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Untermensch is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" referred to as "the masses from the East", Jews and Slavs – Poles and also Russians. The term was applied to Blacks and Finn-Asian. Jewish people were to be exterminated in the Holocaust, along with the Polish and Romani people, the physically and mentally disabled. According to the Generalplan Ost, the Slavic population of East-Central Europe was to be reduced in part through mass murder in the Holocaust, with a majority expelled to Asia and used as slave labor in the Reich; these concepts were an important part of the Nazi racial policy. Although incorrectly considered to have been coined by the Nazis, the term "under man" was first used by American author and Ku Klux Klan member Lothrop Stoddard in the title of his 1922 book The Revolt Against Civilization: The Menace of the Under-man. Stoddard uses the term for those he considers unable to function in civilisation, which he attributes to race.

It was adopted by the Nazis from that book's German version Der Kulturumsturz: Die Drohung des Untermenschen. The German word Untermensch had been used earlier, but not in a racial sense, for example in the 1899 novel Der Stechlin by Theodor Fontane. Since most writers who employed the term did not address the question of when and how the word entered the German language, Untermensch is translated into English as "sub-human"; the leading Nazi attributing the concept of the East-European "under man" to Stoddard is Alfred Rosenberg who, referring to Russian communists, wrote in his Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts that "this is the kind of human being that Lothrop Stoddard has called the'under man.'" Quoting Stoddard: "The Under-Man – the man who measures under the standards of capacity and adaptability imposed by the social order in which he lives". It is possible that Stoddard constructed his "under man" as an opposite to Friedrich Nietzsche's Übermensch concept. Stoddard does not say so explicitly, but he refers critically to the "superman" idea at the end of his book.

Wordplays with Nietzsche's term seem to have been used as early as the 19th century and, due to the German linguistic trait of being able to combine prefixes and roots at will in order to create new words, this development can be considered logical. For instance, German author Theodor Fontane contrasts the Übermensch/Untermensch word pair in chapter 33 of his novel Der Stechlin. Nietzsche used Untermensch at least once in contrast to Übermensch in Die fröhliche Wissenschaft. Earlier examples of Untermensch include Romanticist Jean Paul using the term in his novel Hesperus in reference to an Orangutan. In a speech in 1927 to the Bavarian regional parliament, the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, publisher of Der Stürmer, used the term Untermensch referring to the communists of the German Bavarian Soviet Republic: It happened at the time of the Soviet Republic: When the unleashed subhumans rambled murdering through the streets, the deputies hid behind a chimney in the Bavarian parliament. Nazis used the term Untermensch in writings and speeches directed against the Jews, the most notorious example being a 1942 SS publication with the title Der Untermensch, which contains an antisemitic tirade sometimes considered to be an extract from a speech by Heinrich Himmler.

In the pamphlet "The SS as an Anti-Bolshevist Fighting Organization", published in 1936, Himmler wrote: We shall take care that never again in Germany, the heart of Europe, will the Jewish-Bolshevistic revolution of subhumans be able to be kindled either from within or through emissaries from without. In his speech "Weltgefahr des Bolschewismus" in 1936, Joseph Goebbels said that "subhumans exist in every people as a leavening agent". At the 1935 Nazi party congress rally at Nuremberg, Goebbels declared that "Bolshevism is the declaration of war by Jewish-led international subhumans against culture itself."Another example of the use of the term Untermensch, this time in connection with anti-Soviet propaganda, is a brochure entitled "Der Untermensch", edited by Himmler and distributed by the Race and Settlement Head Office. SS-Obersturmführer Ludwig Pröscholdt, Jupp Daehler and SS-Hauptamt-Schulungsamt Koenig are associated with its production. Published in 1942 after the start of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, it is around 50 pages long and consists for the most part of photos portraying the enemy in an negative way.

3,860,995 copies were printed in the German language. It was translated into Greek, Dutch, Bulgarian, Hungarian and seven other languages; the pamphlet says the following: Just as the night rises against the day, the light and dark are in eternal conflict. So too, is the subhuman the greatest enemy of the dominant species on earth, mankind; the subhuman is a biological creature, crafted by nature, which has hands, legs and mouth the semblance of a brain. This terrible creature is only a partial human being. Although it has features similar to a human, the subhuman is lower on the spiritual and psychological scale than any animal. Inside of this creature lies wild and unrestrained passions: an incessant need to destroy, filled with the most primitive desires and coldhearted villainy. A subh

