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University of Wrocław

The University of Wrocław is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland. The University of Wrocław was founded in 1945. Following the territorial changes of Poland's borders, academics from the Jan Kazimierz University of Lwów restored the university building damaged and split as a result of the Battle of Breslau. Nowadays it is one of the most prominent educational institutions in the region; the University is the largest in Lower Silesian Voivodeship with over 100,000 graduates since 1945 including some 1,900 researchers among whom many received the highest awards for their contribution to the development of scientific scholarship. The University of Wrocław is renowned for its high quality of teaching, placing 44th on the QS University Rankings: EECA 2016, is located in the same campus as the former University of Breslau, which produced 9 Nobel Prize winners; the oldest mention of a university in Wrocław comes from the foundation deed signed on July 20, 1505, by King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary for the Generale litterarum Gymnasium in Wrocław.

However, the new academic institution requested by the town council wasn't built because the King's deed was rejected by Pope Julius II for political reasons. The numerous wars and opposition from the Cracow Academy might have played a role; the first successful founding deed known as the Aurea bulla fundationis Universitatis Wratislaviensis was signed two centuries on October 1, 1702, by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of the House of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia. The predecessor facilities, which existed since 1638, were converted into Jesuit school, upon instigation of the Jesuits and with the support of the Silesian Oberamtsrat Johannes Adrian von Plencken, donated as a university in 1702 by Emperor Leopold I as a School of Philosophy and Catholic Theology with the designated name Leopoldina. On 15 November 1702, the university opened. Johannes Adrian von Plencken became chancellor of the University; as a Catholic institute in Protestant Breslau, the new university was an important instrument of the Counter-Reformation in Silesia.

After Silesia passed to Prussia, the university lost its ideological character but remained a religious institution for the education of Catholic clergy in Prussia. After the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the subsequent reorganisation of the Prussian state, the academy was merged on August 3, 1811, with the Protestant Viadrina University located in Frankfurt, re-established in Breslau as the Königliche Universität zu Breslau – Universitas litterarum Vratislaviensis. At first, the conjoint academy had five faculties: philosophy, law, Protestant theology, Catholic theology. Connected with the university were three theological seminars, a philological seminar, a seminar for German Philology, another seminar for Romanic and English philology, an historical seminar, a mathematical-physical one, a legal state seminar, a scientific seminar. From 1842, the University had a chair of Slavic Studies; the University had twelve different scientific institutes, six clinical centers, three collections.

An agricultural institute with ten teachers and forty-four students, comprising a chemical veterinary institute, a veterinary institute, a technological institute, was added to the university in 1881. In 1884, the university had 1,481 students in attendance, with a faculty numbering 131; the library in 1885 consisted of 400,000 works, including about 2,400 incunabula 250 Aldines, 2840 manuscripts. These volumes came from the libraries of the former universities of Frankfurt and Breslau and from disestablished monasteries, included the oriental collections of the Bibliotheca Habichtiana and the academic Leseinstitut. In addition, the university owned an observatory. In the late 19th century, numerous internationally renowned and notable scholars lectured at the University of Breslau, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, Ferdinand Cohn, Gustav Kirchhoff among them. According to Polish professor of history Henryk Barycz in the academic year of 1813/1814 Polish youth constituted the majority of students at the University.

All students, including German and Jewish, established their own student fraternities. Polish student organizations included Concordia, a branch of the Sokol association. Many of the students came from areas of partitioned Poland; the Jewish students unions were the Student Union. Teutonia, a German Burschenschaft founded in 1817, was one of the oldest student fraternities in Germany, founded only two years after the Urburschenschaft; the Polish fraternities were all disbanded by the German professor Felix Dahn, in 1913 Prussian authorities established a numerus clausus law that limited the number of Jews from non-German Eastern Europe that could study in Germany to at most 900

