Supilinn is a neighbourhood of Tartu, Estonia. It is located just north on the right bank of Emajõgi River. Supilinn has a population of 1,863. With an area of 0.48 km2 it is the smallest neighbourhood of Tartu. Supilinn is famous for being a former slum consisting of 1–2 floored wooden apartment buildings. Tartu Song Festival Grounds A. Le Coq Official website
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve was a German-Russian astronomer and geodesist from the famous Struve family. He is best known for studying double stars and for initiating a triangulation survey named Struve Geodetic Arc in his honor, he was born at Duchy of Holstein, the son of Jacob Struve. Struve's father moved the family away from the French occupation to Dorpat in Imperial Russia to avoid military service, equipped with Danish passports. In 1808 he entered the Imperial University of Dorpat, where he first studied philology, but soon turned his attention to astronomy. From 1813 to 1820, he taught at the university and collected data at the Dorpat Observatory, in 1820 became a full professor and director of the observatory, his teachings have had a strong effect, still felt at the university. Struve was occupied with research on double stars and geodesy in Dorpat until 1839, when he founded and became director of the new Pulkovo Observatory near St Petersburg. Among other honors, he won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1826.
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in March 1827 and was awarded their Royal Medal the same year. Struve was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1833, a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1834. In 1843 he formally adopted Russian nationality, he retired in 1862 due to failing health. The asteroid 768 Struveana was named jointly in his honour and that of Otto Wilhelm and Karl Hermann Struve and a lunar crater was named for another 3 astronomers of the Struve family: Friedrich Georg Wilhelm, Otto Wilhelm and Otto. Struve's name is best known for his observations of double stars, which he carried on for many years. Although double stars had been studied earlier by William Herschel and John Herschel and Sir James South, Struve outdid any previous efforts, he discovered a large number of double stars and in 1827 published his double star catalogue Catalogus novus stellarum duplicium. Since most double stars are true binary stars rather than mere optical doubles, they orbit around one another's barycenter and change position over the years.
Thus Struve made micrometric measurements of 2714 double stars from 1824 to 1837 and published these in his work Stellarum duplicium et multiplicium mensurae micrometricae. Struve measured the "constant of aberration" in 1843, he was the first to measure the parallax of a star Vega, although Friedrich Bessel had been the first to measure the parallax of a star. In an 1847 work, Etudes d'Astronomie Stellaire: Sur la voie lactee et sur la distance des etoiles fixes, Struve was one of the first astronomers to identify the effects of interstellar extinction, his estimate of the average rate of visual extinction, 1 mag per kpc, is remarkably close to modern estimates. He was interested in geodetic surveying, in 1831 published Beschreibung der Breitengradmessung in den Ostseeprovinzen Russlands, he initiated the Struve Geodetic Arc, a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, to establish the exact size and shape of the earth.
UNESCO listed the chain on its List of World Heritage Sites in Europe in 2005. Struve was the second of a dynasty of astronomers through five generations, he was the father of Otto Wilhelm von Struve. He was the grandfather of Hermann Struve, Otto Struve's uncle. In 1815 he married Emilie Wall in Altona. In addition to Otto Wilhelm von Struve, other children were Heinrich Wilhelm von Struve, a prominent chemist, Bernhard Wilhelm von Struve, who served as a government official in Siberia and as governor of Astrakhan and Perm. After his first wife died, he remarried to Johanna Henriette Francisca Bartels, a daughter of the mathematician Martin Bartels, who bore him six more children; the most well-known was Karl de Struve, who served successively as Russian ambassador to Japan, the United States, the Netherlands. Bernhard's son Peter Berngardovich Struve is the best known member of the family in Russia, he was one of the first Russian marxists and penned the Manifesto of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party upon its creation in 1898.
