The University of Pretoria Faculty of Law was established in 1908 and consists of five academic departments, six centres, two law clinics and its own publisher the Pretoria University Law Press. The faculty offers the undergraduate LLB degree, the postgraduate LLM and LLD degrees as well as several continuing education courses; the Oliver R Tambo Law Library houses the faculty's collection of legal materials and the Law of Africa collection in the library is the single most comprehensive and current collection of primary legal materials of African countries. The faculty organises the annual African and World Human Rights Moot Court Competition and in 2006, the faculty's Centre for Human Rights received the UNESCO Prize for Human Rights Education. Since 1997, the university as a whole has produced more research outputs every year than any other institution of higher learning in South Africa, as measured by the Department of Education's accreditation benchmark; the proposal for a university for the capital, first mooted in the Volksraad in 1889, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War in 1899.
In 1902 after the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging, the Normal College for teacher training was established in Groenkloof, Pretoria and in 1904 the Transvaal Technical Institute, with emphasis on mining education, opened in Johannesburg. In 1906 the Transvaal Technical Institute changed its name to the Transvaal University College. On 4 March 1908 when the Transvaal University College transferred its arts and science courses to its newly established Pretoria Campus the precursor to the university was established offering courses in languages and law; the faculty offers the postgraduate LLM and LLD programmes. The undergraduate BCom and BA degrees are presented by the faculties of Economic and Management Sciences and Humanities respectively. After completing either the three-year BCom or BA degree students may apply to complete the LLB degree in two years rather than the traditional four years for an LL. B, a practice, recommended by the faculty. LLM programmes by coursework and research cover all the traditional legal fields namely procedural law, private law, public law, mercantile law, corporate law, labour law and criminal law as well as specialised master programmes like socio-economic rights: theory and practice, human rights and democratisation in Africa, international trade and investment law in Africa, child law, international air and telecommunication law and intellectual property law amongst others.
LLD programmes cover procedural law, legal history, comparative law and legal philosophy, mercantile law, public Law, private law and human rights. Continuing education short courses are presented in the fields of child law, commercial law, general law, insolvency law, labour law, legislative drafting and sports law. Centres, Units & Institutes in the faculty include the Centre for Advanced Corporate & Insolvency Law, Centre for Child Law, Centre for Human Rights, Centre for Intellectual Property Law, Centre for Medicine & Law, Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa and Sports Law Centre in Africa; the Centres, Units & Institutes have academic purpose. The Centre for Human Rights at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, is an organisation dedicated to promoting human rights on the continent of Africa; the Centre, founded in 1986, promotes human rights through educational outreach, including multinational conferences and publications such as Human Rights Law in Africa, The African Human Rights Law Journal, the African Human Rights Law Reports and The Constitutional Law of South Africa.
The Centre, founded during Apartheid, assisted in adapting a Bill of Rights for South Africa and contributed to creating the South African Constitution. In 2006, the Centre received the UNESCO Prize for Human Rights Education; the Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa, established at the beginning of 2011, is a research institute located in the Faculty of Law with Professors Erika de Wet and Christof Heyns being appointed as Co-Directors. The ICLA co-ordinates the Oxford Constitutions Online African country reports and collaborates with the Centre for Human Rights to co-ordinate the Oxford Reports on International Law in Domestic Courts Online African case law; the Centre for Child was established in 1998 and is enjoys recognition as a law clinic by the Law Society. Established in 2003 the Centre's Children's Litigation Project acts as amicus curiae in litigation in relation to children's rights through, appearing in several cases before the North and South Gauteng High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal and Constitutional Court.
The Pretoria University Law Press, situated within the Faculty of Law, endeavours to publish and distribute advanced scholarly legal texts in English, French and Portuguese.<ref[>"Pretoria University Law Press". University of Pretoria.</ref> PULP publishes a series of collections of legal documents related to African public law and legal text books from other African countries and is a member of the Publishers' association of South Africa. Law students participate in the following activities: The Constitutional Tribunal is the judicial body of student governance and adjudicates disputes between student organisations and its judge’s sit on the panel of student disciplinary hearings; the Pretoria Student Law Review, published by PULP, is student driven and administered initiative providing an interactive student platform for to discuss topical legal matters. Law House provides a platform for social engagement, community outreach and student engagement with t
Names of the Serbs and Serbia are terms and other designations referring to general terminology and nomenclature on the Serbs and Serbia. Throughout history, various endonyms and exonyms have been used in reference to ethnic Serbs and their lands. Basic terms, used in Serbian language, were introduced via classical languages into other languages, including English; the process of interlingual transmission began during the early medieval period, continued up to the modern times, being finalized in major international languages at the beginning of the 20th century. The earliest found mention of the Serbs is from Einhard's Royal Frankish Annals, written in 822, when prince Ljudevit went from his seat at Sisak to the Serbs, with Einhard mentioning "the Serbs, a people, said to hold a large part of Dalmatia". De Administrando Imperio, written by Constantine VII in the mid-10th century, tells of the early history of the Serbs, whose polity he called "Serblia", whose ruler he called "Prince of the Serbs".
