Twente is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands. It encompasses the most easternmost part of the province of Overijssel. Twente is most named after the Tuihanti or Tvihanti, a Germanic tribe that settled in the area and was mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus; the region's borders are defined by the Overijssel region of Salland in the northwest and west, the German County of Bentheim in the northeast and east and the Gelderland region of the Achterhoek in the south. Twente has 620,000 inhabitants, most of whom live in its three largest cities: Almelo and Enschede, the latter being the main city of the region, it comprises fourteen municipalities: Almelo, Dinkelland, Haaksbergen, Hengelo, Hof van Twente, Oldenzaal, Rijssen-Holten, Tubbergen and Wierden. The whole of Hellendoorn and the western parts of both Rijssen-Holten and Twenterand belong to the cultural region of Salland, but to the city region of Twente. Various sources provide several explanations of the name Twente.
In his work Germania, the Roman historicus Tacitus mentions a tribe called Tvihanti, who lived near or in present-day Twente. This same name was found on two altar stones found in the ruins of Vercovicium, a Roman guard post on Hadrian's Wall near present-day Housesteads in Northern England; the Tvihanti served in a Roman-Frisian cavalry unit, stationed there. Another explanation of the origins of the name, is that Twente was part of the Oversticht, a Medieval administrative construction which included the adjacent shires of Twente and Drenthe; as the name Drenthe is said to stem from *thrija-hantja meaning "three lands", Twente is said to stem from *twai-hantja or "two lands". Although Twente is the most urbanized part of the province of Overijssel, it is renowned for its scenic countryside; this is sometimes characterized as a bocage landscape, attracting many tourists from other parts of the country, with popular sights such as the Lutterzand on the meandering Dinkel, or the wide heather fields on the Frezenbaarg near Markelo.
Twente is bisected from north to south by a range of hills in western Twente, hills in the east, with the Tankenberg near Oldenzaal being the highest point. The towns of Ootmarsum, Oldenzaal to a lesser extent, are known for their scenic historical buildings, the latter of which has a noteworthy Romanesque church called Oale Grieze, the oldest Romanesque church in the Netherlands. Eight Twents towns have obtained city rights: Almelo, Diepenheim, Goor, Oldenzaal and Rijssen. Since Twente's economy is to a great extent reliant on agriculture, this leaves its marks on the landscape, with lots of meadows and pastures, alternating with undergrowth and copse. There are several fens and peat bogs, which long made Twente less accessible for the rest of the Netherlands, which formed some natural defence, it made the inhabitants of Twente incline towards the east in trade and fashion, rather than to the more western parts of the Netherlands. Geologically, Twente is one of the most interesting areas of the Netherlands.
It has strata from various eras concentrated in a small area. There is an open stone quarry at Losser, while there are several salt mines at Boekelo; the western Twente town of Nijverdal is the only place in the Netherlands where gold was found. Twente is reliant on agriculture, next to services, to a lesser degree on tourism; the improved national image of Twente has stimulated an increase in sales of regional products. One of the largest Dutch beer breweries, the Grolsch Brewery, is in Twente. Twente has many construction companies, most notably in the town of Rijssen, which houses over twenty companies in construction and related services, such as electricity and insulation; some north-western Twents villages, such as Westerhaar-Vriezenveensewijk, are known for their many inhabitants employed in road engineering. A number of construction companies have set up or invested in offices overseas, such as in the US and Asia. Next to aforementioned occupations, many Twents people are engaged in the transport sector.
The second half of the twentieth century saw an explosive increase in the number of freight transportation companies. The flag of Twente is a bright red cloth with a white rampant horse, believed to be derived from the Saxon Steed, the rampant horse in the coats of arms of Westphalia and Lower Saxony introduced in the coat of arms of the English county of Kent. In the more rural parts of Twente, a notion called noaberskop, which may be translated as neighbourship, is deemed of great importance. In short, noaberskop involves neighbours looking after each other or giving good counsel whenever a neighbour asks for advice. For instance, it may include collecting each other's mail and watering plants and flowers while the other family is on holiday and looking after each other's pets. Noaberskop is regarded a matter of obligations. A neighbour may for instance call on another neighbour for help if something needs to be repaired or otherwise taken care of, but it is indecent to refuse if the other neighbour asks for a favour in return.
