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Untertorbrücke

The Untertorbrücke is a stone arch bridge that spans the Aare at the easternmost point of the Enge peninsula in the city of Bern, connecting the Mattequartier in the Old City to the Schosshalde neighbourhood. Built in its current form in 1461–89, it is the oldest of Bern's Aare bridges, was the city's only bridge up until the middle of the 19th century, it is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. The need for a river crossing became urgent soon after the founding of Bern in 1191; the young city-state's first attempt at building a wooden bridge over the Aare triggered a war with Count Hartmann of the powerful House of Kyburg that controlled the territory east of the Aare. Thanks to a peace mediated by Savoy, the first Untertorbrücke could be completed in 1256. In 1288, it survived a heavy attack during King Rudolph of Habsburg's second siege of Bern; the bridge was built from oak wood and is believed to have been at least covered. It was protected by a fortified tower to the east, carried a guard house in its center and may have been built over with other houses or shacks.

A 1460 flood of the Aare caused severe damage to the bridge, the city government decided to rebuild it in stone, requesting the services of a work master from Zürich who had recently completed a bridge over the Limmat in Baden. The piers appear to have been complete and the bridge usable by March 1467, when the bridge chapel was consecrated; the construction was halted because of massive cost overruns and intermittent wars. It resumed in 1484–87 with the completion of the fortifications, the bridgehead drawbridge and the access roads. Up until the 1750s, the bridge's fortifications were improved; the parapet was strengthened with crenellated stone walls in 1517, the northern parapet was expanded to a covered battlement with a double layer of embrasures in 1625–30. In the 18th century, the medieval fortifications of the Untertorbrücke had lost their military value and became an obstacle to traffic. In 1757, the bridge was renovated and a competition was held for a remodeling of the bridge and its surroundings.

The city councils, rejected all the fanciful plans that were submitted and settled on a cheaper option: all fortifications, including battlements and pillar gates, were removed and new decorative gates were built at the bridgeheads, including a baroque triumphal arch at the eastern end. From 1818 on, more changes were made to the bridge's superstructure; the sandstone parapets were replaced with iron railings, the inner gate was removed and the eastern moat was filled with earth, obviating the outer drawbridge. The last substantial change to the bridge's appearance was made in 1864, when the eastern gate was pulled down because it inconvenienced the residents of the medieval guard tower, the Felsenburg, which had since been converted for residential purposes. In its current form, the bridge is reduced to the medieval construction core, with no traces of the once extensive system of fortifications or imposing baroque gates remaining; the two great piers, whose unequal strength recalls the stronger build of the former eastern pier gate, are built of sandstone and are faced by granite slabs from the 1820s.

At the eastern bridgehead, the two-lane road bends to the south where it once passed beneath the former guard tower. The stones of the three slender tuff arches date back to the construction period, while the Neo-gothic wrought-iron railing was installed in 1819; the state of the superstructure reflects that of the early 19th century. The cobbled roadbed, which carries two lanes amenable to motor traffic as well as sidewalks, was replaced in the bridge's last thorough renovation in 1979–81. Furrer, Bernhard, Übergänge: Berner Aareebrücken, Geschichte und Gegenwart, Bern: Benteli, ISBN 3-7165-0492-0 Hofer, Die Stadt Bern. Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Bern, 1, Basel: Gesellschaft für Schweizerische Kunstgeschichte / Verlag Birkhäuser, pp. 193–224, ISBN 3-906131-13-0 Caviezel, Zita.

Meissen Cathedral

Meissen Cathedral or the Church of St John and St Donatus is a Gothic church in Meissen in Saxony. It is situated on the castle hill of Meissen, adjacent to the Albrechtsburg castle and forms a critical centrepiece of the iconic Meissen skyline overlooking the River Elbe in the valley below, it was the episcopal see of the Bishopric of Meissen established by Emperor Otto I in 968. It replaced an older Romanesque church; the present-day hall church was built between 1260 and 1410, the interior features Gothic sculptures of founder Emperor Otto and his wife Adelaide of Italy as well as paintings from the studio of Lucas Cranach the Elder. The first Saxon elector from the House of Wettin, Margrave Frederick I, had the Prince's Chapel erected in 1425 as the burial place of his dynasty; the twin steeples were not attached until 1909. In 1581 the Meissen diocese was dissolved in the course of the Protestant Reformation, the church was used by the Protestant Church since, it is the cathedral church of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony.

The pulpit is located centrally, accessed from the north aisle. The unusual design dates from 1591; the church is divided into three sections: the inner church and choir stalls, containing a fine Flemish altarpiece. The latter contains the queens of Saxony; the pair of 81 metre high Neo-Gothic spires, critical to the Meissen skyline, were only added 1903 to 1909. They were designed by Carl Schäfer. in the Prince's ChapelFrederick I, Elector of Saxony Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg Frederick II, Elector of Saxony Ernest, Elector of Saxony Albert III, Duke of Saxony Sidonie of Poděbrady John, Hereditary Prince of SaxonyOthersBishop Benno the first Saxon saint George, Duke of Saxony known as George the Bearded and his wife Barbara Jagiellon Barthel Lauterbach Cathedral homepage

Family Style (Jet video album)

Family Style is the second full-length DVD by Jet. The DVD contains all the band's music videos from Get Born as well as a short behind the scenes documentary showing the band on tour. Cold Hard Bitch Get What You Need Sweet Young Thing Rollover DJ Look What You've Done Lazy Gun Are You Gonna Be My Girl Hey Kids Last Chance Get Me Outta Here Take It Or Leave It Move On That's Alright MamaMusic Videos "Take It Or Leave It" "Rollover DJ" "Rollover DJ" "Look What You've Done" "Are You Gonna Be My Girl" "Cold Hard Bitch" Family Style at AllMusic. Retrieved 20:39, 23 August 2016