Tonawanda (town), New York
Tonawanda is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 73,567; the town is the northern inner ring suburb of Buffalo. It is sometimes referred to, along with its constituent village of Kenmore, as "Ken-Ton"; the town was established in 1836, up to 1903 it included what is now the city of Tonawanda. This area was under French control from the 17th century until ceded to the British after the French and Indian War; the first settlers arrived around 1805. Rapid growth began after the construction of the Erie Canal, completed in 1825. Tonawanda occupies the northwest corner of Erie County and is bounded on the north by the Erie Canal, which here follows Tonawanda Creek; the town of Tonawanda was established by separation from the town of Buffalo. At that time it included land that became part of the town of Grand Island and the entire city of Tonawanda. In 1899, Kenmore incorporated as a village of the town, remained the town's primary residential and commercial district until the rest of the town was developed into suburban housing in the 1940s and 1950s.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 20.3 square miles, of which 18.7 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles, or 7.61%, is water. The north border of the town is the city of Tonawanda and Tonawanda Creek, part of the Erie Canal, the west border is the Niagara River. Ellicott Creek flows parallel to Tonawanda Creek in the northern part of the town, with a confluence just east of the Niagara River; the east border, marked by U. S. Route 62, is the town of Amherst. Forming the southern border is the village of Kenmore and the city of Buffalo. Fort Erie, Ontario - southwest City of Buffalo - south Town of Amherst - east City of North Tonawanda, Niagara County - north City of Tonawanda - north Town of Grand Island - northwest Interstate 190 passes through the western part of town from the Buffalo city line to the South Grand Island Bridges onto Grand Island north to Niagara Falls, NY, Niagara Falls, Ontario. Interstate 290 travels through the town from I-190 beyond to Amherst.
U. S. Route 62, north-south highway that marks the east town line as Niagara Falls Blvd. New York State Route 265, north-south highway through western part of town from the Buffalo city line to the city of Tonawanda line. New York State Route 266, north-south roadway paralleling the Niagara River in the town from the Buffalo city line to the city of Tonawanda line. New York State Route 324, east-west highway through the town from Niagara Falls Blvd. to River Rd. where it crosses the South Grand Island Bridge onto Grand Island. New York State Route 325, north-south road from Sheridan Dr./Grand Island Blvd. to River Rd.. It is the only part of Sheridan Drive not signed as NY 324 and continues as Sheridan westward from where it NY 324 becomes Grand Island Boulevard. New York State Route 384, north-south highway in the town from the Kenmore village line to the city of Tonawanda line. New York State Route 425, north-south highway in the northern part of town beginning at the I-290 and Colvin Blvd interchange that heads north into the city of Tonawanda by way of the Twin Cities Memorial Highway.
As of the census of 2010, there were 78,155 people, 33,278 households, 21,164 families residing in the town. The population density was 4,156.3 people per square mile. There were 34,634 housing units at an average density of 1,841.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.01% White, 1.41% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 1.30% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 1.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.70% of the population. There were 32,951 households out of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families. In 2009, citizen environmental monitoring of air quality problems resulted in an investigation by the United States Environmental Protection Agency into emissions from Tonawanda Coke Corporation, a producer of foundry coke located on River Road, Tonawanda. In 1998 TCC had been cited by the EPA for violations of oil spill prevention sections of the federal Clean Water Act following contamination of the nearby Niagara River.