He mentions White Serbia. Furthermore, he says. According to the Tale of Bygone Years, the first Russian chronicle, Serbs are among the first five Slav peoples who were enumerated by their names. Al-Masudi called them Sarabin. In Latin, it was transcribed as Sorabi, Serbii, Surbi, Serviani etc. Etymological originThe root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian priserbitisya, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. German-Sorbian scholar Heinz Schuster-Šewc listed the *srъb- / *sьrb- roots in Slavic words meaning "to sip, munch", found in Polish serbać, Russian сербать, etc. and cognates in non-Slavic languages, such as Lithuanian suřbti, Middle German sürfen, which all derive from Indo-European onomatopoeic roots *serbh- / *sirbh- / *surbh- meaning "to sip, to breast-feed, to flow". According to him, the basis of the ethnonym lays in "kinship by milk" and "brotherhood in milk", widespread in early ethnic groups and thus carried the secondary meanings of "those who belong to the same family, kinsman".
Antique originSome scholars argue. According to this theory, it is connected to the mentions of Tacitus in 50 AD, Pliny the Elder in 77 AD and Ptolemy in his Geography 2nd century AD, of the Sarmatian tribe of Serboi of the North Caucasus and Lower Volga. One theory is that it is of Iranian origin. Oleg Trubachyov derived it from Indo-Aryan *sar- and *bai-. Đorđe Branković, in his Chronicles, wrote: "The Serbian name comes from the Savromat name, as Philipp Melanchthon testifies... According to a second version the Serbian name comes from the Sires people who used to live in the Asian part of Scythia. Among the Sires, wool grew in the same way as silk". In 1878, Henry Hoyle Howorth connected Ptolemy's mention of the town of Serbinum, modern Gradiška, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to the Serbs, found the Serb ethnonym in the works of Vibius Sequester. SporoiIn De Bello Gothico Procopius uses the name Sporoi as an umbrella term for the Slavic tribes of Antes and Sclaveni, it is however not known whether the Slavs used this designation for themselves or he himself coined the term.
It has been theorized however that the name is a corruption of the ethnonym Serbs, as Sporoi may be identical with'Sorpi=Serpi=Serbi' and'Sclavini'. The term "Rascia", with several variants, was used as an exonym for Serbia in Latin sources since the late 12th century, along with other names such as Servia and Slavonia, it was derived from the town of Ras, a royal estate, seat of an eparchy. The first attestation is in a charter from Kotor dated to 1186, in which Stefan Nemanja, the Grand Prince, is mentioned as "župan of Rascia", it was one of the common names for Serbia in western sources in conjunction with Serbia. "Rascia" was never used in Byzantine works. The term is used in modern historiography to refer to the medieval "Serbian hinterland" or "inner Serbia", that is, the inland territories in relation to the maritime principalities at the Adriatic; the term is attested since the late 12th century, but in historiography, the early medieval Serbian Principality is sometimes called Raška, erroneously.
In DAI, the Serbian hinterland is called "baptized Serbia", while Ras is only mentioned as a border town. The misconceptions arose from the much Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, that projected terminology on earlier periods. In historical reality of the early medieval period, the city of Ras became a local administrative center only in 970-975, when Byzantines created a short-lived Catepanate of Ras. In 1019, the Eparchy of Ras was organized, with jurisdiction over eastern parts of inner Serbia, thus the foundation was laid for gradual emergence of a regional name, derived from Ras. Retaking the city of Ras from Byzantines, local Serbian rulers made it one of their main seats, since it was als
Metropolitan Mykhayil Javchak Champion is the Metropolitan Bishop of New York City and America for the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Champion is a native of Peekskill, New York, spent 20 years of ministry in the Cleveland, Ohio area, he graduated from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh and received a Master of Arts Degree in Theology from Saint Mary Seminary and Graduate School of Theology of the Cleveland Diocese in 1993. During his seminary years, Javchak-Champion worked as a cantor and pastoral associate in various Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholic parishes in the Cleveland Area. From 1986-1989 he worked in the chancery office of the Eparchy of Parma, as director of the eparchial cantor's programs, editor of The Cantor's Voice, a publication for music ministers. Additionally, he was editorial cantor to Bishop Andrew Pataki. Among other things, the future Metropolitan was key in producing the bishop's ad limina report, multiple liturgical publications among other efforts. Ordained to the priesthood in 1997, he became a bishop of Cleveland in the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church in 1999.
