Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 390 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived to what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids.
Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives of the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were.
Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases; the plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city.
Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel; as elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued its steady development. A landmark e
University of Oulu
The University of Oulu is one of the largest universities in Finland, located in the city of Oulu. It was founded on July 8, 1958; the university has 3,000 staff. The university is ranked as one of the better universities in Finland and in the top-400 worldwide. 1919 Oulu College Association was founded to manage the establishment of a university in the town 1958 Oulu University Act 1959 Activities begin. Faculty of Philosophy, Faculty of Technology and Oulu Teaching School 1960 Faculty of Medicine 1965 Teaching begins in humanities 1965 Departments of Electrical Engineering and Machine Engineering added to the Faculty of Technology 1972 The Faculty of Humanities and the Faculty of Natural Sciences founded with the division of the Faculty of Philosophy 1974 Faculty of Education 1985 Professorship in Telecommunications Technology established at the Faculty of Technology 1994 Biotechnology, Information Technology and Northern Issues defined as focus areas 2000 Founding of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration 2006 Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre 2007 Oulu Mining School 2008 Martti Ahtisaari Institute of Global Business and Economics 2009 Center for Internet Excellence 2010 New University Act, new focus areas 2011 Center of Microscopy and Nanotechnology founded by joining the Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre and the Institute for Electron Microscopy 2011 University of Oulu Graduate School 2014 Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine 2014 Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering 2014 Oulu School of Architecture There are four campus areas: The main campus is located in Linnanmaa, about 5 kilometres north of Oulu city centre.
It includes five faculties, Infotech Oulu, Thule Institute, Giellagas Institute, Martti Ahtisaari Institute, Centre for Wireless Communications, Centre for Advanced Steel Research, Center of Microscopy and Nanotechnology, Botanical Gardens and Museum, Zoological Museum, Geological Museum and two science libraries. Faculty of Medicine has its own campus area and it is integrated in the regional hospital 2 kilometres southeast from the city center, Oulu. Clinical Research Centre, Welltech Oulu and the Medical Library are located there; the third campus area is located in about 185 kilometres southeast of Oulu. Department of Architecture, located in the center of OuluThe University has a number of research stations and shared locations, most notably: Kajaani University Consortium Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory Oulanka Biological Research Station Bothnian Bay Research Station on Ulkokrunni island Oulu Southern Institute, Centre for Underground Physics in Pyhäsalmi Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius Raahe Unit The University of Oulu is divided into ten faculties: Oulu University Teacher Training School Department of Electrical Engineering Electronics Laboratory Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratory Mathematics Division Department of Communications Engineering Department of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Information Processing Science Wireless Communications Engineering Department of Biology Zoology Botany Genetics Zoological Museum Botanical Museum Botanical Gardens Oulanka Research Station Bothnian Bay Research Station Department of Physics Biophysics Electron spectroscopy Theoretical physics Astronomy Geophysics Space physics Department of Chemistry Department of Mathematical Sciences Institute of Biomedicine Institute of Diagnostics Institute of Dentistry Institute of Clinical Medicine Institute of Health Sciences Chemical Process Engineering Control Engineering Energy and Environmental Engineering Environmental and Chemical Engineering Fibre and Particle Engineering Industrial Engineering and Management Machine Design Materials Engineering and Production Technology Mechatronics and Machine Diagnostics Process Metallurgy Structures and Construction Technology Sustainable Chemistry Systems Engineering Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Management & International Business Economics Accounting Marketing Finance Martti Ahtisaari Institute of Global Business and Economics Full-time MBA ProgrammeOulu Business School is accredited by AACSB International History of Architecture and Restoration Studies Contemporary Architecture Building Performance and Construction Urban Design and Town Planning University of Oulu aims to promote mobility among its students.
It takes part in a number of international exchange programmes, such as Erasmus Programme, Nordplus, FIRST, ISEP and International to International ISEP, UNC-EP, north2north, North-South-South. Besides, University of Oulu has about 50 bilateral agreements with partner universities around the world. University works in 70 research areas. At the same time, four focus research areas are: Information Technology Biosciences and Health Cultural Identity and Interaction Environment, Natural Resources and Materials (Environmental issues, natural resources and energy economy.
