In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Georges Bizet, registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the Romantic era. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, which has become one of the most popular and performed works in the entire opera repertoire. During a brilliant student career at the Conservatoire de Paris, Bizet won many prizes, including the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1857, he was recognised as an outstanding pianist, though he chose not to capitalise on this skill and performed in public. Returning to Paris after three years in Italy, he found that the main Parisian opera theatres preferred the established classical repertoire to the works of newcomers, his keyboard and orchestral compositions were largely ignored. Restless for success, he began many theatrical projects during the 1860s, most of which were abandoned. Neither of his two operas that reached the stage in this time—Les pêcheurs de perles and La jolie fille de Perth—were successful.
After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, during which Bizet served in the National Guard, he had little success with his one-act opera Djamileh, though an orchestral suite derived from his incidental music to Alphonse Daudet's play L'Arlésienne was popular. The production of Bizet's final opera, was delayed because of fears that its themes of betrayal and murder would offend audiences. After its premiere on 3 March 1875, Bizet was convinced. Bizet's marriage to Geneviève Halévy produced one son. After his death, his work, apart from Carmen, was neglected. Manuscripts were given away or lost, published versions of his works were revised and adapted by other hands, he had no obvious disciples or successors. After years of neglect, his works began to be performed more in the 20th century. Commentators have acclaimed him as a composer of brilliance and originality whose premature death was a significant loss to French musical theatre. Georges Bizet was born in Paris on 25 October 1838, he was registered as Alexandre César Léopold, but baptised as "Georges" on 16 March 1840, was known by this name for the rest of his life.
His father, Adolphe Bizet, had been a hairdresser and wigmaker before becoming a singing teacher despite his lack of formal training. He composed a few works, including at least one published song. In 1837, Adolphe married Aimée Delsarte, against the wishes of her family who considered him a poor prospect. Aimée was an accomplished pianist, while her brother François Delsarte was a distinguished singer and teacher who performed at the courts of both Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. François Delsarte's wife Rosine, a musical prodigy, had been an assistant professor of solfège at the Conservatoire de Paris at the age of 13. At least one author has alleged that his mother was from a Jewish family but this is not substantiated in any of his official biographies. Georges, an only child, showed early aptitude for music and picked up the basics of musical notation from his mother, who gave him his first piano lessons. By listening at the door of the room where Adolphe conducted his classes, Georges learned to sing difficult songs from memory and developed an ability to identify and analyse complex chordal structures.
This precocity convinced his ambitious parents that he was ready to begin studying at the Conservatoire though he was still only nine years old. Georges was interviewed by Joseph Meifred, the horn virtuoso, a member of the Conservatoire's Committee of Studies. Meifred was so struck by the boy's demonstration of his skills that he waived the age rule and offered to take him as soon as a place became available. Bizet was admitted to the Conservatoire on 9 October two weeks before his 10th birthday, he made an early impression. Zimmerman gave Bizet private lessons in counterpoint and fugue, which continued until the old man's death in 1853. Through these classes, Bizet met Zimmerman's son-in-law, the composer Charles Gounod, who became a lasting influence on the young pupil's musical style—although their relationship was strained in years, he met another of Gounod's young students, the 13-year-old Camille Saint-Saëns, who remained a firm friend of Bizet's. Under the tuition of Antoine François Marmontel, the Conservatoire's professor of piano, Bizet's pianism developed rapidly.
Bizet would write to Marmontel: "In your class one learns something besides the piano. Bizet's first preserved compositions, two wordless songs for soprano, date from around 1850. In 1853, he joined Fromental Halévy's composition class and began to produce works of increasing sophistication and quality. Two of his songs, "Petite Marguerite" and "La Rose et l'abeille", were published in 1854. In 1855, he wrote an ambitious overture for a large orchestra, prepared four-hand piano versions of two of Gounod's works: the opera La nonne sanglante and the Symphony in D. Bizet's work on the Gounod symphony inspired him, shortly after his seventeenth birthd
Luis Cernuda Bidón was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of'27. During the Spanish Civil War, in early 1938, he went to the UK to deliver some lectures and this became the start of an exile that lasted till the end of his life, he taught in the universities of Glasgow and Cambridge before moving in 1947 to the US. In the 1950s he moved to Mexico. While he continued to write poetry, he published wide-ranging books of critical essays, covering French and German as well as Spanish literature, he was frank about his homosexuality at a time when this was problematic and became something of a role model for this in Spain. His collected poems were published under the title La realidad y el deseo. Cernuda was born in the Barrio Santa Cruz, Calle Conde de Tójar 6, in Seville in 1902, the son of a colonel in the Regiment of Engineers, he had two older sisters. The recollections and impressions of childhood contained in his poems, the prose poems collected in Ocnos, suggest that he was always a solitary and timid child whose unhappiness in the family led to his living vicariously through books and through his strong visual impressions of his native city.