Before the party split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, Struve left it for the Constitutional Democratic party, which promoted ideas of liberalism. He represented this party at all the pre-revolutionary State Dumas. After the Russian Revolution, he published several striking articles on its causes and joined the White movement. In the governments of Pyotr Wrangel and Denikin he was one of the ministers. During the following three decades, he lived in Paris, while his children were prominent in the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia. List of Russian astrophysicists Henry Batten. Resolute and undertaking characters: the lives of Wilhelm and Otto Struve. Springer. ISBN 90-277-2652-3. Media related to Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve in libraries Portraits of Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections Estonian souvenir sheet and first day cover dedicated to Struve and Struve Geodetic Arc
St. John's Church, Tartu
St. John's Church, Tartu is a Brick Gothic Lutheran church, one of the landmarks of the city of Tartu, Estonia, it is dedicated to John the Baptist. St John's was a Catholic church, as the oldest parts of the current building originate from the 14th century. Before that, there has been a church building on the same place at least since the first half of the 13th century. Archaeological investigations have indicated that there may well have been a wooden church here in the 12th century; this is remarkable because the national Christianisation did not take place until much later. The red brick building has seen extensive changes, as it was rebuilt after both the Great Northern War and World War II. Baroque chapels were added in 1746 and 1769; the church is now part of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church. The Great Fire of Tartu started near the church in 1775 and the church and nearby Uppsala House were spared the destruction which destroyed nearly two hundred houses; the most outstanding feature of St. John's is its wealth of terracotta figurines surrounding the church's exterior.
There were more than a thousand hand-made figurines, each different from the others. The large number of individual figurines has given birth to the hypotheses that they might have been modelled after citizens of Tartu. Since 1999, St John's Church has two new bells named Peetrus and Paulus after city's two patron saints. Architecture of Estonia List of Brick Gothic buildings Media related to St. John's Church, Tartu at Wikimedia Commons Church website
Estonian University of Life Sciences
The Estonian University of Life Sciences, located in Tartu, Estonia, is the former Estonian Agricultural University, established in 1951 and renamed and restructured in November 2005. Eesti Maaülikool is, by its own claim, the only university in Estonia whose priorities in academic and research activities provide the sustainable development of natural resources necessary for the existence of Man as well as the preservation of heritage and habitat; the EMÜ is a centre of research and development in such fields as agriculture, animal science, veterinary science, rural life and economy, food science and environmentally friendly technologies. The university is a member of the BOVA university network. In 2009, there were 4704 students at EMÜ. There were 983 employees, among them 228 159 researchers and senior researchers. University is ranked among top 100 universities in the world in the field of agriculture and forestry. Teaching and research is carried out in five institutes: Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering Institute of Technology Institute of Economics and Social Sciences.
The roots of EMÜ are in the agricultural and forestry education and research carried out at the University of Tartu. At the opening celebration of the University in 1632, Johan Skytte, the Swedish chancellor and practical founder of the University, said that wished that "even the peasants of this country could get their share of the watering springs of educational wealth." This statement is taken to be the beginning of agricultural education in Estonia. After the reopening of Tartu University in 1802, a Chair of Agriculture was founded under Prof. J. W. Krause. Agronomy was taught in the Faculty of Philosophy in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics; this school was well known in Russia. When Tartu opened as an Estonian university in 1919, a Faculty of Agriculture, consisting of the Departments of Agronomy and Forestry, was founded. Experimental stations and trial plots, where students could undertake research work belonged to the faculty. A Faculty of Veterinary Science was founded based on the older Tartu Veterinary Institute.
These two faculties formed the core of an independent university in 1951, the Estonian Agricultural Academy. The Estonian Agricultural Academy was directly subordinate to the Soviet Union Ministry of Agriculture and prepared specialists in different fields of agriculture from agronomists and animal breeders to experts in the electrification of large farms. Work continued in this way until the end of the 1980s. After the regaining of Estonian independence in 1991, the Academy was renamed Estonian Agricultural University, the institution restructured according to the radical changes in Estonian agriculture and forestry. New specialities like Environmental Protection, Landscape Architecture and Marketing of Agricultural Products, Landscape Protection and Preservation, Applied Hydrobiology, Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Management were adopted. Up to the end of 2004, the University had eight institutes. However, the EAU was always in a limbo, not least under the influence of Europeanization after Estonia joining the European Union in 2005.