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Times Higher Education World University Rankings
Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Times Higher Education magazine. The publisher had collaborated with Quacquarelli Symonds to publish the joint THE–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009 before it turned to Thomson Reuters for a new ranking system; the publication now comprises the world's overall and reputation rankings, alongside three regional league tables, Latin America, BRICS & Emerging Economies which are generated by different weightings. THE Rankings is considered as one of the most observed university rankings together with Academic Ranking of World Universities and QS World University Rankings, it is praised for having a new, improved ranking methodology since 2010. The creation of the original Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World, to then-editor of Times Higher Education, John O'Leary.
Times Higher Education chose to partner with educational and careers advice company QS to supply the data. After the 2009 rankings, Times Higher Education took the decision to break from QS and signed an agreement with Thomson Reuters to provide the data for its annual World University Rankings from 2010 onwards; the publication developed a new rankings methodology in consultation with its readers, its editorial board and Thomson Reuters. Thomson Reuters will collect and analyse the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education; the first ranking was published in September 2010. Commenting on Times Higher Education's decision to split from QS, former editor Ann Mroz said: "universities deserve a rigorous and transparent set of rankings – a serious tool for the sector, not just an annual curiosity." She went on to explain the reason behind the decision to continue to produce rankings without QS' involvement, saying that: "The responsibility weighs heavy on our shoulders...we feel we have a duty to improve how we compile them."Phil Baty, editor of the new Times Higher Education World University Rankings, admitted in Inside Higher Ed: "The rankings of the world's top universities that my magazine has been publishing for the past six years, which have attracted enormous global attention, are not good enough.
In fact, the surveys of reputation, which made up 40 percent of scores and which Times Higher Education until defended, had serious weaknesses. And it's clear that our research measures favored the sciences over the humanities."He went on to describe previous attempts at peer review as "embarrassing" in The Australian: "The sample was too small, the weighting too high, to be taken seriously." THE published its first rankings using its new methodology on 16 September 2010, a month earlier than previous years. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities are described to be the three most influential international university rankings; the Globe and Mail in 2010 described the Times Higher Education World University Rankings to be "arguably the most influential."In 2014 Times Higher Education announced a series of important changes to its flagship THE World University Rankings and its suite of global university performance analyses, following a strategic review by THE parent company TES Global.
The inaugural 2010-2011 methodology contained 13 separate indicators grouped under five categories: Teaching, citations, international mix, industry income. The number of indicators is up from the Times-QS rankings published between 2004 and 2009, which used six indicators. A draft of the inaugural methodology was released on 3 June 2010; the draft stated that 13 indicators would first be used and that this could rise to 16 in future rankings, laid out the categories of indicators as "research indicators", "institutional indicators", "economic activity/innovation", "international diversity". The names of the categories and the weighting of each was modified in the final methodology, released on 16 September 2010; the final methodology included the weighting signed to each of the 13 indicators, shown below: The Times Higher Education billed the methodology as "robust and sophisticated," stating that the final methodology was selected after considering 10 months of "detailed consultation with leading experts in global higher education," 250 pages of feedback from "50 senior figures across every continent" and 300 postings on its website.
The overall ranking score was calculated by making Z-scores all datasets to standardize different data types on a common scale to better make comparisons among data. The reputational component of the rankings came from an Academic Reputation Survey conducted by Thomson Reuters in spring 2010; the survey gathered 13,388 responses among scholars "statistically representative of global higher education's geographical and subject mix." The magazine's category for "industry income – innovation" came from a sole indicator, institution's research income from industry scaled against the number of academic staff." The magazine stated that it used this data as "proxy for high-quality knowledge transfer" and planned to add more indicators for the category in future years. Data for citation impact, comprising 32
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function"; some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs". Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, regional and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the United States, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration".
The field is multidisciplinary in character. In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, the potentials of the citizen. One year Gordon Clapp Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration "as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more realized." This implies that it must "relate itself to concepts of justice and fuller economic opportunity for human beings" and is thus "concerned with "people, with ideas, with things". According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, "The Study of Administration" in 1887 is regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study". Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".
The key term "product" refers to "those items that are constructed or produced" such as prisons, laws and security. "As implementors, public managers engage these products." They participate in the making of the "living" democracy. A living democracy is "an environment, changing, organic", imperfect and teaming with values. "Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned "with accountability and effective use of scarce resources and making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic values". More scholars claim that "public administration has no accepted definition", because the "scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define". Public administration is a field of an occupation. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.
Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science". According to Lalor a society with a public authority that provides at least one public good can be said to have a public administration whereas the absence of either a public authority or the provision of at least one public good implies the absence of a public administration, he argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods. The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants; the North American Industry Classification System definition of the Public Administration sector states that public administration "... comprises establishments engaged in activities of a governmental nature, that is, the enactment and judicial interpretation of laws and their pursuant regulations, the administration of programs based on them".
This includes "Legislative activities, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States defines the study of public administration as "
Tampere University of Technology
Tampere University of Technology was Finland's second-largest university in engineering sciences. The university was located in a suburb of Tampere, it was merged with the University of Tampere to create the new Tampere University on 1 January 2019. The university's statutory duty was to give the highest education in its field; the research, conducted by some 1,800 staff and faculty members focused on applied science and has close ties to many different companies. Located next to the university campus is a Technology Centre Hermia, including a large Nokia research facility; the yearly budget of the university was some 147 million euros. TUT was one of the only two Finnish universities. Close to 50% of its budget was external funding. According to Times Higher Education, TUT ranks 11th in the world, 4th in Europe, for industry collaboration. From the late 19th century, Tampere had been the most important industrial center in Finland; the Technical Institute of Tampere had provided engineers for its industries since 1911, but all higher technological education in Finland took place in Helsinki University of Technology.
In the 1950s, the city of Tampere started remedying the situation, first founding a municipal scientific library in 1955. This library formed the core for the libraries of the TUT and the medical faculty of the University of Tampere In 1960, city succeeded in persuading the small private university Yhteiskunnallinen korkeakoulu to move to Tampere from Helsinki. A few years this university changed its name to University of Tampere; the founding of the Tampere University of Technology was one of the steps of the city and the local business life in bringing higher education to the region. The university was founded in 1965 as a branch of Helsinki University of Technology and became an independent university status in 1972; the Student Union of Tampere University of Technology was established alongside the university. In 2003, the university changed its Finnish name from TTKK to TTY so that the Finnish name would be closer to the English name and to distinguish itself from polytechnics that are not universities in the meaning of the Humboldtian university ideal or in the meaning of the Finnish law.
As a part of the Finnish university reform, Tampere University of Technology chose to become one of the two Finnish universities operating as foundations in the beginning of 2010. The university hopes that compared to the previous form of state agency, the foundation form gives it more operational freedom. A programme, called Tampere3, to merge the university with University of Tampere and Tampere University of Applied Sciences was started in the spring of 2014; the merger was approved by Parliament in December 2017 and will come into effect on 1 January 2019. The new foundation-based interdisciplinary higher education institution will be named Tampere University; the new university will comprise 35,000 students and 5,000 employees, being the second largest university in Finland. Tampere University of Technology comprises five faculties: Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering: Institute of Biosciences and Medical Technology, joint institute of TUT and UTA Faculty of Business and Built Environment: School of Architecture Department of Civil Engineering Department of Industrial and Information Management Language Centre Centre for Professional Development Edutech Faculty of Computing and Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Energy Engineering Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering Department of Pervasive Computing Department of Signal Processing Faculty of Engineering Sciences Department of Automation and Hydraulic Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Systems Department of Materials Science Faculty of Natural Sciences Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering Department of Mathematics Department Photonics Department of Physics Tampere University of Technology is a research university, which specializes in technology and architecture.
While all departments pursue scientific research and publish in international, peer-reviewed journals, the strongest areas of the university are signal processing, nanophotonics and intelligent mobile hydraulic systems. The university has one Finnish Center of the Signal Processing Laboratory. In addition, it participates in two other Finnish Centers of Excellence. Among other things, the university has been developing the world's first: biodegradable joint implant, yellow laser and walking harvester. In 2014, the researchers of TUT published 1586 papers in peer-reviewed international publications, meaning an average of a more than one article per researcher; the university has 133 full professors, 193 tenured lecturers, 754 researchers, of which 22% are international employees. Tampere University of Technology has been selected three times as one of the best universities under 50 years old by Times Higher Education and QS World University Rankings has ranked it twice among the best 50 young universities in the World.
An international independent team made an assessment of research quality in TUT in 2011. The Assessment Scale was: Outstanding International Level, Very Good International Level, Good International Level, Fair International Level, Poor International Level; when comparing the results between different faculties, the results are not comparable as the assessment was done by different group of people for different faculties. Intra-faculty comparisons however can be done based on the result