The Matica srpska is the oldest cultural-scientific institution of Serbia. Matica Srpska was founded in 1826, in Pest, moved to Novi Sad in 1864. Of all the Slavic maticas, Matica Srpska was the first to be established in the Habsburg Empire on the ancestral territory of the Rascians at the time of a Serb national and cultural awakening, while under Habsburg and Ottoman thralldom. In the national awakening, the Serbs of the Serbian Vojvodina played an instrumental role as, by force of historical circumstance, they formed at this period the core of Serb intellectual life. One of the most important tasks facing the Serbs, in advancing cultural-national rebirth, was the solution of the literary language problem, and, as a result of the first fifty years of the 19th century, saw the Vojvodina Serbs engaged in an intense debate about the kind of literary language that their newly revitalized, emerging nation should adopt. For the Slavic people, as well as the non-Slavs, under the Habsburg Empire, the Matica foundation fomented the development of national cultures.
Indeed, the oldest is Matica srpska founded in 1826 in Pest by Jovan Hadžić and his business backers, Josif Milovuk, Jovan Demetrović, Gavrilo Bozitovac, Andrija Rozmirović, Petar Rajić, Djordje Stanković at the same time as the Hungarian Academy was being built. Jovan Hadžić prepared its by-laws, secured its charter, served as its first president while Josif Milovuk served as its first secretary. In addition to books, it published the journal Serbski letopis, founded two years earlier by Georgije Magarašević, Pavel Jozef Šafárik, Lukijan Mušicki in Novi Sad, where Magarašević was professor and Šafárik the director of Novi Sad's Serbian Gymnasium; the story of the Matica srpska began in 1824, when the Austrian authorities permitted writer Georgije Magarašević, a professor at a gymnasium in the town of Novi Sad, to publish a literary and scholarly journal entitled "Serbski letopis". Magarašević soon found benefactors who supported his efforts. In time, the writers and editors of the publication developed into a learned society overcoming pressures applied by mistrustful Austrian officials as well as financial difficulties.
With varying degrees of success but with great perseverance, it has continued to support and guide Serb intellectual endeavor, first as a part of the Habsburg Empire and much in Serbia. In 1838, a wealthy Serb landowner, Sava Tekelija, left the Matica a legacy to support Serbian students at the University of Pest and a college named after him, Tekelijanum; the Hungarian authorities were suspicious of the Matica and suspended its activities in 1835–1836 for alleged pan-Slavism, but they resisted Serb efforts to move the institution to Novi Sad. In 1863 the move was accomplished, the Matica, as well as the journal Letopis, is flourishing there today; the Matica Srpska Society was one of the initiators of the Novi Sad agreement on the Serbo-Croatian language, it led the action for making the unique orthography of the language. They compiled The Vocabulary of Serbian Standard Literary Language in six volumes. In Yugoslavia, Matica srpska was one half of a joint project to develop a common Serbo-Croatian dictionary.
Mid-way through the project, Matica hrvatska, in accordance with the declaration of principles about the Croatian language and Matica srpska was left to finish the dictionary on her own. Matica Srpska has been an example to many Slavic nations. Based on this model the following institutions were established: Czech Matica in 1831, Illyrian Matica in 1842. Matica Srpska publishes the Letopis Matice srpske magazine, one of the oldest in the world, being continuously published since 1824; the institution has published numerous books by authors such as Jovan Sterija Popović since its inception. The Law of the Matica Srpska Society regulates matters of endowment and legacy, given by the national benefactors, how money is spent for various cultural and educational purposes; the Matica Srpska has a library with over other documents. Georgije Magarašević, man of letters, founder and editor, before and after it was incorporated as an official organ of the Matica srpska in 1825/1826 Jovan Hadžić, Pavle Stamatović, Teodor Pavlović, Jovan Subotić, Sima Filipović, Jovan Subotić, Jakov Ignjatović, Jovan Mladenović-Subota, Jovan Đorđević, Antonije Hadžić, Jovan Bošković, Antonije Hadžić, Milan Savić, Tihomir Ostojić, Vasa Stajić, Kamenko Subotić, Marko Maletin, Stevan Ćirić, Svetislav Banica, Radivoje Vrhovac, Todor Manojlović, Žarko Vasiljević, Nikola Milutinović, Vasa Stajić, pedagogue Nikola Milutinović, Živan Milisavac, Mladen Leskovac, Boško Petrović, Aleksandar Tišma, novelist
University of Kragujevac
The University of Kragujevac is a public university in Serbia. It is organized in 12 faculties, it offers 118 study programs in the fields of natural sciences and mathematics and human sciences, medical sciences, engineering sciences, arts. Students are enrolled on undergraduate, doctoral and vocational studies. University of Kragujevac integrates functions of all faculties and organizational units in its structure, by implementing unique policy aimed at constant improving of higher education, improving the quality of teaching, scientific research and artistic development of youth, introduction of scientific research to students, as well as the creation of material conditions for the operations and development of the University. Students of the University of Kragujevac can use five dormitories - two in Kragujevac, one each in Užice, Čačak and Kraljevo, where over 1,000 students reside. University of Kragujevac was established on the foundations of the Lyceum of the Principality of Serbia. Lyceum was the first higher education institution in Serbia, established in Kragujevac by the decree of Prince Milos Obrenovic on 1 July 1838.
