The Wisconsin Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The Legislature is a bicameral body composed of the upper house Wisconsin State Senate and the lower Wisconsin State Assembly, both of which have had Republican majorities since January 2011. With both houses combined, the legislature has 132 members representing an equal number of constituent districts; the Legislature convenes at the state capitol in Madison. The land that would become Wisconsin became part of the United States in 1783 and was first organized under the Northwest Ordinance, it became the Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and the state of Wisconsin on May 29, 1848. The 1850s saw an influx of European immigrants. Women's rights groups in support of temperance and suffrage formed in Wisconsin in the 1860s; the Wisconsin Women's Suffrage Association was formed in 1869. Suffrage bills were introduced in 1855 and 1867 but both failed. However, the state legislature did pass a law allowing women to run for school boards and elective school offices in 1869.
It was not until June 10, 1919, that Wisconsin became the first state to ratify the 19th amendment granting national suffrage to women. Wisconsin was dominated alternately by the Republican and Progressive parties in the first century of its existence, but has been more competitive since then; the Republicans gained majority control in both houses in the 1995 Legislature, the first time since 1969. In 2009, the Democratic Party gained control of both houses for the first time since 1993; the Republican Party took back control of both houses in 2011. Governor Scott Walker signed a new redistricting plan. In 2012 elections, Democrats won a majority of the vote but Republicans retained control of the legislature, taking 60 of the 99 seats in the Assembly. In Wisconsin elections, 2016, Republicans secured their largest majority in the Assembly since 1956. On November 21, 2016, U. S. Circuit Judge Kenneth Francis Ripple, joined by District Judge Barbara Brandriff Crabb, held that the Republicans' 2011 redistricting was unconstitutional partisan gerrymandering, over a dissent by District Judge William C.
Griesbach. The court found that the 2011 redistricting plan created three times as many wasted votes as the national average, violating the United States Constitution’s guarantee of one man, one vote. To serve in the Wisconsin Legislature, individuals must be a resident of the state for at least one year preceding his or her election and be a qualified elector in the district he or she is elected to represent. All 99 members of the Wisconsin Assembly are elected in a two year term cycle without term limits. All 33 members of the Wisconsin Senate are elected in a four year cycle without term limits. Half of the Senate is elected every two years. Prior to an amendment in the Wisconsin Constitution in 1881, Assembly members served a one year term, while Senators were elected every two years; the 100th Wisconsin Legislature began on January 3, 2011. Members of both houses of the Legislature vote within their ranks to select presiding officers, such as the Speaker of the Assembly and the President of the Senate.
These high level positions reflect the party majority in both chambers. An amendment to the state constitution in 1979 removed the Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin as the presiding officer of the Senate, allowing Senators to vote within their ranks for a chamber president. Majority and minority leaders are selected by party strength in the legislative houses and within their own respective caucus. Legislators receive an annual salary of $49,943 and a per diem of up to $88 to cover living expenses when they are in Dane County, Wisconsin on state business, unless their district is in Dane County. Members of the Madison delegation may receive a per diem up to $44 to cover expenses. Legislators receive $75 per month in "out-of-session" pay when the Legislature is in session for three days or less. Over two years, each legislator is allotted $66,008 to cover general office expenses, printing and district mailings. In both chambers of the Wisconsin Legislature, a quorum is defined as a majority of current members.
The majority of a quorum is needed to pass legislation on the floor of the chamber. Three-fifths of the members elected is the quorum necessary for passage or concurrence in either house of any fiscal bill. Proposals may not be introduced or offered unless they are put in proper form by the legislative reference staff if requested by members or members-elect of the legislature. American Legislative Exchange Council members Official website
Lee S. Dreyfus
Lee Sherman Dreyfus was an American educator and politician. A member of the Republican Party, he served as the 40th Governor of Wisconsin from January 4, 1979 to January 3, 1983. Prior to his election, he was the Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. Dreyfus was raised in Milwaukee, the son of Clare and Woods Orlow Dreyfus, he attended Washington High School. His parents were active in the community and his father was an on-air personality for WISN radio. Dreyfus' mother was a longtime member of the Milwaukee School Board, serving for 25 years. Dreyfus enlisted in the United States Navy after high school, where he learned to be an electronics technician and worked on radar repair, he stayed there until the war was over. After the war, he enrolled at -- Madison under the GI Bill. During this time, he met Joyce Unke, whom he married in 1947; that same year, he became a member of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. Dreyfus earned a bachelor's degree in 1949, a master's degree in 1952 and a doctorate in communication in 1957.