Thus, in the same year the change to Estonian University of Life Sciences and refocusing was carried out, aimed at guaranteeing the institution's survival in the coming times. Maaülikool History of Eesti Maaülikool Official website Bova-University Network
The Andromeda Galaxy known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy 780 kiloparsecs from Earth, the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way. Its name stems from the area of the Earth's sky; the virial mass of the Andromeda Galaxy is of the same order of magnitude as that of the Milky Way, at a trillion solar masses. The mass of either galaxy is difficult to estimate with any accuracy, but it was long thought that the Andromeda Galaxy is more massive than the Milky Way by a margin of some 25% to 50%; this has been called into question by a 2018 study which cited a lower estimate on the mass of the Andromeda Galaxy, combined with preliminary reports on a 2019 study estimating a higher mass of the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy has a diameter of about 220,000 light-years, making it the largest member of the Local Group at least in terms of extension, if not mass; the number of stars contained in the Andromeda Galaxy is estimated at one trillion, or twice the number estimated for the Milky Way.
The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies are expected to collide in ~4.5 billion years, merging to form a giant elliptical galaxy or a large disc galaxy. With an apparent magnitude of 3.4, the Andromeda Galaxy is among the brightest of the Messier objects making it visible to the naked eye from Earth on moonless nights when viewed from areas with moderate light pollution. Around the year 964, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi described the Andromeda Galaxy, in his Book of Fixed Stars as a "nebulous smear". Star charts of that period labeled it as the Little Cloud. In 1612, the German astronomer Simon Marius gave an early description of the Andromeda Galaxy based on telescopic observations; the German philosopher Immanuel Kant in 1755 in his work Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens conjectured that the blurry spot was an island universe. In 1764, Charles Messier cataloged Andromeda as object M31 and incorrectly credited Marius as the discoverer despite it being visible to the naked eye.
In 1785, the astronomer William Herschel noted a faint reddish hue in the core region of Andromeda. He believed Andromeda to be the nearest of all the "great nebulae", based on the color and magnitude of the nebula, he incorrectly guessed that it is no more than 2,000 times the distance of Sirius. In 1850, William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse and made the first drawing of Andromeda's spiral structure. In 1864, William Huggins noted; the spectra of Andromeda displays a continuum of frequencies, superimposed with dark absorption lines that help identify the chemical composition of an object. Andromeda's spectrum is similar to the spectra of individual stars, from this, it was deduced that Andromeda has a stellar nature. In 1885, a supernova was seen in the first and so far only one observed in that galaxy. At the time Andromeda was considered to be a nearby object, so the cause was thought to be a much less luminous and unrelated event called a nova, was named accordingly. In 1887, Isaac Roberts took the first photographs of Andromeda, still thought to be a nebula within our galaxy.
Roberts mistook Andromeda and similar spiral nebulae as solar systems being formed. In 1912, Vesto Slipher used spectroscopy to measure the radial velocity of Andromeda with respect to our Solar System—the largest velocity yet measured, at 300 kilometres per second. In 1917, Heber Curtis observed a nova within Andromeda. Searching the photographic record, 11 more novae were discovered. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred elsewhere in the sky; as a result, he was able to come up with a distance estimate of 500,000 light-years. He became a proponent of the so-called "island universes" hypothesis, which held that spiral nebulae were independent galaxies. In 1920, the Great Debate between Harlow Shapley and Curtis took place concerning the nature of the Milky Way, spiral nebulae, the dimensions of the Universe. To support his claim of the Great Andromeda Nebula being, in fact, an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes within Andromeda which resembled the dust clouds in our own galaxy, as well as historical observations of Andromeda Galaxy's significant Doppler shift.