Scouting and Guiding in Romania

The Scout Movement of Romania consists of several associations with different aims. Among them are: Organizaţia Naţională Cercetaşii României, member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, founded in 1991 with 4,927 members Asociaţia Scout Catolică din România, a Catholic Scout association, part of ONCR and linked with AGESCI, the Italian Catholic Scout and Guide Association Romániai Magyar Cserkészszövetség, affiliated to ONCR and member of the International Forum of Hungarian Scouting. Asociaţia Cercetaşii Munţilor, founded in 1991 and abolished after a few years of activity. In 2002 the association reopened with 500 members, it has active centers in Baia Mare, Bistriţa, Braşov, Cluj-Napoca, Timişoara. In addition, there are USA Girl Scouts Overseas in Bucharest, serviced by way of USAGSO headquarters in New York City During the Communist period in Romania, the Pioneer movement Pionierii was the only allowed youth movement

Pugwash River

The Pugwash River is a river in Nova Scotia, Canada. It flows north into the Northumberland Strait in the village of Pugwash An 1845 account said, "Pugwash Bay is one of the finest harbours in the county. According to Sailing Directions for Nova Scotia, Bay of Fundy, South Shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence, "Pugwash Harbor, at the head of the bay and entrance of the river of the same name, is small but quite secure, has more than sufficient depth of water for any vessel that can pass the bar, on which the depth is 14 feet at low water, in ordinary spring tides; the bar is about ​1⁄2 mile within the entrance of the bay, a crooked channel, from 100 to 200 yards wide, through flats of sand and weeds, for the distance of one mile, leads from it to the harbor's mouth. No directions would avail for this channel, the assistance of one of the able pilots of the place is indispensable, will be obtained in answer to the usual signal; the "schoolhouse" design Pugwash Lighthouse was built in 1871 on Fishing Point at the entrance to Pugwash Harbour.

The last keeper left in 1959, by 2017 the building was in severe disrepair. The village of Pugwash was settled in the part of the 1700s by settlers from New England who were given land grants by the Nova Scotia government, by United Empire Loyalists from the newly-independent United States of America, it thrived on export of lumber to Europe. The 1891 Sailing Directions says, "The town of Pugwash, with its wharves and small wooden English church, stands on the east side of the entrance of the harbor. Within there is a fine little land-locked basin, with a depth of nearly 7 fathoms, in which vessels lie moored in security, to take in cargoes of lumber that are brought down the river." The Canadian Salt Mine Company opened an underground mine in November 1959, with most of the shafts running under the river near the village. As of 2010 the mine was still in operation. Pugwash is known as the location of the first of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, where Bertrand Russell invited nuclear scientists from the USA, USSR and other countries to discuss world peace in July 1957.

The conference was held at the Thinker's Lodge, built in the 1830s and owned by the millionaire Cyrus S. Eaton, born in Pugwash; the 1891 Sailing Directions says, "Pugwash River within the harbor, expands into a small lake, 1​1⁄2 miles long and one mile wide. On the western side the narrow channel of Lime Creek leads to quarries of limestone, unfit for building, but which supply Prince Edward Island as well as the neighboring country with lime; the river continues navigable for small vessels about 2 miles above the lake, for boats to a distance of 7 miles from its entrance. The Pugwash River Estuary is the largest estuary along Nova Scotia's Northumberland Strait shore; the shoreline is unspoilt, although there is some threat of vacation cottage development. The waters are unusually warm; the estuary contains sandy beaches and salt marshes bordered by forest. The riparian forest contains betula alleghaniensis and acer saccharum; the estuary is used by migrating waterfowl such as Canada goose, American black duck, great blue heron and green-winged teal.

Shorebirds such as semipalmated sandpiper and willet rest in the region in the fall and spring. The piping plover and Barrow's goldeneye are found here; the Nature Conservancy of Canada protects 417 hectares of the estuary. The Pugwash river originates in various brooks that run down from the thickly forested Cobequid Mountains, which run east and west along the Cobequid Isthmus and rise to an elevation of about 1,000 feet; the river rises just south to the southeast of Oxford. It runs in a northeast direction to Pugwash, a distance of 20 kilometres as the crow flies; the river flows past Birchwood and East Hansford, where it receives the outflow from McPherson Lake. It starts to broaden out near Conns Mill, turns north east north again before entering Pugwash Basin to the south of Pugwash village. An October 1881 report said that large shoals of alewife herring had been seen in the tideway the previous spring. However, 5 miles up the river, just at the tideway, the river was dammed for McPherson's saw mill.

There was no ladder or other way for fish to get up the river past the 8 feet dam. It went on, "There are 8 miles of good water between this point and McArthur's saw mill at the foot of McArthur's Lake, but at present, denied both to salmon and gaspereaux. Large shoals of the latter, were seen in the tide-way last spring. I cannot think they could spawn below the mill, for the water, when I saw it, was thick with sawdust and buckwheat shells. McArthur's dam is without a ladder."In 1891 the Pugwash fisheries overseer A. M. Wills reported that the smelt fishery in his division was a failure; the run was abundant but the fish were too small for market. His report noted, "The main abuses to the fisheries were caused by mill refuse, old trees and sawdust. All the oysters taken in this division were caught in Pugwash River, and men who were raking there reported acres of grounds in the river so covered with sawdust they could not get their rakes down. There are three fish-ways in this division—one at Doyle's mills, two on the Shinimicas.