Dreyfus went on to Wayne State University in Detroit, where he became general manager of the radio station and helped develop Wayne State's mass communications department. In 1962, he returned to Madison as manager of WHA-TV, a professor of speech and broadcasting. In 1967, Dreyfus became the president of. In 1972, he became chancellor of the university, merged into the University of Wisconsin system and renamed University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. Dreyfus made a point of being accessible to students stopping at local bars to chat with them, it was during that era that he adopted the trademark red vest as university chancellor in order to be recognizable and accessible to students on campus. He was not always popular with students during the Vietnam War. Many students viewed the existence of an ROTC unit on campus as an endorsement of the U. S. military action. But Dreyfus argued that ROTC should be viewed as the presence of the university in the military instead of the presence of the military in the university.
A life-changing event for Dreyfus came in 1975 when he travelled to China as a representative of American colleges and universities, became convinced of the danger of a one-party system. "That trip convinced me that the one-party system, whether it's a Marxist or a capitalist system or a military system... is not in the best interests of the people," he once said. Since Dreyfus was not a member of either major party until December 1977, he joined the Republican Party as a first step in what would become his candidacy for the governorship in 1978, he regarded this as a rescue mission, because he felt the Republicans were on the verge of becoming a permanent minority party in what had once been a predominantly Republican state. The following year, he launched an unconventional, populist campaign for governor, traveled the state in a painted school bus. Dreyfus caught the attention of the Wisconsin media and began connecting with voters throughout the state; the state GOP didn't want Dreyfus to win the nomination, it endorsed then-U.
S. Rep. Bob Kasten in the primary. Party backing came with financial support that sealed the nomination, but Dreyfus was undeterred. An effective public speaker during the campaign, Dreyfus's most memorable quip was that states should be sovereign in most areas of law-making and that the federal government's role should be limited to only three things: "defending our shores, delivering our mail and staying the hell out of our lives." Another memorable line was: "Madison, Wisconsin is 30 square miles surrounded by reality."With only $100,000 to spend in the primary contest, Dreyfus criss-crossed the state in his unreliable red school bus, which featured a student band, gaining free media attention to make up for the TV ads he couldn't afford to buy. Dreyfus continued to wear his trademark red vest during the campaign; this campaign was chronicled in a book Let The People Decide written by William Kraus, the chairman of this campaign where, as he said, "We did everything wrong, everything worked."
Dreyfus beat Kasten in the September GOP primary, went on to defeat then-incumbent Acting Governor Martin Schreiber, a Democrat, with about 55 percent of the vote. He became the state's 40th governor. Dreyfus' style was referred to as "Republicrat". Fiscally, Dreyfus was conservative and focused on the benefits of tax cuts and reduced size of government, he capitalized on voters' dissatisfaction with the state's higher-than-average income tax rates, as well as general unhappiness with high inflation, high interest rates, increasing unemployment during the Carter administration. However, Dreyfus was a social moderate who, in 1982, signed the nation's first civil rights legislation barring discrimination against gays and lesbians in jobs and housing. Dreyfus signed the gay-rights bill, saying "there are some questions the government has no business asking."Dreyfus was renowned as a skilled orator. In televised debates prior to the election, he overcame the problem of name recognition with the electorate, as well as doubts about his experience and competency for the position.
His focus on tax cuts was a questionable strategy, however. After the Wisconsin Legislature passed the revenue cuts, the State of Wisconsin was soon plagued by budget deficits, the first in many years; the deficits were caused by higher costs of government due to hi
Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness and sound are represented by rapid variations of either the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal. Analog signals vary over a continuous range of possible values which means that electronic noise and interference becomes reproduced by the receiver, thus with analog, a moderately weak signal becomes subject to interference. In contrast, a moderately weak digital signal and a strong digital signal transmit equal picture quality. Analog television can be distributed over a cable network using cable converters. All broadcast. Motivated by the lower bandwidth requirements of compressed digital signals, since the 2000s a digital television transition is proceeding in most countries of the world, with different deadlines for cessation of analog broadcasts; the earliest systems of analog television were mechanical television systems, which used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched into the disc to scan an image.