Ramchand Pakistani

Ramchand Pakistani is an Urdu-language Pakistani drama film directed by Mehreen Jabbar and produced by Javed Jabbar. The film features Nandita Das, Rashid Farooqi, Syed Fazel Hussain, Maria Wasti and Noman Ijaz in lead roles; the film is based on a true story of a boy who inadvertently crosses the border between Pakistan and India and the following ordeal that his family has to go through. Ramchand Pakistani was released in India. Champa is a Hindu woman, left desolate when her young son and husband disappear one day from their village at the India-Pakistan border near Nagarparkar, in the Tharparkar district of the Sindh province; the film depicts the crossing of the India-Pakistan border, during a period of war-like tension between the two countries, by two members of a Pakistani Hindu family belonging to the'untouchable' dalit caste, the extraordinary consequences of this unintended action upon the lives of a woman, a man, their son. The film is about a Hindu Dalit family living in Pakistan peacefully.

Ramchand, the main protagonist, 8 years old, is the son of Shankar and Champa. One day, after an altercation with his mother, Ramchand runs away in anger and, crosses the Indo-Pakistan border into India, his father follows him and, crosses the border into India. After being arrested by the border security personnel, they are sent to a prison in India and stay there for a long time, they get a release order soon, but it turns out to be a mistake and they are sent back to the jail. Ramchand, the 8 years old boy, his father Shankar are unregistered prisoners during much of their stay in India. Meanwhile, Ramchand’s mother, leads a life of loneliness and although she takes a temporary job in a faraway place, she returns to her village. After 5 years, when Ramchand has grown a few years, he gets released, he returns home to his mother. His father, Shankar gets released soon after, they are united and there, the film ends. The singular theme of the film is how a child from Pakistan aged eight years, learns to cope with the trauma of forced separation from his mother while being held prisoner, along with his father in the jail of a country, hostile to his own.

Meanwhile, the wife-mother, devastated by their sudden disappearance builds a new chapter of her life, by her solitary struggle for sheer survival. Nandita Das as Champa Syed Fazal Hussain as Younger Ramchand Navaid Jabbar as Older Ramchand Rashid Farooqui as Shankar Maria Wasti as Kamla Nouman Ijaz as Abdullah Adnan Shah as Sharma Adarsh Ayaz as Moti Farooq Pario as Suresh Shahood Alvi as Asif Hussain Zhalay Sarhadi as Lakshmi Atif Badar as Lalu Saleem Mairaj as Vishesh Saif-e-Hasan as Murad Rao Saleem as Interrogator Karim Bux Baloch as Baloch Master Yaqub as Baba Gul Hassan Niazi as Deepak Kazim Raza as Professor Muhammad Rafiq as Bengali Sajid Shah as Inspector Iqbal Motilani as Maulvi Anis Chachar as Captain Saleem This film had six screenings at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 2010; the soundtrack is composed by Debojyoti Mishra and include the following songs: This film won the following awards: FIPRESCI Prize from the International Federation of Film Critics at the Osian Film Festival, July, 2008 Winner of Honourable Mention by the 13th Annual Satyajit Ray Award at the 2008 London Film Festival.

Best Actor for Rashid Farooqi at the KaraFilm Festival, Pakistan, 2009 Winner of Audience Award at the Fribourg International Film Festival, March 2009. Winner of Special Mention by the Eucumenical Jury at the Fribourg International Film Festival March 2009. Winner of Special Mention by the E-Changer Award at the Fribourg International Film Festival in March 2009 Ramchand Pakistani received a silver medal in the feature film category at the 2012 SAARC Film Awards. Rashid Farooqui received the award for best actor in the feature film at the 2012 SAARC Film Awards. Ramchand Pakistani won Best Film Award on Pakistan Media Award in 2010. Gori temple, the site of Meri Maati song. Nagarparkar Bhodesar temple: the site of Tarrin Paunda song. Ramchand Pakistani on IMDb Movie Review Ramchand Pakistani