His first encounter with poetry came at the age of 9 when he glanced through a copy of Bécquer's Rimas, lent to his sisters by their cousins Luisa and Brígida de la Sota. Despite the fact that he testified that this left no more than a dormant impression upon him, he began to write poetry himself during his studies at the Escolapios School in Seville from 1915 to 1919 around the age of 14. In 1914, the family moved into the Engineers' Barracks on the outskirts of Seville. In 1918, they moved to Calle del Aire, where he would write the poems of Perfil del aire. In 1919 he began to study Law at the University of Seville, during his first year, he attended classes In Spanish Language and Literature given by Pedro Salinas, his extreme shyness prevented him from mentioning his literary activities until Salinas' notice was caught by a prose poem published in a student magazine. He gave Cernuda encouragement and urged him to read both classical Spanish poetry and modern French literature, it was at Salinas' suggestion that Cernuda sent his first collection of poetry, Perfil del aire, to Altolaguirre and Prados, who had begun, late in 1926, to publish a magazine called Litoral.
As was the practice in those days, many such magazines published collections of poetry as supplements. His father died in 1920 and he continued to live at home with his mother and sisters. In 1923 he did military service in the Regiment of Cavalry. In 1924, as he was reaching the end of his undergraduate course, he participated in a series of meetings with a small group of fellow students in Salinas's house; these helped to guide his readings of French literature. He was undecided about what to do next, he thought about joining the diplomatic service but decided not to on discovering that it would entail a move to Madrid. In October, Salinas arranged for him to make the acquaintance of Juan Ramón Jiménez in the gardens of the Alcázar of Seville. In January 1926, he made his first trip to Madrid, where Salinas was instrumental in arranging introductions to, among others, Ortega y Gasset - who had published some of his poems in his Revista de Occidente in December 1925 - Juan Chabás, Melchor Fernández Almagro, Enrique Díez-Canedo.
Although he described himself at that time as inexperto, aislado en Sevilla, he was in reality known to a number of the influential Spanish literati of the period. His indecision about a choice of career continued through 1926-27. In December 1927, the Góngora tercentenary celebrations reached a climax with a series of poetry readings and lectures at the Arts Club of Seville by people such as García Lorca, Dámaso Alonso, Rafael Alberti, Jorge Guillén, José Bergamín and others. Although he took no direct part in the proceedings, he did get the chance to read some of his poems and he made the acquaintance of Lorca, his mother died in July 1928 and, at the start of September, Cernuda left Seville. He spent a few days in Málaga with Altolaguirre and José María Hinojosa before moving to Madrid. Although he had a law degree, he had no intention of making practical use of it, he was starting to realise that poetry was the only thing that mattered to him. He met Vicente Aleixandre. Salinas arranged, he stayed there for an academic year.
The experience of living on his own in a foreign city led him to a crucial realisation about himself: his crippling shyness, his unhappiness in a family setting, his sense of isolation from the rest of humanity, had all been symptoms of a latent homosexuality which now manifested itself and which he accepted, in a spirit of defiance. This led to a decisive change in the type of poetry he wrote, he discovered a love of jazz and films, which seems to have activated an interest in the USA. Between his return from Toulouse in June 1929 to 1936, Cernuda lived in Madrid and participated in the literary and cultural scene of the Spanish capital. At the start of 1930, he found a job in a bookshop owned by León Sánchez Cuesta. All through this period, he worked with many organisations attempting to create a more liberal and tolerant Spain. For example, between 1932 and 1935, he participated in the Misiones Pedagógicas - a cultural outreach organisation set up by the Spanish Rep
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile, they married on October 1469, in the city of Valladolid. It is accepted by most scholars that the unification of Spain can be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella; some newer historical opinions propose that under their rule, what became Spain was still a union of two crowns rather than a unitary state, as to a large degree Castile and Aragon remained separate kingdoms, with most of their own separate institutions, for decades to come. The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords; the title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in 1494, in recognition of their defense of the Catholic faith within their realms. "Catholic monarchs" or "kings" can be used in a generic sense.