The investigations into air quality revealed TCC was using an unreported pressure-relief system to vent coke oven gases containing benzene direct to the atmosphere, operating a coke-quenching tower without pollution-control baffles, dumping hazardous waste in the form of coal tar sludge. In March 2013 TCC was convicted by a federal jury on 11 counts of violating the Clean Air Act and three counts of violating the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In March 2014 TCC was sentenced in federal court to pay a $12.5 million penalty and $12.2 million in community service payments for the violations. TCC's Environmental Control Manager, Mark L. Kamholz, was convicted of 11 counts of violating the CAA, one count of obstruction of justice and three counts of violating the RCRA, was sentenced to one year in prison, 100 hours of community service, a $20,000 fine. In July 2014 DuPont was fined $440,000 for violations of the CAA at its plant at Sheridan Drive and River Road; the EPA found that the plant had inadequate pollution-c
Special Events station
Special Events is the southernmost station in the Buffalo Metro Rail system located at the corner of Main and Perry Streets in the Free Fare Zone, which allows passengers free travel between Erie Canal Harbor station and Fountain Plaza station. Passengers continuing northbound past Fountain Plaza are required to have proof-of-payment. Special Events station is located next to the KeyBank Center, which it serves before and after an event. If there is no event at KeyBank Center, Erie Canal Harbor station serves as the southern terminus; the tracks continue to the NFTA Rail Maintenance Yard. KeyBank Center Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park HarborCenter NFTA Rail Maintenance Yard List of Buffalo Metro Rail stations Station form Google Maps Street View
Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority
The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority is a New York State public-benefit corporation responsible for the public transportation oversight of Erie and Niagara counties in the state of New York. The NFTA, as an authority, oversees a number of subsidiaries, including the NFTA Metro bus and rail system, the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, the Niagara Falls International Airport and NFTA Small Boat Harbor; the NFTA Metro bus and rail system is a multi-modal agency, utilizing various vehicle modes, using the brand names: NFTA Metro Bus, NFTA Metro Rail, NFTA Metrolink and NFTA PAL. In addition, the NFTA owns and manages a number of properties, including the Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center in Downtown Buffalo. Of note, many of the bus loops have been in continuous operation since the days of the International Railway Company, a predecessor to the NFTA. Agency-wide, the NFTA employs 1,500 part-time employees. There are three business centers that operate as the NFTA organization: Surface Transportation, which handles ground transportation throughout Erie and Niagara counties, which handles air related business at the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport and Niagara Falls International Airport and Property Risk/Management, which operates the NFTA-Boat Harbor and handles other properties that are owned and/or operated by the NFTA.
Before the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, the first bus operations in Buffalo dates back to 1923 under the private operator International Bus Company. The International Railway Company operated the vast network of streetcar routes in Erie and Niagara counties. In 1947, the proposed Niagara Frontier Rapid Transit Commission received ownership of the International Railway Company, gave way to the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transit System, Incorporated in 1950; the Niagara Frontier Transit System was replaced by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority Corp. in 1967, as part of New York State's efforts in the late 1960s and early 1970s at creating public agencies that would oversee the development and continuation of public transportation in a number of key urban areas of the state. In 1974, the NFTA purchased the street transportation rights from a number of other agencies, starting with the Niagara Falls Municipal Transit System on September 8, 1974, D&F Transit on September 15, T-NT Transit on October 7, Lockport Bus Lines on March 15, 1975 and Grand Island Transit on April 20, 1975.
Administrative offices and buses were housed in the former Niagara Frontier Transit Buildings at 855 Main Street until 1977. The NFTA's operations are overseen by a 12-member Board of Commissioners that the Executive Director reports to; the members are nominated by the Governor of the State of New York, with two chosen by the Erie County Executive. Most appointments are for five year terms, but some commissioners have been appointed part-way into a term, replacing a previous commissioner; the current executive director is Kimberley A. Minkel, who served as the Director of Health and Environmental Quality. Minkel will carry the recognition as the NFTA's first female executive director. In 2017, the NFTA had operating expenses of $253.57 million, an outstanding debt of $133.57 million, a staffing level of 1,714 people. NFTA's Metro system serves the urbanized areas of Erie and Niagara counties with service throughout the day and selected suburban and rural areas of Erie and Niagara counties; the cities receiving service include Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Lackawanna and North Tonawanda.