Planchón-Peteroa is a complex volcano extending in a north-south direction along the border between Argentina and Chile. It consists of volcanoes of various ages with several overlapping calderas; those include Volcán Peteroa and Volcán Azufre. A partial collapse of the complex about 11,500 years ago produced a major debris avalanche, which followed the course of the Teno River until reaching the Chile Central Valley. Peteroa has a crater lake. Lagunas de Teno lies at the foot of Planchón volcano. In this area is the Vergara International Pass. Planchón-Peteroa Volcano erupted on September 6 followed by a stronger eruption on September 18. On September 21, the volcano erupted once again emitting a dark gray plume of ash; as winds cause volcanic ash to blow southeast into Argentina, residents there were warned by authorities to evacuate the nearby areas before Planchón-Peteroa would erupt again. List of volcanoes in Argentina List of volcanoes in Chile Descabezado Grande Las Leñas

Abdul Majid (physicist)

For other people with the same or similar name, see Abdul Majid Abdul Majid: is a Pakistani astrophysicist and scientist in the field of space technology. He is a former chairman of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission from 1997 to 2001, he had made significant contributions to Pakistan's space program. During his tenure as SUPARCO Administrator, Pakistan launched its two Low Earth orbit satellites, which were masterminded and developed by him, he initiated a Satellite Launch Vehicle project at SUPARCO. He retired from SUPARCO in 2001 as a chief scientist. Since his retirement, he has been inactive from Pakistan's space program and resides in Karachi where he lives a quiet life there. Abdul Majid was Born in Narowal, Pakistan from where he received his elementary and high school education, he received BSc and MSc in Nuclear Physics from Government College, Punjab University in 1962 and was awarded the Roll of Honours. His thesis on'Radiative Capture of Neutrons' was rated as one of the best submitted for a master's degree by Rafi M. Chaudhary.

Under NASA fellowship program he studied Astrogeophysics at Colorado University, Colorado. Astrophysics. <For his PhD he worked on Radio interferometric detection of Gravity Waves under Sir Granville Jones/PJSWilliams at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth UK. The project involved fabrication of phase switched receivers as an integral constituent of spaced radio interferometers; the system detected gravity waves as travelling ionospheric disturbances. After his PhD, he came back to Pakistan and joined Pakistan's Space Program as a researcher in astrophysics and aeronautical labs. Majid worked under the supervision of noted Pakistani-Polish military scientist and aeronautical engineer, Air Commodore W. J. M. Turowicz, in the field of Rocket Technology and published numerous research papers, he is credited for the design and developed the Hypersonic Rocket Launch Vehicle or Hatf Missiles Series during his stay at SUPARCO. In 1983, Majid was put in-charge of Satellite Development Program of Pakistan.

He is credited for the indigenous development and launching of BADR-1 and development of Badr-B Earth Observation Satellites. He was keen to develop Pakistan's Space Launch capabilities and met with both former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto to gain their approval for the project; the project however was not sanctioned due to economic constrains. In 1992, Abdul Majid travelled to Russia, where he was able to sign a deal in 1995 with Russian Federal Space Agency to launch the Pakistani Satellite with a given deadline. According to him, Russians agreed to launch Pakistan's domestically built satellite from their soil; the satellite was completed in 1999 and was transported to Russia in early 2000. After an initial success in satellite development, Abdul Qadeer Khan met with Majid where they discussed Majid's indigenously designed Low Earth orbit satellite project. In 1999, Majid, as then-Chairman of Pakistan's Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission announced that Pakistan would develop its own satellite launching vehicle within a period of about three years.

He met then-Chief executive of Pakistan, Gen.. Pervez Musharraf in the army house. He, along with Abdul Qadeer Khan, briefed General Musharraf about the project where Majid received his green signal. However, the SLV Project's status remains unclear. Http://

Georgi Karaneychev

Georgi Karaneychev is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a forward for Einherji. Karaneychev started to play football at FC Trayana Stara Zagora. After that he played for FC Hebros, Chavdar Byala Slatina and FC Svilengrad 1921, he made his competitive debut for Loko Mezdra on 8 November 2008 against Lokomotiv Plovdiv in the twelfth round of the Bulgarian top division. A few days Karaneychev made his debut for Bulgaria U21 in a friendly match against Romania U21. In the summer of 2015, Karaneychev underwent a trial with Beroe. On 12 May 2017, Karaneychev joined Icelandic club KF Fjarðabyggðar. In January 2018, he moved to Bulgarian Second League side Strumska Slava Radomir but left the club at the end of the 2017–18 season. Georgi Karaneychev at Soccerway