A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver. Synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the image information; however these mechanical systems were slow, the images were dim and flickered and the image resolution low. Camera systems used similar spinning discs and required intensely bright illumination of the subject for the light detector to work. Analog television did not begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray tube, which uses a focused electron beam to trace lines across a phosphor coated surface; the electron beam could be swept across the screen much faster than any mechanical disc system, allowing for more spaced scan lines and much higher image resolution. Far less maintenance was required of an all-electronic system compared to a spinning disc system. All-electronic systems became popular with households after the Second World War. Broadcasters of analog television encode their signal using different systems.
The official systems of transmission are named: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, K1, L, M and N. These systems determine the number of scan lines, frame rate, channel width, video bandwidth, video-audio separation, so on; the colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a high frequency or ultra high frequency carrier. Each frame of a television image is composed of lines drawn on the screen; the lines are of varying brightness. The next sequential frame is displayed; the analog television signal contains timing and synchronization information, so that the receiver can reconstruct a two-dimensional moving image from a one-dimensional time-varying signal. The first commercial television systems were black-and-white. A practical television system needs to take luminance, chrominance and audio signals, broadcast them over a radio transmission; the transmission system must include a means of television channel selection.
Analog broadcast television systems come in a variety of frame resolutions. Further differences exist in the modulation of the audio carrier; the monochrome combinations still existing in the 1950s are standardized by the International Telecommunication Union as capital letters A through N. When color television was introduced, the hue and saturation information was added to the monochrome signals in a way that black and white televisions ignore. In this way backwards compatibility was achieved; that concept is true for all analog television standards. There were three standards for the way the additional color information can be encoded and transmitted; the first was the American NTSC color television system. The European/Australian PAL and the French-former Soviet Union SECAM standard were developed and attempt to cure certain defects of the NTSC system. PAL's color encoding is similar to the NTSC systems. SECAM, uses a different modulation approach than PAL or NTSC. In principle, all three color encoding systems can be combined with any scan line/frame rate combination.
Therefore, in order to describe a given signal it's necessary to quote the color system and the broadcast standard as a capital letter. For example, the United States, Canada and South Korea use NTSC-M, Japan uses NTSC-J, the UK uses PAL-I, France uses SECAM-L, much of Western Europe and Australia use PAL-B/G, most of Eastern Europe uses SECAM-D/K or PAL-D/K and so on. However, not all of these possible combinations exist. NTSC is only used with system M though there were experiments with NTSC-A in the UK and NTSC-N in part of South America. PAL is used with a variety of 625-line standards but with the North American 525-line standard, accordingly n
Schmeeckle Reserve (Stevens Point, Wisconsin)
Schmeeckle Reserve is a 280-acre natural land area located on the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point, in Stevens Point, United States. It contains hiking trails, natural land area, a visitor center, multiple habitats, abundant wildlife and a manmade lake. "The Reserve was created to protect and restore native ecological communities, serve as an outdoor classroom for students and teachers, provide recreational opportunities to all visitors." Before 1956 the current Schmeeckle Reserve was grazing land. This land, however was not fertile enough to support a large plant population for agriculture due to bedrock close to the surface, making some areas too wet or dry to support crops. By the 1950s several farmers had abandoned their efforts to make the ground agriculturally productive; the University began purchasing this land, located north and east of campus, in 1956, used it as a picnic area. Students from the University's Conservation Department were called out to fight fires many times, their furrows which they dug to help stop the fires can still be seen weaving through the reserve.