In 1922 Ernst Öpik presented a method to estimate the distance of Andromeda using the measured velocities of its stars. His result placed the Andromeda Nebula far outside our galaxy at a distance of about 450,000 parsecs. Edwin Hubble settled the debate in 1925 when he identified extragalactic Cepheid variable stars for the first time on astronomical photos of Andromeda; these were made using the 2.5-metre Hooker telescope, they enabled the distance of Great Andromeda Nebula to be determined. His measurement demonstrated conclusively that this feature was not a cluster of stars and gas within our own galaxy, but an separate galaxy located a significant distance from the Milky Way. In 1943, Walter Baade was the first person to resolve stars in the central region of the Andromeda Galaxy. Baade identified two distinct populations of stars based on their metallicity, naming the young, high-velocity stars in the disk Type I and the older, red stars in the bulge Type II; this nomenclature was subsequently adopted for stars within the Milky Way, elsewhere.
Baade discovered that there were two types of Cepheid variables, which resulted in a doubling of the distance estimate to Andromeda, as well as the remainder o
Johann Heinrich von Mädler
Johann Heinrich von Mädler was a German astronomer. His father was a master tailor and when 12 he studied at the Friedrich‐Werdersche Gymnasium in Berlin, he was orphaned at age 19 by an outbreak of typhus, found himself responsible for raising three younger sisters. He began giving academic lessons as a private tutor and in this way met Wilhelm Beer, a wealthy banker, in 1824. In 1829 Beer decided to set up a private observatory in Berlin, with a 95 mm refractor telescope made by Joseph von Fraunhofer, Mädler worked there. In 1830 they began producing drawings of Mars which became the first true maps of that planet, they were the first to choose what is today known as Sinus Meridiani as the prime meridian for Martian maps. They made a preliminary determination for Mars' rotation period, off by 13 seconds. A determination in 1837 was off by only 1.1 seconds. They produced the first exact map of the Moon, Mappa Selenographica, published in four volumes in 1834–1836. In 1837 a description of the Moon was published.
Both were the best descriptions of the Moon for many decades, not superseded until the map of Johann Friedrich Julius Schmidt in the 1870s. Beer and Mädler drew the firm conclusion that the features on the Moon do not change, there is no atmosphere or water. In 1836, Johann Franz Encke appointed Mädler an observer at the Berlin Observatory, he observed with its 240-mm refractor. In 1840, Mädler was appointed director of the Dorpat Observatory in Estonia, succeeding Friedrich Wilhelm Struve who had moved to Pulkovo Observatory, he carried out meteorological as well as astronomical observations. He continued Struve's observations of double stars, he remained in Tartu until he retired in 1865, returned to Germany. By examining the proper motions of stars, he came up with his "Central Sun Hypothesis", according to which the center of the galaxy was located in the Pleiades star cluster and that the Sun revolves around it, he got the location wrong. He published many scientific works, among them a two-volume History of Descriptive Astronomy in 1873.
In 1864, he proposed a calendar reform for Russia: After dropping 12 days to align with Gregorian calendar dates before the year 1900, the leap year in 1900 along with every 128th year afterwards under the Julian rules would be cancelled. This would give a mean year of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45 seconds, close to the mean tropical year. Neither the Tsar nor Orthodox clergy accepted this unsolicited proposal, though a modified version of it was made by Sergey Glazenap in 1900, Russia would adopt the Gregorian calendar in 1918. Notwithstanding several singular scientific errors, von Mädler, without doubt, is one of the great and eminent astronomers of the 19th century; the craters Mädler on the Moon and Mädler on Mars are both named in his honor. Heino Eelsalu, Dieter B. Herrmann: Johann Heinrich Mädler - Eine dokumentarische Biographie. Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985 ISSN 0138-4600 Frank J. Tipler, "Olbers's Paradox, the Beginning of Creation, Johann Mädler," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 19, Pt. 1, pp. 45–48.