He was pastor of the UAOC Cathedral Church of SS Hlib during that era. On May 2, 2001, Metropolitan Javchak Champion offered the opening prayer at the United States House of Representatives, at the invitation of Congressman John E. Sununu of New Hampshire. In December 2002 Javchak-Champion supported the ideology of UAOC-Sobornopravna. Javchak-Champion took on the leadership of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church in the Americas in 2004, after the retirement of Metropolitan Stephan. At the April 2004 convocation of the regular Metropolitan synod, the Council of Hierarchs of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church of North & South America and the Diaspora accepted the resignation of Archbishop Petrovich, who voluntarily asked to retire due to health reasons. In 2004-2005 within the UAOC-Sobornopravna in the USA, events took place; the UAOC of North and South America, headed by Javchak-Champion, joined with UAOC in Ukraine, on April 21, 2004 declared Metropolitan Mefodiy to be their Primate.
Javchak-Champion returned to Northern Westchester in 2005, where he relocated the church's administrative office and founded the Holy Spirit Ukrainian Orthodox Parish. He supported in Metropolitan Mefodiy in a conflict with Archbishop Ihor Isichenko. In February 2006 Metropolitan Mefodiy, Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine, worldwide primate of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church made a pastoral visit to the United States, at the invitation of Metropolitan Javchak-Champion, they visited church communities. In 2005, 2007 and 2008, Metropolitan Mykhayil made official visits to the Primate of the UAOC, Metropolitan Mefodiy in Kyiv. In 2007 Javchak-Champion said that his church supported Cardinal Lubomyr Husar, Archbishop Ihor Vozniak and members of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in their dispute with Latin Traditionalist Catholics in Ukraine. In 2007, while on an official visit to the Primate of the UAOC, Metropolitan Mefodiy, Metropolitan Mykhayil visited Ternopil, had interview with Ukrainian journalists After the death of Metropolitan Mefodiy on February 24, 2015, Metropolitan Javchak-Champion sent official condolences and promulgated an official period of mourning for the death of the church's visible head.
Due to developing and uncertain political/ecclesiastical developments in Ukraine, subsequent to the death of Metropolitan Mefodiy, the UAOC in the USA asserts autonomy. In 2007, Archbishop Javchak-Champion was the first Orthodox Christian hierarch to write a response to the document A Common Word Between Us and You, an historic outreach by Muslim leaders to the interfaith community, he was a participant in the Yale conference "Loving God and Neighbor in Word and Deed", a workshop on the same document. The event gathered religious scholars and activists from several countries and was co-sponsored by Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad of Jordan and the Yale University Center for Faith and Culture's Reconciliation Program; the Archbishop has long been a proponent of liberation theology and took an early interest in the development of the Latin American church. He studied the Spanish language at the high school and university levels. Champion speaks as an advocate for the rights of immigrants and any persons who are marginalized or experience bias.
He has been a co-chair of the Cortlandt Taskforce on Diversity. The church has conducted a weekly breakfast program as a gesture of hospitality for local immigrant workers. In 2011, New York became the sixth U. S. state to legalize same-sex marriages. At that time Archbishop Champion opened his local parish to same-sex couples wishing to marry, he said that the freedom to marry is a civil right all Americans should have: I think it’s a matter of civil rights, the more equality we have amongst people in this country the better,” Champion said. While the state has legalized gay marriage, Champion pointed out churches in the state are not required to recognize or perform them. “I do realize there are some faith leaders that may not agree with performing same-sex unions, however they are not obliged to do so.” In 2011 his parish of Montrose, New York began to offer weddings to same-sex couples. The ministry has led the Archbishop to travel to parishes in Ukraine, Ecuador and Colombia among other places.
Javchak-Champion works extensively in inter-religious ministry, having served for four years as president of the Peekskill Area Pastors Association, the larges