Neighbours are expected to help each other preparing wedding celebrations, birthday parties, etc. Though modern social security service has reduced the need for strong noaberskop bonds, some communitie
Dirk-Willem van Gulik
Dirk-Willem van Gulik is a founder of the Apache Software Foundation and contributor to the Apache Webserver project. Van Gulik is the former CTO of Joost, where he was terminated, current Chief Technical Architect of British Broadcasting Corporation's Future Media and Technology, he has worked for the United Nations and European Commission. Van Gulik is based in the Netherlands
Wageningen University and Research
Wageningen University & Research is a Dutch public university in Wageningen, Netherlands. It consists of Wageningen University and the former agricultural research institutes of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture. Wageningen University & Research trains specialists in life and social sciences and focuses its research on scientific and commercial problems in the field of life sciences and natural resources. In the field of life sciences and environmental science, the university is considered world-class. According to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings it is the best university in the Netherlands and No. 1 worldwide, in agriculture and forestry for 2017 on the QS World University Rankings charts. The university has about 12,000 students from over 100 countries, it is a member of the Euroleague for Life Sciences university network. In 1876 the Rijkslandbouwschool was established in Wageningen. Due to the development of the training to a higher educational level it changed in 1896 to the Hoogere Land- en Boschbouwschool and in 1904 in Rijks Hoogere Land-, Tuin- en Boschbouwschool.
In 1918 the school became academic by law. The name changed to Rijks Landbouw Hoogeschool; the openings date and official Dies natalis is 9 March 1918. In 1986 the "hogescholen" were renamed to University in a modification of the Academic Education Act; the new name became Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen. The 1986 law changes resulted in the use of the name hogeschool in the Dutch system to be used for universities of applied science. Over the years the research and teaching branched out into life sciences in general. In 1997, when the DLO institutes merged with the university, the new holding was rebranded as Wageningen UR. Under the Dutch laws the University and the institutes had to remain separate legal entities. In 2006, the university of applied sciences Van Hall Larenstein became part of Wageningen UR; the idea was to create better collaboration between applied teaching and research at Van Hall and the academic research at Wageningen University. This would support students to continue with an academic program upon completing their applied degree.
However, due to differences in organizational culture and incompatibility of procedures for the different types of higher education, collaboration between the two schools remained problematic. In 2012 it was decided that Van Hall Larenstein would leave Wageningen UR and continue as an independent school once more. In the spring of 2015 the separation was marked by the move of the final Wageningen-based Van Hall Larenstein studies back to Velp. In 2009 it was decided that the University would use the English name in its communication. In addition university research could be presented under the name of the university: Wageningen University. On 6 September 2016 Wageningen University and the research institutes decided to continue as one, jointly brand: Wageningen University & Research. On 9 March 2018 Wageningen University & Research celebrates her 100 years anniversary. During this year there are many events and festivities around the campus and in the city of Wageningen. Wageningen University & Research was the first Dutch university or school, allowed to use the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System label.
This label guarantees the quality of the study programme. An important consideration is that the university applies the European Credit Transfer System; the label is an acknowledgement of the international character of the university. Out of 56 European applications in 2005, only three ECTS labels were awarded. Wageningen University & Research offers 19 BSc programmes; the language of instruction is Dutch English. For some BSc programmes the language of instruction is English; the programmes start each year in September, they consist of 180 ECTS credits. The programmes are in the field of economy and society, life sciences and technology and environment, animals and plants. List of BSc programmes offered in English during the 2018-2019 academic year: Animal Sciences Environmental Sciences Food Technology International Land and Water Management Soil, Atmosphere TourismList of BSc programmes offered in Dutch during the 2018-2019 academic year: Agrotechnologie Bedrijfs- en Consumentenwetenschappen Biologie Biotechnologie Bos- en Natuurbeheer Communicatie en Life Sciences Economie en Beleid Gezondheid en Maatschappij Internationale Ontwikkelingsstudies Landschapsarchitectuur en Ruimtelijke Planning Moleculaire Levenswetenschappen Plantenwetenschappen Voeding en Gezondheid Wageningen University & Research offers a 36 different MSc programmes and two online masters programs.
The language of instruction is English. The programmes start each year in September, they consist of 120 ECTS credits. Most programmes offer various possibilities for majors. List of MSc programmes offered during the 2017-2018 academic year: Agroecology Animal Sciences Aquaculture and Marine Resource Management
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
Anna Theodora Bernardina "Ank" Bijleveld-Schouten is a Dutch politician serving as Minister of Defence in the Third Rutte cabinet since 26 October 2017. She is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal. A civil servant by occupation, she served as a member of the House of Representatives from 16 November 1989 until 16 January 2001, when she was appointed Mayor of Hof van Twente, serving from 1 January 2001 until 22 February 2007, she resigned after she was appointed as State Secretary for the Interior and Kingdom Relations in the Fourth Balkenende cabinet, serving from 22 February 2007 until 14 October 2010. After the election of 2010, Bijleveld returned to the House of Representatives serving from 17 June 2010 until 1 January 2011 when she resigned after she was appointed as King's Commissioner of Overijssel. Following the election of 2017 Bijleveld was asked to become Minister of Defence in the Third Rutte cabinet. Bijleveld accepted and resigned as King's Commissioner of Overijssel the same day she took office as the new Minister of Defence on 26 October 2017.