F. J. Tipler, "Johann Mädler's Resolution of Olbers' Paradox," Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 313–325. Frank J. Tipler, "More on Olbers's Paradox," a review of Edward Harrison, Darkness at Night: A Riddle of the Universe, Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 19, Pt. 4, pp. 284–286. Http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/onlinebks/mars/chap04.htm http://www.obs.ee/obs/maedler/maedler.html "Mädler, Johann Heinrich". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Mädler, Johann Heinrich". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. MNRAS 35 171
Emajõgi is a river in Estonia which flows from Lake Võrtsjärv through Tartu County into Lake Peipus, crossing the city of Tartu for 10 km. It has a length of 100 km; the Emajõgi is sometimes called the Suur Emajõgi, in contrast with the Väike Emajõgi, another river which flows into the southern end of Lake Võrtsjärv. Emajõgi is the second largest river in Estonia by discharge and the only navigable river; the source of Emajõgi is at the northeastern shore of Võrtsjärv at Rannu-Jõesuu, from where the river follows a eastward course towards Lake Peipsi. The course of Emajõgi is divided into 3 distinct sections. In the upper course, from Võrtsjärv to Kärevere bridge, the river flows through large and marshy areas, which are part of Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve. In this meandering section, Emajõgi lacks a defined floodplain – the flooded area spans several kilometres at times and has no definite borders. In the middle course from Kärevere to Kavastu through Tartu, Emajõgi follows a straighter course and flows in a defined, shallow valley a maximum of 10 m deep.
The width of the valley in the middle course is 1–1.5 km. The narrowest section of the valley is located in the end of the middle course near Kavastu. In the lower course, the river flows through a swampy lowland – Emajõe Suursoo – before emptying into Lake Peipsi at Praaga; the length of the river is 100 kilometres. In 1927, its length was measured to be 117 kilometres; this may have changed somewhat in the 1930s, when the river's meandering upper course was straightened to allow for easier navigation. The Emajõgi has been used as a waterway and trade route for centuries. In the past, it has been an obstacle for land transport between Northern and Southern Estonia, because the river flows in a low-lying and swampy valley. Of the few suitable locations for crossing the river, Tartu has the most favourable conditions. Due to its location on the crossing of land and water routes, Tartu became an important trading center in Ancient Estonia. In the 19th century, Emajõgi was used for transporting different cargo to Tartu – firewood, hay, so on.
The main type of vessel used was the lodi, a small river barge or sailing ship adjusted for navigation on Lake Peipsi and Emajõgi. Up to 200 barges were anchored in Tartu port at the time; the first steam paddler appeared on Emajõgi in 1843. The last river barges disappeared by the mid-20th century. Several new ships were brought to the river in the Soviet era to continue navigation to Pskov, among other destinations. Fast hydrofoils, which were first introduced in 1960s, operated daily on the Tartu-Pskov route. Traffic on the route ended in 1992. Though attempts have been made to restart it since 1997, it remains closed. Emajõgi is crossed by the majority of them located in Tartu; the bridges are, in downstream order: Rannu-Jõesuu bridge at the source of Emajõgi on Tartu–Viljandi highway Includes an old bridge reserved for pedestrians and local traffic and a new highway bridge completed in 2009. Kärevere bridge on Tartu–Tallinn highway Includes a closed old bridge and a new highway bridge completed in 1999.
Jänese railway bridge on Tallinn–Tapa–Tartu railway 7 km northwest of Tartu in Vorbuse Kroonuaia bridge in Tartu Vabadussild in Tartu Vabadussild replaced the Raudsild in 2008. Kaarsild – pedestrian bridge in Tartu Võidu bridge in Tartu Turusild – pedestrian bridge in Tartu Sõpruse bridge in Tartu Ihaste bridge on the Tartu ring road, opened in 2015 Luunja bridge on Tartu–Räpina highway in LuunjaIn addition to the bridges, the only operating cable ferry in Estonia crosses the river at Kavastu, about 10 kilometres downstream of Luunja bridge