Service to less populated areas during prime ridership hours extend to Alden, Boston, Grand Island, Lancaster, Evans, Orchard Park, East Aurora and West Seneca in Erie County. The NFTA inherited a large number of General Motors New Look buses from the private carriers that were absorbed into the agency. In addition, a small fleet of Highway Products' Twin Coaches and Mack buses that were nearing the end of their life span were added to the fleet; the first major purchase of new buses by the NFTA began in 1975 with AM General's "Metropolitan" series buses. These buses were withdrawn from service in 1987 due to severe structural issues. To address this immediate shortage of buses, the NFTA purchased a number of mothballed GMC buses from the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system, Flxible buses from Rochester's Regional Transit Service and General Motors New Looks from Broome County Transit of Binghamton; this temporary arrangement filled most of the gap left by the removal of the AM General buses. The next major purchase of new buses came in their RTS-II Series.
These buses were purchased between 1978 and 1983. As mentioned earlier, in 1987, due to the premature retirement of the AM General buses, the NFTA purchased a number of used, earlier series RTS series buses from Dallas' DART system; these buses provided comfortable padded seats not seen on standard NFTA transit coaches. These bus
A railroad switch, turnout, or points is a mechanical installation enabling railway trains to be guided from one track to another, such as at a railway junction or where a spur or siding branches off. The switch consists of the pair of linked tapering rails, known as points, lying between the diverging outer rails; these points can be moved laterally into one of two positions to direct a train coming from the point blades toward the straight path or the diverging path. A train moving from the narrow end toward the point blades is said to be executing a facing-point movement. Unless the switch is locked, a train coming from either of the converging directs will pass through the points onto the narrow end, regardless of the position of the points, as the vehicle's wheels will force the points to move. Passage through a switch in this direction is known as a trailing-point movement. A switch has a straight "through" track and a diverging route; the handedness of the installation is described by the side.
Right-hand switches have a diverging path to the right of the straight track, when coming from the point blades, a left-handed switch has the diverging track leaving to the opposite side. In many cases, such as rail yards, many switches can be found in a short section of track, sometimes with switches going both to the right and left. Sometimes a switch divides one track into two. In many cases, where a switch is supplied to leave a track, a second is supplied to allow the train to reenter the track some distance down the line. A straight track is not always present. A railroad car's wheels are guided along the tracks by coning of the wheels. Only in extreme cases does it rely on the flanges located on the insides of the wheels; when the wheels reach the switch, the wheels are guided along the route determined by which of the two points is connected to the track facing the switch. In the illustration, if the left point is connected, the left wheel will be guided along the rail of that point, the train will diverge to the right.
If the right point is connected, the right wheel's flange will be guided along the rail of that point, the train will continue along the straight track. Only one of the points may be connected to the facing track at any time. A mechanism is provided to move the points from one position to the other; this would require a lever to be moved by a human operator, some switches are still controlled this way. However, most are now operated by a remotely controlled electric motor or by pneumatic or hydraulic actuation, called a point machine; this both allows for remote control and for stiffer, strong switches that would be too difficult to move by hand, yet allow for higher speeds. In a trailing-point movement, the flanges on the wheels will force the points to the proper position; this is sometimes known as running through the switch. Some switches are designed to be forced to the proper position without damage. Examples include variable switches, spring switches, weighted switches. If a switch becomes worn or the operating rods become damaged, it is possible for the flange to split the switch, go through the switch in the direction other than what was expected.
This happens when the flange strikes a small gap between the set switch point. This can either happen to the locomotive, in which case the whole train can be directed onto the wrong track, with dangerous results, or it can occur at any point through the train, when a random truck is directed down a different track from the rest of the train. If it happens to the trailing truck of a car, the front truck will follow one track, while the trailing truck follows a parallel line; this can have disastrous results if there is any obstacle between the lines, as the car will be propelled into it sideways, such as happened in the 1928 Times Square derailment. In some cases, the whole train behind the car will follow the errant car onto the other track.
Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer, the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office. He won the popular vote for three presidential elections—in 1884, 1888, 1892—and was one of two Democrats to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation and subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans, his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism, he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer, Cleveland had such prestige that the like-minded wing of the Republican Party, called "Mugwumps" bolted the GOP presidential ticket and swung to his support in the 1884 election.
As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a severe national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian and silverite seizure of the Democratic Party in 1896; the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, he drew corresponding criticism, his intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois. Critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. So, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities.
He had no endowments. He possessed honesty, firmness and common sense, but he possessed them to a degree other men do not." By the end of his second term, public perception showed him to be one of the most unpopular U. S. presidents, he was by rejected by most Democrats. Today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader ranked among the upper-mid tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey, to Ann and Richard Falley Cleveland. Cleveland's father was a Congregational and Presbyterian minister, from Connecticut, his mother was the daughter of a bookseller. On his father's side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635, his father's maternal grandfather, Richard Falley Jr. fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, was the son of an immigrant from Guernsey. On his mother's side, Cleveland was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia.
Cleveland was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time, he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, where Grover spent much of his childhood. Neighbors described him as "full of fun and inclined to play pranks," and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Cleveland's father moved to Clinton, New York, to work as district secretary for the American Home Missionary Society. Despite his father's dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a two-year mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville; the experience was valuable and brief, the living conditions quite austere. Grover returned to his schooling at the completion of the apprentice contract.
In 1853, when missionary work began to take a toll on his health, Cleveland's father took an assignment in Holland Patent, New York and the family moved again. Shortly after, he died from a gastric ulcer, with Grover reputedly hearing of his father's death from a boy selling newspapers. Cleveland received his elementary education at the Fayetteville Academy and the Clinton Liberal Academy. After his father died in 1853, he again left school to help support his family; that year, Cleveland's brother William was hired as a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind in New York City, William obtained a place for Cleveland as an assistant teacher. He returned home to Holland Patent at the end of 1854, where an elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister. Cleveland declined, in 1855 he decided to move west, he stopped first in New York, where his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, gave him a clerical job. Allen was an important man in Buffalo, he introduced his nephew to influential men there, including the partners in the law firm of Rogers and Rogers.
Millard Fillmore, the 13th president of the United States, had worked for the partnership. Cleveland took a clerkship with the firm, began to read the law, was admitted to the New York bar in 1859. Cleveland
Amherst, New York
Amherst is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. Amherst is the most populated town in upstate New York, an inner ring suburb of Buffalo; as of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 122,366. This represents an increase of 5.0% from the 2000 census. The largest and most populous suburb of Buffalo, New York, the town of Amherst encompasses the village of Williamsville as well as the hamlets of Eggertsville, Snyder and East Amherst; the town is in the northern part of borders a section of the Erie Canal. Most of the eastern side of the town is referred to as Williamsville, New York due to sharing the zip code with the village and closeness. Amherst is home to the north campus of the University at Buffalo, the graduate campus of Medaille College, a satellite campus of Bryant & Stratton College, Daemen College; the town of Amherst was created by the State of New York on April 10, 1818. Amherst was formed from part of the town of Buffalo, created from the town of Clarence. Timothy S. Hopkins was elected the first supervisor of the town of Amherst in 1819.
Part of Amherst was used to form the town of Cheektowaga on March 22, 1839. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 spurred the development of Amherst with new settlers and commerce. German settlers in particular settled in the northern part of Amherst because of the developing farms in the area. Nearby water resources in Amherst attracted commerce companies such as Grist Mills, Saw Mills, several other companies populated the area around Ellicott Creek. Several communities and hamlets started to develop around this time, such as Williamsville and Snyder, East Amherst and Swormville, Getzville; the Town of Amherst Archival Research Center is located in the Harlem Road Community Center, 4255 Harlem Road, Amherst NY 14226 According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 53.6 square miles, of which 53.2 square miles is land and 0.39 square miles, or 0.73%, is water. Much of Amherst was floodplain and marshland, much of, drained in recent years to facilitate development of new homes and businesses.