At the time of their marriage on October 19, 1469, Isabella was eighteen years old and the heiress presumptive to the Crown of Castile, while Ferdinand was seventeen and heir apparent to the Crown of Aragon. They married within a week. From the start, they worked well together. Both knew that the crown of Castile was "the prize, that they were both jointly gambling for it." However, it was a step toward the unification of the lands on the Iberian peninsula, which would become Spain. They were second cousins, so in order to marry they needed a papal dispensation that Pope Paul II, an Italian pope opposed to Aragon's influence on the Mediterranean and to the rise of monarchies strong enough to challenge the Pope, refused to grant, so they falsified a papal bull of their own. Though the bull is known to be false it isn't certain, the material author of the falsification; some experts point at Carrillo de Acuña, Archbishop of Toledo, others point at Antonio Veneris. Pope Paul II would remain a bitter enemy of Spain and the monarch for all his life, is attributed the quote, "May all Spaniards be cursed by God and heretics, the seed of Jews and Moors."Isabella's claims to it were not secure, since her marriage to Ferdinand enraged her half-brother Henry IV of Castile and he withdrew his support for her being his heiress presumptive, codified in the Treaty of the Bulls of Guisando.
Henry instead recognized Joanna of Castile, born during his marriage to Joanna of Portugal, but whose paternity was in doubt, since Henry was rumored to be impotent. When Henry died in 1474, Isabella asserted her claim to the throne, contested by thirteen-year-old Joanna. Joanna sought aid of Afonso V of Portugal, to claim the throne; this dispute between rival claimants led to the War of 1475–1479. Isabella called on the aid of Aragon, with her husband, the heir apparent, his father, Juan II of Aragon providing it. Although Aragon provided support for Isabella's cause, Isabella's supporters had extracted concessions, Isabella was acknowledged as the sole heir to the crown of Castile. Juan II died in 1479, Ferdinand succeeded to the throne in January 1479. In September 1479, Portugal and the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon and Castile resolved major issues between them through the Treaty of Alcáçovas, including the issue of Isabella's rights to the crown of Castile. Through close cooperation, the royal couple were successful in securing political power in the Iberian peninsula.
Ferdinand's father had advised the couple that "neither was powerful without the other." Though their marriage united the two kingdoms, leading to the beginnings of modern Spain, they ruled independently and their kingdoms retained part of their own regional laws and governments for the next centuries. The coat of arms of the Catholic Monarchs is designed with elements to show their cooperation and working in tandem, their joint motto was "Tanto monta, monta tanto". The motto was created by Antonio de Nebrija and was either an allusion to the Gordian knot: Tanto monta, monta tanto, cortar como desatar, or an explanation of the equality of the monarchs: Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando. "The royal motto they shared'tanto monta', "as much one as the other," came to signify their cooperation."Their emblems or heraldic devices, seen at the bottom of the coat of arms, were el yugo y las flechas, a yoke, a sheaf of arrows. Y and F are the initials of Fernando. A double yoke is worn by a team of oxen.
Isabella's emblem of arrows showed the armed power of the crown, "a warning to Castilians not acknowledging the reach of royal authority or that greatest of royal functions, the right to mete out justice" by force of violence. The iconography is found on various works of art; these badges were used gathered by the fascist, from fasces, Spanish political party Falange, which claimed to represent the inherited glory and the ideals of the Catholic Monarchs. The establishment of System of Royal Councils to oversee discrete regions or areas was Isabella succeeded to the throne of Castile in 1474 when Ferdinand was still heir-apparent to Aragon, with Aragon
Wells College is a private liberal arts college in Aurora, New York. The college has cross-enrollment with Ithaca College, it is considered to be Cornell University's sister school, from the days when Cornell was limited to male enrollment. Wells College is located in the Finger Lakes region of New York, it is about an hour from Syracuse and Rochester and a half-hour drive from both Auburn. It is within the Aurora Village–Wells College Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the college has an average student body of 450, with a student to faculty ratio of 9:1. It has seven academic buildings. Wells was established as a women's college in 1868 by Henry Wells, founder of Wells Fargo and the American Express Company. Wells had the building for Wells Seminary constructed on property he donated. On August 9, 1888, the College's main building burned to the ground; the building was replaced in 1890 by the current Main Building, designed by architect William Henry Miller. In 1906 Henry Wells' 1852 mansion, Glen Park, was purchased by the Alumnae Association and given to the College for its use.
