57,233 in the 2010 census. Chapel Hill and the state capital, make up the corners of the Research Triangle, with a total population of 1,998,808; the town is centered on Franklin Street, covering 21.3 square miles. It contains several buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and UNC Health Care are a major part of the economy and town influence. Local artists have created many murals; the area was the home place of early settler William Barbee of Middlesex County, whose 1753 grant of 585 acres from John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville was the first of two land grants in what is now the Chapel Hill-Durham area. Though William Barbee died shortly after settling there, one of his eight children, Christopher Barbee, became an important contributor to his father's adopted community and to the fledgling University of North Carolina.
Chapel Hill has developed along a hill. The Carolina Inn now occupies this site. In 1819, the town was developed around it; the town was chartered in 1851, its main street, Franklin Street, was named in memory of Benjamin Franklin. In 1969, a year after the city integrated its schools, Chapel Hill elected Howard Lee as mayor, it was the first majority-white municipality in the South to elect an African-American mayor. Serving from 1969 until 1975, Lee helped establish the town's bus system; some 30 years in 2002, the state passed legislation to provide free service to all riders on local buses. The bus operations are funded through Chapel Hill and Carrboro town taxes, federal grants, UNC student fees; the change has resulted in a large increase in ridership. Several hybrid and articulated buses have been added recently. All buses carry GPS transmitters to report their location in real time to a tracking web site. Buses can have wheelchair lifts. In 1993, the town founded the Chapel Hill Museum; this cultural community resource "exhibiting the character and characters of Chapel Hill, North Carolina" includes among its permanent exhibits Alexander Julian, History of the Chapel Hill Fire Department, Chapel Hill's 1914 Fire Truck, The James Taylor Story, Farmer/James Pottery, The Paul Green Legacy.
In addition to the Carolina Inn, the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity House, Chapel Hill Historic District, Chapel Hill Town Hall, Chapel of the Cross, Gimghoul Neighborhood Historic District, Alexander Hogan Plantation, Old Chapel Hill Cemetery, Old East, University of North Carolina, Playmakers Theatre, Rocky Ridge Farm Historic District, West Chapel Hill Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Chapel Hill is located in the southeast corner of Orange County, it is bounded on the west on the northeast by the city of Durham. However, most of Chapel Hill's borders are adjacent to unincorporated portions of Orange and Durham Counties rather than shared with another municipality. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 21.3 square miles, of which 21.1 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles is covered by water. Durham, North Carolina, is the core of the four-county Durham-Chapel Hill MSA, which has a population of 504,357 as of Census 2010.
The US Office of Management and Budget includes Chapel Hill as a part of the Raleigh-Durham-Cary Combined Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,749,525 as of Census 2010. Effective June 6, 2003, the Office of Management and Budget redefined the federal statistical areas and dismantled what had been for decades the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill MSA, split them into two separate MSAs, though the region still functions as a single metropolitan area. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, 57,233 people in 20,564 households resided in Chapel Hill; the population density was 2,687 people per square mile. The racial composition of the town was 72.8% White, 9.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 11.9% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.7% some other race, 2.7% of two or more races. About 6.4 % of the population was Latino of any race. Of the 20,564 households, 51.1% were families, 26.2% of all households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were headed by married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.9% were not families.
About 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the town, the population was distributed as 17.4% under the age of 18, 31.5% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.6 males. According to estimates released by the U. S. Census Bureau, over the three-year period of 2005 through 2007, the median income for a household in the town was $51,690, for a family was $91,049. Males had a median income of $50,258 versus $32,917 for females; the per capita income for the town was $35,796. About 8.6% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 an
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his oratory and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Northerners at the time found it hard to believe. Douglass wrote several autobiographies, he described his experiences as a slave in his 1845 autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, which became a bestseller, was influential in promoting the cause of abolition, as was his second book, My Bondage and My Freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass remained an active campaigner against slavery and wrote his last autobiography and Times of Frederick Douglass. First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, it covered events during and after the Civil War.
Douglass actively supported women's suffrage, held several public offices. Without his approval, Douglass became the first African American nominated for Vice President of the United States as the running mate and Vice Presidential nominee of Victoria Woodhull, on the Equal Rights Party ticket. Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, Native American, or recent immigrant, he was a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, in the liberal values of the U. S. Constitution; when radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders", criticized Douglass' willingness to engage in dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied: "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong." Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Talbot County, Maryland. The plantation was between Cordova; the exact date of his birth is unknown, he chose to celebrate his birthday on February 14.
In his first autobiography, Douglass stated: "I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it."Douglass was of mixed race, which included Native American and African on his mother's side, as well as European. His father was "almost white," as shown by historian David W. Blight in his 2018 biography of Douglass, he said his mother. After escaping to the North years he took the surname Douglass, having dropped his two middle names, he wrote of his earliest times with his mother: The opinion was... whispered that my master was my father. My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant... It common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a early age.... I do not recollect seeing my mother by the light of day.... She would lie down with me, get me to sleep, but long before I waked she was gone. After this early separation from his mother, young Frederick lived with his maternal grandmother, Betty Bailey.
At the age of six, he was separated from his grandmother and moved to the Wye House plantation, where Aaron Anthony worked as overseer. Douglass's mother died. After Anthony died, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld, who sent him to serve Thomas' brother Hugh Auld in Baltimore, he felt himself lucky to be in the city, where he said slaves were freemen, compared to those on plantations. When Douglass was about twelve, Hugh Auld's wife Sophia started teaching him the alphabet. Douglass described her as a kind and tender-hearted woman, who treated him "as she supposed one human being ought to treat another". Hugh Auld disapproved of the tutoring, feeling that literacy would encourage slaves to desire freedom. Under her husband's influence, Sophia came to believe that education and slavery were incompatible and one day snatched a newspaper away from Douglass. In his autobiography, Douglass related how he learned to read from white children in the neighborhood, by observing the writings of the men with whom he worked.
Douglass continued, secretly, to teach himself how to write. He often said, "knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom." As Douglass began to read newspapers, political materials, books of every description, this new realm of thought led him to question and condemn the institution of slavery. In years, Douglass credited The Columbian Orator, an anthology that he discovered at about age twelve, with clarifying and defining his views on freedom and human rights; the book, first published in 1797, is a classroom reader, containing essays and dialogues, to assist students in learning reading and grammar. When Douglass was hired out to William Freeland, he taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament at a weekly Sunday school; as word spread, the interest among slaves in learning to read was so great that in any week, more than 40 slaves would attend lessons. For about six months, their study went unnoticed. While Freeland remained complacent about their activities, other plantation owners became incensed about their slaves being educated.
One Sunday they burst i
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research article