Upper Austria

Upper Austria is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz. Upper Austria borders on Germany and the Czech Republic, as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria and Salzburg. With an area of 11,982 km2 and 1.437 million inhabitants, Upper Austria is the fourth-largest Austrian state by land area and the third-largest by population. For a long period of the Middle Ages, much of what would become Upper Austria constituted Traungau, a region of the Duchy of Bavaria, while the area around Steyr was part of the Duchy of Styria. In the mid 13th century it became known as the Principality above the Enns River, this name being first recorded in 1264. In 1490, the area was given a measure of independence within the Holy Roman Empire, with the status of a principality. By 1550, there was a Protestant majority. In 1564, Upper Austria, together with Lower Austria and the Bohemian territories, fell under Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. At the start of the 17th century, the counter-reformation was instituted under Emperor Rudolf II and his successor Matthias.

After a military campaign, the area was under the control of Bavaria for some years in the early 17th century. The Innviertel was ceded from the Electorate of Bavaria to Upper Austria in the Treaty of Teschen in 1779. During the Napoleonic Wars, Upper Austria was occupied by the French army on more than one occasion. In 1918, after the collapse of Austria-Hungary, the name Oberösterreich was used to describe the province of the new Austria. After Austria was annexed by Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator, born in the Upper Austrian town of Braunau am Inn and raised in Upper Austria, Upper Austria became Reichsgau Oberdonau, although this included the southern part of the Sudetenland, annexed from Czechoslovakia, a small part of Styria. In 1945, Upper Austria was partitioned between the American zone to the south and the Soviet zone to the north. Today, Upper Austria is Austria's leading industrial region; as of 2009, it accounted for a quarter of the country's exports. Upper Austria is traditionally divided into four regions: Hausruckviertel, Innviertel, Mühlviertel, Traunviertel.

Administratively, the state is divided into 15 districts, three Statutarstädte and 442 municipalities. Linz Steyr Wels Braunau am Inn Eferding Freistadt Gmunden Grieskirchen Kirchdorf an der Krems Linz-Land Perg Ried im Innkreis Rohrbach Schärding Steyr-Land Urfahr-Umgebung Vöcklabruck Wels-Land Austro-Bavarian language Linz Gosauseen Upper Austria official website

Gralla (instrument)

The gralla known as grall de pastor, xaramita o xirimita, is a traditional Catalan double reed instrument in the shawm family classified in the group 422.112 in the Hornbostel-Sachs system. Like the dolçaina from Valencia – a similar instrument that many experts consider a variety of the gralla –; the gralla comes from the ancient xeremia a medieval instrument used until the Baroque. The name of the instrument comes from its strident sound similar to the sound of a Jackdaw native to Catalonia and northern Spain and called'Gralla' in Catalan; this traditional instrument is used during the construction and dismantling of human towers or castells and other traditional festivities. It is played with the timbal, a percussion instrument similar to a drum; the traditional gralla melody used in castells, called the toc de castells, serves to advise the castellers within the tower what stage of the construction their colleagues have reached, as they are unable to see this. The gralla player is called graller o grallaire La gralla seca: the most simple type without any metallic keys and produces a more hard or strident sound.

It is the more typical type. La gralla dolça: longer than the others, can have from one to many metallic keys that are used to produce lower and higher notes that the gralla seca can't produce and have a less strident and more "sweeter" sound. Cap: in the top of the instrument is. Tub: the part between the tudell and the canya or inxa. Tudell: a conic tube made of metal where the canya is inserted. Canya o inxa: Formed by two identical reeds made of wood but independent, tied together by a wire. Cos: the central part of the instrument. A conical wood tube with six gaps in one in the back. Campana: the final part that act like an amplifier of the sound and has two gaps in the sides, it is covered with metal. El web de la gralla i el món graller Partitures per a gralla Més partitures per a gralla Encara més partitures per a gralla

1984–85 Birmingham City F.C. season

The 1984–85 Football League season was Birmingham City Football Club's 82nd in the Football League and their 33rd in the Second Division, to which they were relegated in 1983–84. They finished in second position in the 22-team division, so were promoted back to the First Division after only one season, they entered the 1984–85 FA Cup in the third round proper, lost to Norwich City in that round after three replays. They were eliminated from the League Cup by West Bromwich Albion in the third round after a replay. Wayne Clarke was the club's top scorer, with 19 goals in all competitions, of which 17 were scored in the league; the last home game of the season, a 1–0 win against Leeds United in front of a season-high crowd of nearly 25,000 that confirmed promotion back to the top flight, was marred by rioting in which 500 people were injured and a 15-year-old boy died when a wall collapsed. The match took place on the same day as the Bradford City stadium fire, both formed part of the remit of Mr Justice Popplewell's inquiry into safety at sports grounds.

According to his report, the events at St Andrew's "more resembled the battle of Agincourt than a football match". Numbers in parentheses denote appearances as substitute. Players with name marked left the club during the playing season. Players with names in italics and marked * were on loan from another club for the whole of their season with Birmingham. Birmingham City F. C. seasons General Matthews, Tony. Birmingham City: A Complete Record. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-010-9. Matthews, Tony. Birmingham City: The Complete Record. Derby: DB Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85983-853-2. Source for match dates, league positions and results: "Birmingham City 1984–1985: Results". Statto Organisation. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2013. Source for lineups, appearances and attendances: Matthews, Complete Record, pp. 404–05. Specific