That at Somer's mills is in good o

Uinta Brewing Company

Uinta Brewing Company is a craft brewery founded in 1993 in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The company produces a range of beers, naming them after Utah's natural icons; as of 2016, Uinta was the 39th-largest craft brewery in the country. Uinta brewing company began brewing beer in the winter of 1993 in a renovated mechanics garage in Salt Lake City, Utah, their flagship beer was Cutthroat Pale Ale, named after Utah's State Fish. This was followed by King's Peak Porter, named after Utah's highest peak. In 2001, Uinta became the first Utah company to be 100% wind powered; the company began installing solar panels on the brewery roof in 2011. In August 2014, Uinta announced that it sold a percentage of the company to New York-based private equity firm The Riverside Company for an undisclosed amount. Uinta CEO Will Hamill stated that the capital raised would be used to hire new employees, expand beyond the Salt Lake City region. Uinta has seen accelerated growth since 2012. Uinta stated that it sold 60,000 barrels of beer in 2013, 77,000 barrels in 2014.

As of March 2015, Uinta beers are sold in 32 states and Washington, D. C. Cutthroat Pale Ale/Uinta Pale Ale 4% ABV Hop Nosh IPA 7.3% ABV Hop Nosh Tangerine IPA 7.3% ABV Detour Double IPA 9.5% ABV Golden Ale 5% ABV Pils Pilsner 5% ABV Baba Black Lager 4% ABV Ready Set Gose 4% ABV Piggy Back Session Peach IPA 4% ABV 801 Pilsner 4% ABV Wyld Simcoe Session Ale 4% ABV Golden Spike Hefeweizen 4% ABV Trader Session IPA 4% ABV Hoodoo Kolsch Golden Ale 4% ABV Bristlecone Brown Ale 4% ABV Yardsale Winter Lager 4% ABV Season Pass Vanilla Porter 4% ABV Rise & Pine Hoppy Dark Ale 7.5% ABV Farmside Saison 5.6% ABV Punk'n Pumpkin Ale 4% ABV Flamingose Pineapple Gose 4% ABV Anniversary Barley Wine 10.4% ABV Dubhe Imperial Black IPA 9.2% ABV Monkshine Belgian Style Blonde Ale 6% ABV Fest Helles German Style Lager 5.7% ABV 801 Coffee Pilsner 4% ABV Cutthroat+ Winter Pale Ale 4% ABV Cockeyed Cooper Sum'r Birthday Suit Funk'n Patch Pumpkin Ale 8% ABV Croggy Saison 6.8% ABV Sea Legs Baltic Porter 8.2% ABV Hopscursion IPA 6.5% ABV Hazel Contrail Kings Peak Skipping StoneTheir Hop Nosh IPA was designated "world class" by Beer Advocate.

Official website

Camp Foster

Camp Foster known as Camp Zukeran, is a United States Marine Corps camp located in Ginowan City with portions overlapping into Okinawa City, Chatan town and Kitanakagusuku village in the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa Island. It is part of the Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler complex. Camp Foster a United States Marine Corps camp located in Ginowan City; some of its portions overlap with Okinawa City, Chatan town and Kitanakagusuku village in the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa Island. It houses the headquarters of Marine Corps Base Butler, Marine Corps Installations Pacific and the Okinawa Area Field Office of United States Forces Japan, it was named after the Medal of Honor recipient PFC William A. Foster. Among its amenities are a large exchange with an adjacent food court. There is a smaller exchange “PX” next to the large exchange, which has a nail salon, barber shop, soft bank, AU, a toy land. Near the commissary is a bowling alley, skate park, performing arts center and movie theater.

The base operates Killin elementary schools and Kubasaki High School. The base's housing units include Kishaba, Futenma and Sada. In October 2013 Japanese officials entered the base with US permission to look for buried cultural properties, they discovered dozens of abandoned metal drums, but did not report this to the Ginowan city's mayor until March 2014. Members of the Japanese defense ministry's local bureau and Ginowan city visually inspected the site, as part of its cultural property research and "no unusual odor or color change in soil" was detected. No health problems have been "reported by residents living around the base". Ginowan city government had called the Japanese defense ministry's to investigate for "possible environmental impacts"; the Japanese Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera said: "We will take appropriate measures in cooperation with the United States and the city of Ginowan" as they plan environmental studies on soil in the week of 18 March 2014. The United States allow environmental inspections on U.