By 1969 the University owned a total of 127 acres of land, there was debate on whether to use it for residence halls, housing for married students, athletic fields, or other options. In 1974 the University proposed to use this land for a natural area and hiking trails, with an arboretum. At that time the area presently covered by Lake Joanis was not part of the University's holdings. At about the same time that the University was proposing its natural area plan, Sentry Insurance, a nationwide company headquartered in Stevens Point, proposed building a new office building on the next major street north of the University campus; the company's environmental impact statement found that the building would increase vehicle traffic on Reserve Street, which ran through the campus at that time. To reduce the danger that this increase would pose to the University's students, the company proposed closing that street and extending Michigan Avenue through the proposed natural area to replace Reserve Street.
At first this proposal brought heated resistance, since it would split the natural area, so a compromise was reached: the construction would require significant soil, to be excavated from a 50-acre tract east of the University's acreage. The company would leave that excavation open, would deed the tract to the University to be added to the proposed nature holdings; the University agreed with this proposal, public opposition was calmed. The road extension was completed in 1975; the resulting lake, which covered 24 of the site's 50 acres, was named Lake Joanis in 1994, after Sentry Insurance President John Joanis, who paid for its excavation. Schmeeckle Reserve was established in 1976 with Water Conservation Grant; the 50 acres with Lake Joanis was included within the reserve at this time. The Reserve's first Director was Ron Zimmerman. One of his first acts was to work for the purchase of an adjacent farm, once owned by the Edward Wojcik family; the Wojcik's ranch home was converted into the Visitor Center by students from the University over a three-year period, finishing by 1979.
By 1981 the LAWCON funds had paid for over five miles of trails and boardwalks, fitness trails and the shelter building Over the years, Schmeeckle Reserve has continued to expand its facilities and resources. When the Wisconsin Conservation Hall of Fame was created in 1984, Schmeeckle Reserve became its new home. In 1990, the Hall of Fame constructed a new addition to the Visitor Center with funding from the city's Motel Room tax and more LAWCON funding. Included in the addition was a walk-through exhibit area, formal Hall of Fame gallery, meeting room and sign-making workshop. With the 1998 acquisition of the 75-acre Berard Oaks area at the northeast corner of the Reserve, Schmeeckle has grown to 280 acres; the Reserve continues to evolve, as new trails are developed, further land acquisitions are sought, prairie and oak savannah habitats are restored. Fred Schmeeckle, the namesake of the reserve, was a professor from Nebraska who taught at the Stevens Point Normal School beginning in 1923.
He taught agriculture but was a supporter of conservation education, "the destruction of forests, pollution of water, misuse of wildlife areas are factors that started me thinking something should be done to educate people in the wise use of resources." In the early 1930s Schmeeckle began teaching conservation courses. This program is now the largest undergraduate natural resources program of its kind in the nation. Schmeeckle took his classes on walks and on bird watching trips to the natural area north of the campus, now where the reserve is located. In 1954 Schmeeckle said, "Some day this area will serve as an island of green in the city of Stevens Point." He had it right and his island of green is now named for him. The habitats within the Reserve are many and varied. Cattails, pine and deciduous forests are found. Wildlife common to the reserve'but not limited to' include frogs, rabbits, turtles, snakes and ducks. Walking Trails of Eastern and Central Wisconsin by Bob Crawford and Robert F. Crawford.
Page 201 Hiking Wisconsin by Martin Hintz page 209 Schmeeckle Reserve Urban Deer Management Wisconsin Conservation Hall of Fame
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point
The University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point is a public university in Stevens Point, United States. It is part of the University of Wisconsin System, it grants associate and master's degrees, as well as doctoral degrees in audiology. After securing land and funding from the City of Stevens Point and Portage County and winning the right to host the new normal school, Stevens Point Normal School opened on September 17, 1894 with 201 students. In addition to teacher preparation, "domestic science" and conservation education were offered. In 1927, Stevens Point Normal School became Central State Teachers College and began offering four-year teaching degrees; when post-World War II enrollment became less centered on teacher training and more focused on liberal arts education, the Wisconsin State Legislature intervened, changing the school's name to Wisconsin State College–Stevens Point with the authority to grant bachelor's degrees in liberal arts. Larger numbers of students in the 1950s and 1960s led to construction on campus throughout the 1960s and early 1970s.