It is now operated as a residence hall for upper class women. In 1965, Walter Netsch designed the Louis Jefferson Long Library; the design of this award-winning building inspired two other buildings on campus, Barler Music Hall and Campbell Art Building. In 1886, Frances Folsom, Wells Class of 1885, married President Grover Cleveland and became the youngest First Lady of the United States, she was the only First Lady to have her wedding in the White House. She was the first among them, a college graduate. Frances Cleveland served on the College's Board of Trustees for 50 years, she helped bring the College to national prominence. After 136 years as a women's college, Wells announced on October 2, 2004 that it would become a co-educational institution in 2005. Students protested on campus against the change; some parents of students became involved in the protests. Some of the students said that their protests were patterned after ones at Mills College in the early 1990s. A website called. After the college's decision to adopt coeducation was approved by its board, students filed a lawsuit, which the courts rejected.
The college adopted coeducation in 2005. Classes at Wells are taught seminar-style by professors. Eighty-three percent of Wells faculty have doctoral degrees. In 2016, U. S. News ranked Wells at 174 among liberal arts colleges nationally. Wells College is strengthening its off-campus study programs It has created centers in sustainability and entrepreneurship, book arts. Undergraduate students are required to participate in at least two off-campus internships during their time at Wells. Athletics are offered with half a PE credit earned for each season completed. A member of the Private College Athletic Conference throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Express sports teams of the college captured four consecutive conference championships in women's tennis, they won titles in women's bowling. Wells, which became an NCAA Division III institution prior to the 1986–87 athletic season, joined the Atlantic Women's Colleges Conference prior to the 1996–97 athletic season. In 1996, the Wells women's soccer team captured the school's only AWCC championship title.
Wells offered six intercollegiate athletic sports: field hockey, women's lacrosse, women's soccer, women's swimming and women's tennis. As part of the Board of Trustees decision to begin accepting men to the traditionally all-women's college, Wells in 2005 incorporated men's soccer, men's swimming, men's and women's cross country into their athletic cadre. Prior to the 2007–08 academic year, the Express teams were invited to join the North Eastern Athletic Conference and compete against 14 other schools in the East Region. By joining the NEAC, Wells can compete for conference championships with the added benefit of receiving an automatic qualifier in select sports to participate in the NCAA tournament. Since joining the NEAC, Wells has captured six separate conference championships. Men's swimming won the first league title in 2009–10, earned a second title in 2012–13. Women's swimming have won three consecutive conference championships, during the 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14 seasons. Men's basketball, who won the NEAC championship in 2010–11, was the first team from Wells to participate in the NCAA Tournament.
As of the 2015–16 athletic season, Wells offers 16 NCAA Division III varsity sports, including field hockey, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's lacrosse, men's and women's soccer, men's and women's swimming, men's and women's volleyball, men's and women's cross country, softball and women's tennis. Wells has an honor code. By signing the Honor Code, Wells students pledge "not to lie, steal, deceive, or conceal in the conduct of their collegiate life". Wells allows students to have take-home exams, to work in their residence hall rooms, at the library, or on the dock by the lake, rather than only in classrooms. Frances Folsom Cleveland – wife of President Grover Cleveland and First Lady of the United States Pleasant Rowland – founder of Pleasant Company and creator of the American Girl brand of dolls and accessories Laura Nader – Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Helen Barolini – author of novels and essays Edith Kinney Gaylord – journalist, founder of Inasmuch Foundation and Ethics and Excellence in Journalism Foundation, former president of the National
St. John's University (New York City)
St. John's University is a private Catholic university in New York City. Founded and run by the Congregation of the Mission in 1870, the school was located in the neighborhood of Bedford–Stuyvesant in the borough of Brooklyn. In the 1950s, the school was relocated to its current site at Utopia Parkway in Queens. St. John's has campuses in Staten Island and Manhattan in New York City and overseas in Rome, Italy. In addition, the university has a Long Island Graduate Center in Hauppauge, along with academic locations in Paris and Limerick, Ireland; the university is named after Saint John the Baptist. St. John's is organized into six graduate schools. In 2016, the university had 4,647 graduate students. St. John's offers more than 100 bachelor and doctoral degree programs as well as professional certificates. St. John's University was founded in 1870, by the Vincentian Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church in response to an invitation by the first Bishop of Brooklyn, John Loughlin, to provide the underprivileged youth of the city with an intellectual and moral education.
