The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The University claims a founding date of 1740 and is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the U. S. Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum. Penn has four undergraduate schools as well as twelve graduate and professional schools. Among its graduate and professional schools are the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school, the first "student union" building and organization. In 2019, the university had an endowment of $14.65 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as a research budget of $1.02 billion. The university's athletics program, the Quakers, fields varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference.
As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of state, 64 billionaires, 3 U. S. Supreme Court justices, 33 U. S. Senators, 44 U. S. Governors, 159 members of the U. S. House of Representatives, 8 signers of the U. S. Declaration of Independence, 12 signers of the U. S. Constitution, 24 members of the Continental Congress, the current U. S. President, Donald Trump. Other notable alumni include 29 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholars, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars; as of October 2019, 36 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university. Penn has the highest number of undergraduate alumni billionaires of any school in the U. S; the University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.
In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open-air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in, it was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia".
Unlike the other colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service; the proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because Anglican priest William Smith, who became the first provost, other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered on July 13, 1753, by the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution; the first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757. The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith's "Loyalist" tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania.
The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees. Penn has three claims to being the first university in the Unite
Issoria eugenia is a small butterfly found in the East Palearctic that belongs to the family Nymphalidae. I. e. eugenia South Transbaikalia, Sayan I. e. vega Central Siberia, Russian Far East, Kamchatka I. e. montana Altai, Sayan I. e. rhea Tsingai, Gansu I. e. genia Sichuan, Shaanxi I. e. pulchella Huang, 2001 East Tibet I. e. tibetana Huang, 1998 West Tibet A. eugenia Ev. is similar to the preceding. The ground-colour of the female is more greenish grey than reddish yellow. From South Siberia and West China. — genia Fruhst. has the hindwing beneath paler, the silvery median spot across the cell is more produced distad, somewhat resembling in shape the same spot of gemmata. The base of both wings above is much darker and the black markings are stronger. From West China. — rhea Gr.-Grsh. has the same long silver-spot as genia, but is brighter yellow above, the base of the wings being less dusted with black. Amdo. — montana Bang-H. From the central Altai, is paler and its markings are thinner; the female is lighter, the black marginal band of the upperside is less prominent.
Beneath the shorter silver-spot at once distinguished it from genia. — Little is known of the habits of this species
Valentin Stanchev is a former Bulgarian footballer who played as a striker. Born in Vratsa, Valentin Stanchev played in his career for Botev Vratsa, Chernomorets Burgas, Spartak Varna, Shanghai Shenhua, CSKA Sofia, Sachsen Leipzig and Cherno More Varna. On 26 May 1999, Stanchev scored for the 1–0 win for CSKA in the final of Bulgarian Cup against Litex Lovech. Shanghai Shenhua Chinese Jia-A League Runner-up: 1996–97CSKA Sofia Bulgarian Cup Winner: 1998–99