Mass surveillance in Australia

Mass surveillance in Australia takes place in a number of network media including telephone and other communications networks, financial systems and transit networks, international travel and government schemes and services including those asking citizens to report other citizens. Australia requires that pre-paid mobile telecommunications providers verify the identity of individuals before providing service. According to Greens Senator Scott Ludlam, Australian law enforcement agencies were issued 243,631 warrants to obtain telecommunications logs between July 2010 and June 2011, which vastly overshadowed the 3500-odd legal intercepts of communications. In 2013 it was reported that under Australian law state and federal law enforcement authorities can access a variety of'non-content' data from internet companies like Telstra and Google with authorisation by senior police officers or government officials rather than judicial warrant, that "During criminal and revenue investigations in 2011-12, government agencies accessed private data and internet logs more than 300,000 times."Google's transparency report shows a consistent trend of growth in requests by Australian authorities for private information rising 20% year-on-year.

The most recent published volume for the period ending December 2013 indicates a volume of around four individual requests per calendar day. Telstra's transparency report for the period 1 July - 31 December 2013 does not include requests by national security agencies, only police and other agencies. In the six-month period 40,644 requests were made, 36,053 for "Telstra customer information, carriage service records and pre-warrant checks", 2,871 for "Life threatening situations and Triple Zero emergency calls", 270 for "Court orders", 1450 for "Warrants for interception or access to stored communications": an average of around 222 requests per calendar day. In 2013 more than 500 authors including five Nobel prize winners and Australian identities Frank Moorhouse, John Coetzee, Helen Garner, Geraldine Brooks and David Malouf signed a global petition to protest mass surveillance after the whistleblower Edward Snowden's global surveillance disclosures informed the world, including Australians, that they are being monitored by the National Security Agency's XKeyscore system and its boundless informant.

Snowden had further revealed that Australian government intelligence agencies the Australian Signals Directorate have access to the system as part of the international Five Eyes surveillance alliance. In August 2014 it was reported that law-enforcement agencies had been accessing Australians' web browsing histories via internet providers such as Telstra without a warrant; the revelations came less than a week after government attempts to increase their surveillance powers through new legislation allowing offensive computer hacking by government intelligence agencies, mere months after outrage surrounding the government's offer to share personal information about citizens with Five Eyes intelligence partners. As of August 2014, no warrant is required for organisations to access the so-called'metadata' information of private parties; this is information regarding "calls and emails sent and received, the location of a phone, internet browsing activity. There is no access to the content of the communication, just how, to or from whom and where."

Under current law many organisations other than federal and territory police and security agencies such as ASIO can get access to this information, including "any agency that collects government revenue", for example the RSPCA, the Australian Crime Commission, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, the Australian Tax Office, Medicare, Australia Post, the Australian Fisheries Management Authority, the Victorian Taxi Services Commission, the Victorian Transport Accident Commission, WorkSafe Victoria, local councils and foreign law enforcement agencies. In the 2013-2014 financial year there were over half a million disclosures of metadata to agencies; the Australian Communications and Media Authority provides instructions for internet service providers and other telecommunications providers about their law enforcement, national security and interception obligations. During the 2015-2016 financial year 712 warrants were issued for access to stored communications, 3,857 interception warrants were issued, 63 enforcement agencies were granted 333,980 authorisations for metadata access.

A range of proposals are under discussion that affect surveillance of the population by government in conjunction with commercial service providers. The proposals seek to give the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation the right to hack into computers and modify them; the proposals seek to give ASIO the power to spy on whole computer networks under a single computer-access warrant. The proposals seek to give the Australian Secret Intelligence Service the power to collect intelligence on Australian citizens overseas. Section 35P of the proposals seeks to create a new criminal offence, with a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment, for revealing information about so-called'special intelligence operations'. There are no exceptions listed, the law would apply to journalists if they were unaware that they were revealing information about such an