When Belgrade became the capital city of Serbia, most of the ministries moved there along with the Lyceum. In 1863 Lyceum was renamed into the Belgrade Higher School and in 1905 it became the University of Belgrade. In 1960s, the first modern higher education institutions emerged in Kragujevac, leading to the establishment of the University “Svetozar Marković” on 21 May 1976, today known as the University of Kragujevac. At its beginning, the University of Kragujevac incorporated five faculties, the College of Mechanical Engineering in Kraljevo, as well as two research institutes: Small Grains Research Institute in Kragujevac and Fruit Research Institute in Čačak. Today, University of Kragujevac consists of twelve faculties with around 18,000 students and 1,200 professors and associates, it offers 118 study programs at the undergraduate and doctoral level. To date, over 33,000 students have graduated from the university, over 1000 have earned their master’s degree and over 800 defended their doctoral dissertation.
University of Kragujevac has turned its emergence and development based on the concept of widespread university, into one of its distinctive advantages, which allows the use of economic and human resources of the territory stretching over 5,000 km2, inhabited by 2.5 million people. Six faculties of the University of Kragujevac are located in the city of Kragujevac and six in four neighboring cities and towns; the faculties of the University of Kragujevac are the following: Economics Law Mechanical Engineering Medical Sciences Natural Sciences and Mathematics Philology and Arts Agronomy in Čačak Technical Sciences in Čačak Teachers Training in Užice Education in Jagodina Hotel Management and Tourism in Vrnjačka Banja Besides faculties, University of Kragujevac is organized through numerous research and education centers, including the following: Center for Scientific Research founded on 21 May 1991 by the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts and the University of Kragujevac, Centers of Excellence at the University of Kragujevac, which are expected to be built nearby the University’s Rectorate in Kragujevac until April 2017, Center for Career Development and Student Counselling formed in 2007 as an organizational unit of the University of Kragujevac, Center for Lifelong Learning founded in 2010 through TEMPUS project "Development of Lifelong Learning Framework in Serbia", Center for Knowledge Transfer founded in 2012 through TEMPUS project KNOWTS "National Platform for Knowledge TRinagle in Serbia", Cooperation Training Center founded in 2010 through TEMPUS project WBC-VMnet, Office for Business Support founded in 2014 through TEMPUS project WBCInno, University Information Center founded in 1989 with a network of 20 institutions and 2,500 computer terminals.
University of Kragujevac publishes two journals: MATCH - Communications in Mathematical and in Computer Chemistry and Journal of Literature, Language and Culture LIPAR. Since 2003, University of Kragujevac and Faculty of Science in Kragujevac publish international scientific journal MATCH, it is published three times a year, with two volumes. It is referenced in Web of Science and the Journal Citation Reports, with the impact factor of 3.858 for 2015. In 2012, the University of Kragujevac publishes journal LIPAR three times a year. Ministry of Education and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia categorized LIPAR magazine in 2014 as a journal of national importance. In addition, Faculties of the University of Kragujevac publish 17 journals in total. University Library was founded on 6 May 1977, is located at the Faculty of Law of the University of Kragujevac since 1981, it has total area including a gallery of 436 m2 and 200 places for readers. Library holdings include 100,000 books and 25,000 doctoral dissertations and master thesis, as well as the issues of 450 domestic and 105 foreign journals.
