The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a startup venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The university has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named, was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history department. Meany and his colleague
Decoloniality or decolonialism is a term used principally by an emerging Latin American movement which focuses on understanding modernity in the context of a form of critical theory applied to ethnic studies and gender and area studies as well. It has been described as consisting of analytic and practical “options confronting and delinking from the colonial matrix of power” or from a "matrix of modernity" in which coloniality and colonialism constitute the "generative order" of a four-fold matrix of forces comprising colonialism/imperialism, capitalism and modernity as a set of processes and discourses, it has been referred to as a kind of "thinking in radical exteriority". As such it can be contrasted with coloniality, “the underlying logic of the foundation and unfolding of Western civilization from the Renaissance to today,” a logic, the basis of historical colonialisms, although this foundational interconnectedness is downplayed; this logic is referred to as the colonial matrix of power or coloniality of power.
Some have built upon decolonial theorie by proposing Critical Indigenous Methodologies for research. Although formal and explicit colonization ended with the Decolonization of the Americas during the nineteenth century and the decolonization of much of the global south in the late twentieth century, its successors, Western imperialism and globalization perpetuate those inequalities; the colonial matrix of power produced social discrimination codified as “racial”, “ethnic”, “anthropological” or “national” according to specific historic and geographic contexts. Decoloniality emerged at the moment when the colonial matrix of power was put into place during the sixteenth century, it is, in effect, a continuing confrontation of, delinking from, Eurocentrism: the idea that the history of human civilization has been a trajectory that departed from nature and culminated in Europe that differences between Europe and non-Europe are due to biological differences between races, not to histories of power.
Decoloniality is synonymous with decolonial “thinking and doing,” and it questions or problematizes the histories of power emerging from Europe. These histories underlie the logic of Western civilization. Decoloniality is a response to the relation of direct, political and cultural domination established by Europeans; this means that decoloniality refers to analytic approaches and socioeconomic and political practices opposed to pillars of Western civilization: coloniality and modernity. This makes decoloniality both a epistemic project. Decoloniality has been called a form of “epistemic disobedience”, “epistemic de-linking”, “epistemic reconstruction”. In this sense, decolonial thinking is the recognition and implementation of a border gnosis or subaltern reason, a means of eliminating the provincial tendency to pretend that Western European modes of thinking are in fact universal ones. In its less theoretical, more practical applications—such as movements for Indigenous autonomy, like Zapatista self-government—decoloniality is called a “programmatic” of de-linking from contemporary legacies of coloniality, a response to needs unmet by the modern Rightist or Leftist governments, or, most broadly, social movements in search of a “new humanity” or the search for “social liberation from all power organized as inequality, discrimination and domination”.
Decoloniality is mixed up with postcolonialism and postmodernism. However, Decolonial theorists have made the distinctions clear. Postcolonialism is mainstreamed into general oppositional practices by “people of color,” “Third World intellectuals,” or “ethnic groups”. Decoloniality—as both an analytic and a programmatic—is said to move “away and beyond the post-colonial” because “post-colonialism criticism and theory is a project of scholarly transformation within the academy”; this final point is debatable, as some postcolonial scholars consider postcolonial criticism and theory to be both an analytic project and a programmatic stance. This disagreement is a single example of the ambiguity—“sometimes dangerous, sometimes confusing, limited and unconsciously employed”—of the term “postcolonialism,”, applied to analysis of colonial expansion and decolonization, applied to Algeria, to the nineteenth-century United States, nineteenth-century Brazil. However, decoloniality does precede post-colonialism historically.
Decoloniality arose at the same time as colonialism of the Americas: during the sixteenth century. Decolonial scholars consider the colonization of the Americas a precondition for postcolonial analysis; the seminal text of postcolonial studies, Orientalism by Edward Said, describes the nineteenth-century European invention of the Orient as a geographic region considered racially and culturally distinct from, inferior to, Europe. However, without the European invention of the Americas in the sixteenth century—occasionally referred to as Occidentalism—the invention of the Orient would have been impossible; this means that postcolonialism becomes problematic when applied to post-nineteenth-century Latin America. Decolonization is political and historical: the end of the period o
Kathy Barr was an American vocalist who performed and recorded popular music, musical theater, operettas. Barr flourished during the 1950s in nightclubs and radio, she was acclaimed for her soprano range and ability to sing pop and classical. Barr was born Marilyn Sultana Aboulafia to parents of Turkish and Spanish ancestry — her father had immigrated from Turkey; when she married Irwin M. Glickman, she ended the commercial aspect of her musical career and devoted herself to her family, she and Irwin had a daughter, Sylvia B. Glickman. In 1958, she changed her name to Kathy Barr. Barr, from about April 1954 to 1956, had been married to Chicago nightclub owner and operator Milton L. Schwartz; that marriage ended by annulment. Popular Follow Me, RCA Victor The Desert Song, RCA Victor Giorgio Tozzi & Barr, vocals Lehman Engel, conductor Marinka, as Marinka Winter Garden Theatre, New York Australia touring production Tivoli circuit, Melbourne: Opened May 28, 1948, at the Tivoli Theater, Melbourne At the age of 19, Barr was elevated to the role of Marinka after being the understudy for Kathryn GraysonWizard of Oz, as Dorothy Gale Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, August 1 thru August 6, 1949 "The Desert Song" on YouTube, from the operetta by the same name, composed by Sigmund RombergGiorgio Tozzi & Barr, vocals RCA Victor Andrew Godfrey, Blog: "Nostalgia and Now: Meet 50′s Cheesecake Singer: Kathy Barr", May 13, 2011