It was during this period, in 1964, that the college was elevated to university status as Wisconsin State University–Stevens Point and began offering graduate degrees. Seven years the Wisconsin State Universities merged into the University of Wisconsin system, the school adopted its current name. UW-Stevens Point has more than 77,000 alumni. More than half of these alumni live in Wisconsin. In 1968, UW-Stevens Point formed an ROTC unit for the United States army. Lee S. Dreyfus became chancellor in 1974 before becoming Wisconsin's 40th governor. Governor Dreyfus was inaugurated on the lawn in front of Old Main on the UW-Stevens Point campus in 1979. In 2007, a sustainability task force was created to help achieve the future goal of a carbon neutral campus. In 2009, Chancellor Linda Bunnell resigned after a student vote of no-confidence; the vote in part was called because of an automobile accident she failed to report and allegations of drunken driving. Bernie Patterson became chancellor in July 2010.
The campus hosted the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League for their first training camp in 1995. It was part of what was known as the Cheese League, a collection of teams that conducted training camp in Wisconsin. Since 1996, the Jaguars have conducted their training camp in Jacksonville; the university is in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, a block north of State Route 66 and southwest of Interstate 39/U. S. Route 51, it is a 406-acre campus including a 280-acre nature preserve and 25-acre lake. The Greek community on campus consists of four fraternities. All the Greek organizations collaborate as one, known as the Inter-Greek Council; the sororities on campus are Delta Phi Epsilon, Gamma Phi Delta Sorority, Phi Omega, Sigma Delta Rho. The fraternities on campus are Phi Sigma Phi, Sigma Tau Gamma, Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, Theta Xi; the Schmeeckle Reserve, a nature reserve, is on campus. The University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point offers more than 120 undergraduate programs in 48 majors and 78 minors.
These programs are housed within four colleges: College of Fine Arts and Communication, which includes opportunities in the visual and performing arts. The university has three off-site field stations: Central Wisconsin Environmental Station at Amherst Junction, Treehaven near Tomahawk, the Northern Aquaculture Demonstration Facility at Bayfield. CWES is on 200 acres near Sunset Lake, 17 miles east of Stevens Point. Treehaven is between Rhinelander, Wisconsin on 1,400 acres; the Northern Aquaculture Demonstration Facility is at 36445 State Highway 13, 1.5 miles west of Red Cliff on Highway 13, near Lake Superior. The university maintains a wide range of centers and affiliations, including the Museum of Natural History, Waste Education Center and Environmental Analysis Lab, Aber Suzuki Center, Allen F. Blocher Planetarium, Arthur J. Pejsa Observatory, Center for Collaborative & Interactive Technologies, Center for Economic Education, CPS Café, Central Wisconsin Economic Research Bureau, Gesell Institute, Center for Athletic Scheduling, Center for the Small City and Community Research Center.
WWSP-FM is the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point's alternative radio station. Operating at 30,000 watts, WWSP broadcasts commercial free on 365 days a year. WWSP hosts the world's largest trivia contest, founded in 1969 and has since become a tradition for the university and the community. Hundreds of teams with thousands of members participate in the contest every year in April. SPTV is a student-operated television station at UW Stevens Point, it is online on SPTV's website. SPTV's office and studios are in the Communication Arts Center on the UWSP campus; the station airs news and entertainment shows. The Pointer, the weekly student newspaper, is free to all tuition-paying students; the Student Involvement and Employment Office in the Dreyfus University Center on campus provides information to students about opportunities in student clubs and employment. Student athletes in 20 sports at UW-Stevens Point participate in the NC
Marshfield is a city in Wood County and Marathon County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. It is located at the intersection of U. S. Highway 10, Highway 13 and Highway 97; the largest city in Wood County, its population was 19,118 at the 2010 census. Of this, 18,218 were in Wood County, 900 were in Marathon County; the city is part of the United States Census Bureau's Marshfield-Wisconsin Rapids Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Wood County. The portion of the city in Marathon County is part of the Wausau Metropolitan Statistical Area. Marshfield is home to the Marshfield Clinic, a large healthcare system that serves much of Central and Western Wisconsin. In 2010, Marshfield was ranked 5th in a list of "The Best Small Cities to Raise a Family" compiled by Forbes magazine. In 1851 and 1853, when the area was still forested, surveyors working for the U. S. government marked all the section corners in the 6 by 6 miles square which now includes Marshfield and Cameron, working on foot with compass and chain.
When done, the deputy surveyor filed this general description: This Township is nearly all Dry land, There being no Swamp of consequence in it. There being to rocks in it; that part which contains Fir & Hemlock. The surface meadow. There is some good Pine it but to much scattering to make it an object; the Township is well watered with small streams but none of them are of sufficient size for Milling purposses. The streams are lined with many of them producing good hay. There are no improvements in this Township. Marshfield was settled much than many surrounding towns. DuBay started his trading post 40 miles east on the Wisconsin River around 1818. A sawmill was built at Nekoosa in 1832. A sawmill was built at Neillsville around 1847; the first building at Marshfield came in 1872. The city was named for one of the original owners of land in the area. In 1872 the Wisconsin Central Railway was building the leg of its line from Stevens Point through the forest to what would become Colby, heading north for Lake Superior.
The railway needed a supply depot between those two towns, Marshfield was about midway. At the railroad's request, Louis Rivers, his wife and child, his brother Frank came to the area and started cutting an opening in the forest, they built a two-room log hotel at what is now the corner of Depot and Chestnut streets, with bunks in the west room and tables, benches and store in the east room. That crude building between the stumps was the first permanent structure in Marshfield; the first industry was a spoke factory located near the railroad. In 1878 William H. Upham, a "Yankee" migrant of English descent from Massachusetts and governor of Wisconsin, built a sawmill near the railway, with a millpond. By 1885 he had added a planing mill, a furniture factory and a flour and feed mill. Other businesses started, too: an alcohol factory, saloons, newspapers, a milliner. There were churches and schools; the city was incorporated in 1883. By 1885 the population exceeded 2,000, ranging from the Uphams in their fine Italianate homes to laborers living in shacks along the railroad.
In 1887, a fire struck. On June 27, after a dry three weeks, fire broke out among the drying piles in the Upham mill's lumberyard, ignited by a spark from a train; the fire spread, consuming the sawmill and flour mill, headed south into homes and the business district. Men tried to stop the inferno dynamiting stores to create a fire break, but the updraft lifted embers and dropped them onto more buildings; when it was over, 250 buildings were destroyed. The next day, Upham announced. Neighbors in Stevens Point and Wisconsin Rapids sent trainloads of supplies; the city ruled that buildings on Central should henceforth be built from brick though Marshfield had been built on wealth generated by lumber. The late 1800s saw a burst of railroad building. In 1872 the Wisconsin Central built the first line through town. In 1887 Upham Manufacturing started a line south from town to haul logs from Richfield. In 1890 a line to Neillsville was built. In 1891 a line was built from Centralia, another was built to Greenwood, a third from Wausau to Marshfield came from the north.
In 1901 a second line was built from Wisconsin Rapids to Marshfield. In 1903 38 passenger trains stopped daily in Marshfield. So many tracks intersected in the community that Marshfield was nicknamed "Hub City"; the hub was agricultural. Dairying began to organize as cheese factories started up, such as the one at Nasonville in 1885. Roddis and Blum Brothers made wooden cheese boxes in Marshfield. By 1921 the Blum plant was making 3,500 boxes a day. In 1907 the first cold storage plant was built in town, to store local cheese before shipping it by rail to larger markets. Ice cream factories followed, processing of eggs and liquid milk. In 1923 a spokesman for the Soo Line Railroad said that Marshfield shipped more dairy products than any other city in the United States. St. Joseph's hospital began with six beds in 1890. Operated by the Sisters of the Sorrowful Mother, it offered early health insurance. Lumbermen could pay a flat rate, in exchange St. Joseph's would care for them in case of injury. In 1916, six local doctors formed a group practice clinic in the second story of the Thiel building downtown, calling themselves Marshfield Clinic.
German immigrants made up two thirds of Marshfield's population in the 1890s. One of the two early newspapers, Die Demokrat, was published in German. Many had family back in