It has 19 employees in total, out of which 10 are librarians, 2 senior librarians. Library is automated. Representative and multifunctional space of the University Library is used by University Gallery as a space for organization and presentation of scientific, educational and artistic work of teachers and students of the University of Kragujevac, organization of e
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE, their contributions to mathematics and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age; the recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
Modern science is divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, which study nature in the broadest sense. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Science is based on research, conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies; the practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, health care, environmental protection. Science in a broad sense existed in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought; this is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs and dikes, buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys, it is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, glass, metals, lime plaster, waterproofing. The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system. In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated upper-class, universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, the first people to distinguish "nature" and "convention." Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were speculators or theorists interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans; the early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, founded by Thales of Miletus and continued by his successors A
University of Novi Sad Faculty of Law
The University of Novi Sad Faculty of Law known as the Novi Sad Law School, is a constituent body of the University of Novi Sad, Serbia. The school is located on the university campus on the bank of the Danube river in the downtown district, on the opposite side of the Petrovaradin Fortress; the Novi Sad Law School was established through a state legal act on July 20, 1955. The school was part of the University of Belgrade and it followed the Belgrade Law School's curriculum; as the school developed, it subsequently became independent. The law school is divided into nine units conducting teaching and research activities: Chair of Civil Law; the Publishing Center was established in 1991. The Center has published about 60 scholarly monographs and handbooks since its existence; the Novi Sad Law School's Collected Papers is a law journal published in Serbian since 1966. The law studies last four years carrying 240 ECTS credits. Candidates with secondary education are entitled to take admission test consisting of questions from Serbian literature and History.
Each year divided into two semesters. Every year carries 60 ECTS credits. Master's degree carry 60 ECTS credits; those prospective students who are holders of a bachelor's degree in law and students who received a diploma in law worth at least 240 ECTS from another school with a similar curriculum. The Novi Sad Law School offers a number of courses in English established through TEMPUS, a European student mobility program. Novi Sad Law School website
Physical education known as Phys Ed. PE, gym, or gym class, known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises, it is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health. Whether the class produces positive effects on students' health and academic performance depends upon the kind of program, taught. Physical education trends have developed to incorporate a greater variety of activities besides the skills necessary to play typical team sports such as football or basketball. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or frisbee at an early age can help them develop good activity habits that will continue into adulthood; some teachers have begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga, deep breathing and tai chi. Tai chi, an ancient martial arts form focused on slow meditative movements, is a relaxation activity with many benefits.
Studies have shown that it enhances muscular strength and endurance, as well as cardiovascular endurance. It provides psychological benefits such as improving general mental health, concentration and positive mood, it can be taught to any age student with little or no equipment, making it ideal for mixed ability and age classes. Tai chi can be incorporated into a holistic learning body and mind unit. Teaching non-traditional sports may provide motivation for students to increase their activity, can help them learn about different cultures. For example, while learning about lacrosse in the Southwestern United States, students might learn about the Native American cultures of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, where the sport originated. Teaching non-traditional sports provides an opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well, which may now be required of many PE teachers. PE is important to students' health and overall well-being; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that over the past three years obesity in children and adolescents has doubled because of diet and lack of activity.
Since the 1970s the number of children who are obese has tripled. SHAPE America's National Standards & Grade-Level Outcomes for K-12 Physical Education define what a student should know and be able to do as result of an effective physical education program. Another trend is the incorporation of nutrition into the physical education curriculum; the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally-funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. While teaching students sports and movement skills, PE teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum; this is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. Due to the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics.
Today, many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health courses. Many colleges and universities offer both Physical Health as one certification; this push towards health education is beginning at the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self-esteem and stress and anger management. Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between exercising. Incorporating local indigenous knowledge into physical education can lead to many meaningful experiences and a way of learning about other cultures. For example, by incorporating traditional knowledge from varying indigenous groups from across Canada, students can be exposed to many concepts such as holistic learning and the medicine wheel. A unit could be focused on connecting to a place or feeling while outdoors, participating in traditional games, or outdoor environmental education; these types of lesson can be integrated into other parts of the curriculum and give Aboriginal students a chance to incorporate their culture in the local school community.
Studies have been done in. In a 2007 article, researchers found a profound gain in English Arts standardized testing test scores among students who had 56 hours of physical education in a year, compared to those who had 28 hours of physical education a year. In Brazil, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, including sports. Martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, Pencak Silat in France and Malaysia, teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves; the physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, individual/dual sports, team sports and dance. In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development; this allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age.
In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. Some high school and some middle school PE. New technology in education is playing a big role in classes. One of
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris