Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
Michele Amari was an Italian patriot and historian. Born at Palermo son of Ferdinando and Giulia Venturelli, he devoted a great part of his life to the history of Sicily. Amari was an Orientalist, who investigated the true character of the Sicilian Vespers, he served as the Italy's first minister of public education. Amari became an important figure during the Risorgimento. A liberal republican and carbonarist, who after the fall of Joachim Murat supported Sicilian secession, he became a link between Prime Minister Camillo Benso di Cavour and influential Sicilians, helping to convince them to support Italian unification. Amari did so expecting Cavour to grant Sicily some regional autonomy after unification, he died at Florence in 1889. Amari's historical works focus on Medieval Sicilian history, including extensive works on the period of Muslim control, his efforts have earned him acknowledgment as one of 19th century Europe's premier translators of Medieval Arabic writings. His Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia has been translated into many languages, including Arabic by a group of Egyptian scholars in 2004.
His translation from an Arabic manuscript of a mirror for princes text, including a biography of its author, the medieval Sicilian Arab Ibn Zafar al Siqilli, was published in 1851. Richard Bentley translated Amari's Italian translation of this 12th century work by the so-called " Machiavelli precursor" into English and published it under the title Solwan, or Waters of Comfort in 1852. Carteggio di Michele Amari, by Michele Amari Cavour and Garibaldi, 1860: A Study in Political Conflict, by Denis Mack Smith Diari e appunti autobiografici inediti, by Michele Amari "Le idee politiche di Michele Amari", by Bianca Marcolongo in Documenti per servire alla storia di Sicilia, ed. Andrea Borruso, Rosa D'Angelo, Rosa Scaglione Guccione Modern Italy: A Political History, by Denis Mack Smith La Guerra del Vespro Siciliano vol.1.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science can be divided into two main branches: physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry and earth science; these branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches. In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature"; the social sciences use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
Modern natural science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy traced to ancient Greece. Galileo, Descartes and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives and presuppositions overlooked, remain necessary in natural science. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, minerals, so on. Today, "natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences. Philosophers of science have suggested a number of criteria, including Karl Popper's controversial falsifiability criterion, to help them differentiate scientific endeavors from non-scientific ones. Validity and quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are amongst the most respected criteria in the present-day global scientific community; this field encompasses a set of disciplines.
The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies. Biology is concerned with the characteristics and behaviors of organisms, as well as how species were formed and their interactions with each other and the environment; the biological fields of botany and medicine date back to early periods of civilization, while microbiology was introduced in the 17th century with the invention of the microscope. However, it was not until the 19th century. Once scientists discovered commonalities between all living things, it was decided they were best studied as a whole; some key developments in biology were the discovery of genetics. Modern biology is divided into subdisciplines by the type of organism and by the scale being studied. Molecular biology is the study of the fundamental chemistry of life, while cellular biology is the examination of the cell. At a higher level and physiology look at the internal structures, their functions, of an organism, while ecology looks at how various organisms interrelate.
Constituting the scientific study of matter at the atomic and molecular scale, chemistry deals with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules and metals. The composition, statistical properties and reactions of these materials are studied. Chemistry involves understanding the properties and interactions of individual atoms and molecules for use in larger-scale applications. Most chemical processes can be studied directly in a laboratory, using a series of techniques for manipulating materials, as well as an understanding of the underlying processes. Chemistry is called "the central science" because of its role in connecting the other natural sciences. Early experiments in chemistry had their roots in the system of Alchemy, a set of beliefs combining mysticism with physical experiments; the science of chemistry began to develop with the work of Robert Boyle, the discoverer of gas, Antoine Lavoisier, who developed the theory of the Conservation of mass. The discovery of the chemical elements and atomic theory began to systematize this science, researchers developed a fundamental understanding of states of matter, chemical bonds and chemical reactions.
The success of this science led to a complementary chemical industry that now plays a significant role in the world economy. Physics embodies the study of the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces and interactions they exert on one another, the results produced by these interactions. In general, physics is regarded as the fundamental science, because all other natural sciences use and obey the principles and laws set down by the field. Physics relies on mathematics as the logical framework for formulation and quantification of principles; the study of the principles of the universe has a long history and derives from direct observation and experimentation. The formulation of theories about the governing laws of the universe has been central to the study of physics from early on, with philosophy yielding to systematic, quantitative experimental testing and observation as the source of verification. Key historical developments in physics include Isaac Newton's theory of universal g
Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science and empirical evidence, to the innovation, construction and maintenance of structures, materials, devices, systems and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, types of application. See glossary of engineering; the term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise". The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and pulley; the term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engine'er referred to "a constructor of military engines."
In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e. a mechanical contraption used in war. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g. the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the word "engine" itself is of older origin deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning "innate quality mental power, hence a clever invention."Later, as the design of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the discipline of military engineering. The pyramids in Egypt, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of ancient civil and military engineers.
Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep; as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both military domains; the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, are still used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering. Ancient Chinese, Greek and Hungarian armies employed military machines and inventions such as artillery, developed by the Greeks around the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult.
In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed. Before the development of modern engineering, mathematics was used by artisans and craftsmen, such as millwrights, clock makers, instrument makers and surveyors. Aside from these professions, universities were not believed to have had much practical significance to technology. A standard reference for the state of mechanical arts during the Renaissance is given in the mining engineering treatise De re metallica, which contains sections on geology and chemistry. De re metallica was the standard chemistry reference for the next 180 years; the science of classical mechanics, sometimes called Newtonian mechanics, formed the scientific basis of much of modern engineering. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. In addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.
Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the "father" of civil engineering, he was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton introduced iron gears to water wheels. Smeaton made mechanical improvements to the Newcomen steam engine. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse, he is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime.
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
Renato Maria Giuseppe Schifani is an Italian politician. A prominent member of the now-defunct centre-right People of Freedom, he joined the New Centre-Right party in 2013, but he left it in 2016 for Forza Italia, the People of Freedom's successor. From 29 April 2008 to 15 March 2013 he was President of the Italian Senate. Schifani was born in Palermo. Schifani worked as a lawyer who specialised in trials at the Supreme Court of Cassation, the major court of last resort, he became active in the debt collecting business. Filippo Mancuso, the former Minister of Justice born in Palermo, termed Schifani “the prince of debt collectors”. Prior to joining Forza Italia in 1995, he was an active member of Christian Democracy. Elected in 1996 in the Altofonte-Corleone district in Sicily, Schifani served as Silvio Berlusconi's chief whip in the Italian Senate. In 2002, Schifani was a protagonist in the attempt to secure the embedding of the provisional Article 41-bis prison regime – used against people imprisoned for particular crimes such as Mafia involvement – as a definitive measure in Italian law.
Schifani and Antonio Maccanico, senator of the centre left L’Ulivo political coalition, gave their name to a bill aimed at granting immunity to the top five representatives of the State, including Silvio Berlusconi. After extensive revisions of the text of the law by the Senate, Maccanico withdraw his name from the project; the lodo Schifani decree was approved in June 2003 by the Italian parliament guaranteeing immunity to Silvio Berlusconi. The law was subsequently declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court on 13 January 2004. Similar provisions were included in the lodo Alfano Act, granting immunity to the top four representatives of the State, including Berlusconi and the same Schifani as Speaker of the Senate. After being granted immunity Schifani has sued his critics Travaglio and Tabucchi for slander claiming 1.3 million from Tabucchi as the author declared in the transmission Annozero on 5 February 2009. The lodo Alfano was declared anti-constitutional in October 2009 as well.
Schifani was elected as President of the Senate on April 29, 2008, following the general election held earlier in the month. He received 178 out of 319 votes. In 1979, Renato Schifani became managing director of the firm Siculabrokers. Enrico La Loggia, Benny D'Agostino, Giuseppe Lombardo and Nino Mandalà were among its shareholders. Benny D’Agostino is an entrepreneur convicted for Sicilian Mafia association, Mandalà was convicted for Mafia association and was indicated by the Court as the Mafia boss of Villabate, Lombardo was chairman and member of the board of Satris, a credit recovery agency whose shareholders were Nino and Ignazio Salvo, well known businessmen and Mafiosi of the Salemi “family,” arrested by prosecutor Giovanni Falcone in 1984. According to the pentito Francesco Campanella, Antonio Mandalà and La Loggia in the 1990s agreed on the master plan for the shopping centre they wanted to develop in the town of Villabate, which aroused the interests of politicians and the Mafia.
Schifani, La Loggia and the civil engineer Guzzaro -– the consultant who advised the town -– would share the consulting fees for drawing up the master plan. The master plan of the town of Villabate was designed under specific instruction of Antonino and Nicola Mandalà, they conspired with the local Mafia politicians to skim from the public contracts. In 1992, Schifani along with Antonio Mangano and Antonino Garofalo founded GMS, another credit recovery agency. Schifani's partner Garofalo was charged with usury and extortion in 1997. However, Schifani was not mentioned in the police investigation. In both cases Schifani has never been investigated for any Mafia-related offence, much less tried. On 10 May 2008 the journalist Marco Travaglio interviewed on the RAI current affairs talk show television programme Che tempo che fa, talked about the Italian media, he mentioned past relationships between Schifani and men who have subsequently been condemned for Mafia association as an example of a relevant fact ignored by all Italian newspapers which published a biography of Schifani as the new president of Senate.
The statement of Travaglio resulted in fierce and universally negative reactions including from the centre left, except for Antonio Di Pietro who said that Travaglio was ‘merely doing his job’. Some called for chief executives at RAI to be dismissed; the popular political commentator Beppe Grillo supported Travaglio, while Schifani announced he would go to Court and blame Travaglio for slander. Schifani said Travaglio's accusation was based on "inconsistent or manipulated facts, not worthy of generating suspicions," adding that "someone wants to undermine the dialogue between the government and the opposition." Gomez, Peter & Lirio Abbate. I complici. Tutti gli uomini di Bernardo Provenzano da Corleone al Parlamento, Fazi Editore, ISBN 978-88-8112-786-3 Gomez, Peter & Marco Travaglio. Se li conosci li eviti. Raccomandati, condannati, ignoranti, fannulloni del nuovo Parlamento, Milan: Chiarelettere
Middle Eastern studies
Middle Eastern studies is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the history, politics and geography of the Middle East, an area, interpreted to cover a range of nations including Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Iran, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Oman. It is considered a form of area studies, taking an overtly interdisciplinary approach to the study of a region. In this sense Middle Eastern Studies is a far broader and less traditional field than classical Islamic Studies; the subject was regarded as part of Oriental studies, which included East Asian studies and Egyptology and other specialisms in the ancient civilizations of the region. Many academic faculties still cover both areas. Although some academic programs combine Middle Eastern Studies with Islamic Studies, based on the preponderance of Muslims in the region, others maintain these areas of study as separate disciplines. In 1978 Edward Said, a Palestinian American professor of Comparative Literature at Columbia University, published his book Orientalism, in which he accused earlier scholars of a "subtle and persistent Eurocentric prejudice against Arabo-Islamic peoples and their culture", claiming the bias amounted to a justification for imperialism.
Western academics such as Irwin challenged Said's conclusions, however the book became a standard text of literary theory and cultural studies. Following the September 11 attacks, U. S. Middle Eastern studies programs were criticized as inattentive to issues of Islamic terrorism. Israeli-American historian Martin Kramer published a 2001 book, Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America, Wall Street Journal article claiming that Middle Eastern studies courses were "part of the problem, not its remedy." In a Foreign Affairs review of the book, F. Gregory Gause said his analysis was, in part, "serious and substantive" but "far too his valid points are overshadowed by academic score-settling and major inconsistencies."In 2002, American writer Daniel Pipes established an organisation called Campus Watch to combat what he perceived to be serious problems within the discipline, including "analytical failures, the mixing of politics with scholarship, intolerance of alternative views and the abuse of power over students".
He encouraged students to advise the organization of problems at their campuses. In turn critics within the discipline such as John Esposito accused him of "McCarthyism". Professors denounced by Pipes as "left-wing extremists" were harassed with hate speech. Pipes was appointed to the United States Institute of Peace board of directors by George W. Bush, despite protests from the Arab American community. In 2010, foreign policy analyst Mitchell Bard claimed in his 2010 book The Arab Lobby: The Invisible Alliance That Undermines America's Interests in the Middle East that elements of the Arab lobby Saudi Arabia and pro-Palestinian advocates were hijacking the academic field of Middle Eastern studies within several prominent American universities including Georgetown University, Harvard University, Columbia University; this has involved Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States funding centers and chairs at universities to promote a pro-Arabist agenda. Bard has accused several prominent Middle Eastern studies academics including John Esposito and Rashid Khalidi of abusing positions by advancing a pro-Palestinian political agenda.
In addition, Bard has criticized the Middle Eastern Studies Association for adopting a pro-Palestinian standpoint. Bard has alleged that MESA marginalizes non-Israel-related topics including the Kurdish–Turkish conflict and the persecution of religious minorities like Christians and ethnic minorities that are non-Arabs such as Jews and Kurds. Bard has contended that since the September 11 attacks, the Arab lobby working through Middle Eastern Studies university departments have sought to influence pre-university education by tailoring education programs and resources to reflect a pro-Arabist agenda. Center for Arab and Middle Eastern Studies at the American University of Beirut Centre for Arab & Islamic Studies, The Australian National University, Australia Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Metropolitan University Prague Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Chicago Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Lund University Middle East Studies Institute at Shanghai International Studies University, China Center for Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Michigan Center for Modern Oriental Studies at Humboldt University in Berlin Center for Near and Middle Eastern Studies at Marburg University Department of African, Middle Eastern, South Asian Languages and Literatures at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Institut français du Proche-Orient, the French Institute for the Near East, in Damascus and Amman Institute for Middle East Studies at George Washington University Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies at University of Exeter Italian Institute for Africa and Orient - ISIAO London Middle East Institute at School of Oriental and African Studies Middle East Center at the University of Pennsylvania Middle East Center at the University of Washington Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at New York University Middle East Institute at Columbia University Middle East/South Asian Studies Program at UC Davis Mid