Bijleveld was born in the Dutch province of Overijssel. Between 1980 and 1986, she studied public administration at the University of Twente. In 1986 she became a member of the Enschede municipal council for the Christian Democratic Appeal, she served as a Member of the House of Representatives from 16 November 1989 until 16 January 2001. She was Mayor of Hof van Twente from 1 January 2001 until 22 February 2007, when she resigned to become the State secretary for the Interior and Kingdom Relations in the Fourth Balkenende cabinet until 14 October 2010. On 17 June 2010 she again became a member of the House of Representatives, she was an MP till 1 January 2011. She left that position in 2017. Bijleveld has two daughters, she is a Roman Catholic. Order of Orange-Nassau Knight Official Drs. A. Th. B. Bijleveld-Schouten Parlement & Politiek
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr. abbrv. or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. An abbreviation is a shortening by any method. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not a contraction. Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations, they are abbreviations that consist of the initial parts of words. Abbreviations have a long history, created; this might be done to save time and space, to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were used to represent words in specific applications.
In classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common. In Roman inscriptions, "Words were abbreviated by using the initial letter or letters of words, most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation." However, "some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context."Abbreviations in English were used from its earliest days. Manuscripts of copies of the old English poem Beowulf used many abbreviations, for example 7 or & for and, y for since, so that "not much space is wasted"; the standardisation of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods. For example, sequences like ‹er› were replaced with ‹ɔ›, as in ‹mastɔ› for master and ‹exacɔbate› for exacerbate. While this may seem trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce the copy time. An example from the Oxford University Register, 1503: Mastɔ subwardenɔ y ɔmēde me to you.
And wherɔ y wrot to you the last wyke that y trouyde itt good to differrɔ thelectionɔ ovɔ to quīdenaɔ tinitatis y have be thougħt me synɔ that itt woll be thenɔ a bowte mydsomɔ. The Early Modern English period, between the 15th and 17th centuries, had abbreviations like ye for Þe, used for the word the: "hence, by misunderstanding, Ye Olde Tea Shoppe."During the growth of philological linguistic theory in academic Britain, abbreviating became fashionable. The use of abbreviation for the names of J. R. R. Tolkien and his friend C. S. Lewis, other members of the Oxford literary group known as the Inklings, are sometimes cited as symptomatic of this. A century earlier in Boston, a fad of abbreviation started that swept the United States, with the globally popular term OK credited as a remnant of its influence. After World War II, the British reduced the use of the full stop and other punctuation points after abbreviations in at least semi-formal writing, while the Americans more kept such use until more and still maintain it more than Britons.
The classic example, considered by their American counterparts quite curious, was the maintenance of the internal comma in a British organisation of secret agents called the "Special Operations, Executive"—"S. O. E"—which is not found in histories written after about 1960, but before that, many Britons were more scrupulous at maintaining the French form. In French, the period only follows an abbreviation if the last letter in the abbreviation is not the last letter of its antecedent: "M." is the abbreviation for "monsieur" while "Mme" is that for "madame". Like many other cross-channel linguistic acquisitions, many Britons took this up and followed this rule themselves, while the Americans took a simpler rule and applied it rigorously. Over the years, the lack of convention in some style guides has made it difficult to determine which two-word abbreviations should be abbreviated with periods and which should not; the U. S. media tend to use periods in two-word abbreviations like United States, but not personal computer or television.
Many British publications have done away with the use of periods in abbreviations. Minimization of punctuation in typewritten material became economically desirable in the 1960s and 1970s for the many users of carbon-film ribbons since a period or comma consumed the same length of non-reusable expensive ribbon as did a capital letter. Widespread use of electronic communication through mobile phones and the Internet during the 1990s allowed for a marked rise in colloquial abbreviation; this was due to increasing popularity of textual communication services such as instant- and text messaging. SMS, for instance, supports message lengths of 160 characters at most; this brevity gave rise to an informal abbreviation scheme sometimes called Textese, with which 10% or more of the words in a typical SMS message are abbreviated. More Twitter, a popular social networking service, began driving abbreviation use with 140 character message limits. In modern English, there are several conventions for abbreviations, the choice may be confusing.
The only rule universally accepted is th