St. John's Vincentian values stem from the ideals and works of St Vincent de Paul, the patron saint of Christian charity. Following the Vincentian tradition, the university seeks to provide an education that encourages greater involvement in social justice and service; the Vincentian Center for Church and Society, located on the university's Queens campus serves as "a clearinghouse for and developer of Vincentian information, poverty research, social justice resources, as an academic/cultural programming Center."The English translation of the Greek on the original seal of the University is "a lamp burning and shining" or "a lamp shining brightly" a reference to St. John the Baptist. St. John's University was founded as the College of St. John the Baptist at 75 Lewis Avenue, in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. Ground was broken for St. John's College Hall, the university's first building, on May 28, 1868; the cornerstone was laid on July 25, 1869. The building was opened for educational purposes on September 5, 1870.
Beginning with the law school in 1925, St. John's started founding other schools and it became a university in 1933. In April 1936, St. John's bought the Hillcrest Golf Club's 100 acres of land for about $500,000, with the intention of moving the school to the new site. Under the terms of the sale, the golf club continued to operate on the site for a few years. On February 11, 1954, St. John's broke ground on a new campus in Queens, on the former site of the Hillcrest Golf Club. During the official groundbreaking ceremony, the shovel used was the same shovel that had broken ground on the original campus in 1868; the following year, the original school of the university, St. John's College, moved from Bedford-Stuyvesant to the new campus; the high school, now St. John's Prep, took over its former buildings and moved to its present location in the Hillcrest-Jamaica sections in Queens. Over the next two decades, the other schools of the university, which were located at a separate campus at 96 Schermerhorn Street in Downtown Brooklyn, moved out to the new campus in Queens.
The last of the schools to relocate to Queens moved there in 1972, bringing an end to the Downtown Brooklyn campus of the university. In 1959, the university established a Freedom Institute to provide lectures and programs that would focus, in the words of university president Rev. John A. Flynn, focus "attention on the dangers of communism threatening free institutions here and abroad," with Arpad F. Kovacs of the St. John's history department as its director; the university hired the noted historian Paul Kwan-Tsien Sih to establish an Institute of Asian Studies in 1959, set up a Center for African Studies under the directorship of the economic geographer Hugh C. Brooks; the university received praise from Time Magazine in 1962 for being a Catholic university that accepted Jews with low household income. St. John's was the defendant in a lawsuit by Donald Scheiber for discrimination after being removed because he was Jewish; the court ruled against St. John's University in this lawsuit. Time ranked St. John's as "good−small" on a list of the nation's Catholic universities in 1962.
The St. John's University strike of 1966-1967 was a protest by faculty at the university which began on January 4, 1966, ended in June 1967; the strike began after 31 faculty members were dismissed in the fall of 1965 without due process, dismissals which some felt were a violation of the professors' academic freedom. The tension of that year was noted in Time Magazine stating, "cademically, has never ranked high among Catholic schools; the strike ended without any reinstatements, but led to the widespread unionization of public college faculty in the New York City area. In 1970 arbitrators ruled. On January 27, 1971, the New York State Board of Regents approved the consolidation of the university with the former Notre Dame College a private women's college and the Staten Island campus of St. John's University became a reality. Classes began in the fall of 1971, combining the original Notre Dame College with the former Brooklyn campus of St. John's, offering undergraduate degrees in liberal arts and education.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students