The central and southern parts of the town are suburbanized. The northern part of the town is still undeveloped, with the prominent exception of the portions along Niagara Falls Boulevard bordering the towns of Tonawanda and Wheatfield; some sections of northern and eastern Amherst have experienced problems with residential foundations as a result of unstable soil conditions. A few active farms may still be found in the northern part of the town. Amherst is bordered on the north by Niagara County. Ellicott Creek flows through the town. Niagara County, Town of Pendleton - north Niagara County, City of North Tonawanda - northwest Town of Tonawanda - west City of Buffalo - southwest Town of Lancaster - southeast Town of Cheektowaga - south Town of Clarence - east Areas within Amherst are referred to by the former post office station names and are not incorporated. During the 1990s, many of these regional post offices were closed and consolidated into the central Amherst 14226 post office on Bailey Avenue, leaving only a Williamsville post office on Sheridan Drive, a Getzville post office on Millersport Highway, an East Amherst post office on Transit Road.
Mailing addresses to areas within the town are Amherst, East Amherst, Getzville and Williamsville. These postal districts are still recognized by the post office and referred to by citizens; some of these mailing addresses overlap: some areas of Clarence directly east of Transit Road have Williamsville addresses, although for the purposes of taxes and community resources, these people are residents of the Town of Clarence. The areas listed below are governed and run by the Town of Amherst except for the Village of Williamsville, an independent political entity. Eggertsville is a suburban community in the southwest part of the town, bordering on Buffalo centered around Eggert Road. Daemen College is located on Main Street; the community is named after early postmaster Christian Eggert. Getzville -- A location near the center of the town by Campbell Boulevard and Dodge Road; the name comes from early resident Joseph Getz. Audubon - A location in the center of the town situated around John James Audubon Parkway.
The town police and main library are located here. East Amherst -- An unincorporated community, or hamlet, in the eastern part of the town, shared with the Town of Clarence. North Bailey -- A location by the junction of Bailey Avenue and Maple Road. Snyder -- A suburban community located between Eggertsville and the Village of Williamsville. Swormville - A hamlet in the eastern part of the town, shared with the Town of Clarence. Named for Adam Schworm, prominent landowner and businessman. West Amherst - A location in the northwestern part of the town bordered by Niagara Falls Boulevard to the west, Sweet Home Road to the east and Maple Road to the south. Principally the section of the town which comprises the Sweet Home central school district. Williamsville - Most of the Village of Williamsville is within Amherst, located in the south part of th
LaSalle station (Buffalo Metro Rail)
LaSalle is a Buffalo Metro Rail underground station located at the corner of Main Street and LaSalle Avenue and is one stop from the northern terminus. Original drafting plans had the station used as a turnout between the current Metro Rail line and three proposed extensions; the only visible sign of the turnout is located below ground by way of finished tunnel just west of the LaSalle station platforms. From May 20, 1985 to November 10, 1986, due to construction issues at LaSalle station, Amherst Street station served as the northern terminus. Since November 10, 1986, University station serves as the northern terminus. LaSalle station is one of four stations that offers an off-road bus loop, requiring passengers to board/debark using curbside stops and one of only two that has only one route serving the station: 8 Main In 1979, an art selection committee was created, composed of NFTA commissioners and Buffalo area art experts, that would judge the artwork that would be displayed in and on the properties of eight stations on the Metro Rail line.
Out of the 70 proposals submitted, 22 were chosen and are positioned inside and outside of the eight underground stations. LaSalle station is home of one piece of artwork, from Richard Gubernick of Buffalo. LaSalle Station is near: All-High Stadium Bennett High School Shoshone Park University Heights District A video tour of LaSalle station Metro Rail Success Entrance from Google Maps Street View