S. bases not planned for return to Japan. The Futenma housing area of the base was to be returned to Japan between 2001 and 2003, 5–7 years from 1996. In 2006, the Nishi-Futenma housing area at Camp Foster was vacated and slated for return to Japan, but Japanese concerns of contamination stalled the transfer. For example, bungalows in the military housing area built in the 1950s were insulated with asbestos. Per the U. S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement from 1960 the U. S military is not responsible for the remediation of land polluted by its bases in Japan; because the central government has not challenged the dated agreement, the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly created its own special committee regarding U. S. bases, to collect information directly about past storage of chemicals. In October 2013 it created a department of pollution, which would circumvent the central government and its environmental investigations, which some believe are not interested in communicating the true levels of pollution.

On 31 March 2015 the West Futenma housing area on Camp Foster was returned to Okinawa Prefecture implementing agreements to reduce and consolidate land used by the U. S. military. A 20-hectare part of the area is earmarked for a medical division with plans to build a prefecture administered advanced heavy particle cancer therapy facility; the University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, including the University Hospital, is scheduled to move from its current location in Nishihara into a new facility to be constructed on the land. 3rd Medical Battalion Marine Wing Support Group 17 Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 1 Marine Wing Communications Squadron 18 Combat Logistics Regiment 3 Combat Logistics Battalion 4 US Naval Hospital, Okinawa Marine Wing Support Squadron 172 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion List of United States Marine Corps bases United States Forces Japan This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps. Marine Corps Bases Japan's official website Marine Corps Smedley D. Butler's official website Camp Foster on MCCS Okinawa Camp Foster Google Map from MCCS Okinawa

Hotel Bohema

The Hotel Bohema is a 5-star rated hotel housed in a historical building at Konarskiego Street N°9, in downtown Bydgoszcz, Poland. The building is registered on the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Heritage List; the building stands on the western side of Konarskiego Street in Bydgoszcz, near Piotra Skargi Street. The building is in the vicinity of the Park Casimir the Great, Plac Wolnosci and Foutain "Potop"; the building was constructed in 1877 by master mason Anton Hoffman, stepfather of Józef Święcicki, who designed a multitude of tenements in Bydgoszcz, in particular Hotel "Pod Orlem", Gdanska street N°63 or Stary Port Street N°1 and 3. The first owner was a brick factory manager, Otto Bollmann, a German merchant who never lived in the house; the edifice was conceived as a tenement house with five apartments. At Schule straße 3, tenants were senior officers and artists, such as: Julius Bachmann, Lord Mayor of Bromberg in the 1880s,. In 1920, the property passed into the hands of Magdalena Łaganowska who settled there and rented the other flats.

During World War II, the tenement was taken over by German authorities, who accommodated there doctors who worked at the field hospital set up at Konarskiego N°5, now the building of the Catering School of Bydgoszcz. After World War II, the tenement was managed till the early 1990s. In 1997, it returned to private hands. Since December 2003, the owners of the building are Joanna and Janusz Franczak: they rebuilt the interiors and opened in July 2008 the Hotel "Bohema"; the Café and restaurant "Weranda" opened on April 15, 2007, restaurant "Black Diamond" on March 22, 2009. The hotel features eclectic style, standing out as a charm and rich bourgeois house from the belle époque period; the facade on the street boasts neo-Renaissance characteristics, in particular: a frieze and a rosette strip parting ground and first floor. The building side giving onto the park comprises the "Weranda" restaurant, but exposes in the background nicely restored wooden balcony and loggia; the hotel offers 24 rooms, a studio for families and suites.

Besides, it features, among others, a restaurant, the "Black Diamond", where you can have dinner in complete darkness, a rooftop terrace with jacuzzi,a wine cellar, an indoor swimming pool, a Spa and a Clarins massage salon. Every few months are organized exhibitions of artists and meetings with famous people; the hotel is proud of its ancient limousine with chauffeur in livery, which became today a symbol of the institution. Hotel "Bohema", since 2008, is the only five star hotel within Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship; the building has been registered on the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Heritage List N°722475 Reg. A/1385, on September 16, 2008. Bydgoszcz Piotra Skargi Street in Bydgoszcz Gdańska Street, Bydgoszcz Freedom Square, Bydgoszcz Jagiellońska street in Bydgoszcz Casimir the Great Park Web site of Hotel Bohema Umiński Janusz: Bydgoszcz. Przewodnik. Regionalny Oddział PTTK „Szlak Brdy”, Bydgoszcz 1996. Parucka, Krystyna. Zabytki Bydgoszczy – minikatalog. Bydgoszcz: "Tifen" Krystyna Parucka.

From Bunia to "Bohema", discussion between Joanna and Janusz Franczak with Irena Stürm-Delcroix, leaflet booklet published by the hotel