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Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver to Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile above modern-day Aswan, downriver to the area of El-Ayait, which places modern-day Cairo in Lower Egypt; the northern part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag and El-Ayait, is known as Middle Egypt. In Arabic, inhabitants of Upper Egypt are known as Sa'idis and they speak Sai'idi Egyptian Arabic. In ancient Egypt, Upper Egypt was known as tꜣ šmꜣw "the Land of Reeds" or "the Sedgeland" It was divided into twenty-two districts called nomes; the first nome was where modern-day Aswan is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih just to the south of Cairo. The main city of prehistoric Upper Egypt was Nekhen, whose patron deity was the vulture goddess Nekhbet. By about 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to increase in complexity.

A new and distinctive pottery, related to the Levantine ceramics, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time; the Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time. Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt underwent a unification process. Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt under his single rule. For most of pharaonic Egypt's history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. After its devastation by the Assyrians, its importance declined. Under the Ptolemies, Ptolemais Hermiou took over the role of Upper Egypt's capital city.

Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet, its symbols were the flowering lotus and the sedge. In the 11th century, large numbers of pastoralists, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya and as far as Tunis, it is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, were the root cause of the migration. In the 20th-century Egypt, the title Prince of the Sa'id was used by the heir apparent to the Egyptian throne. Although the Kingdom of Egypt was abolished after the Egyptian revolution of 1952, the title continues to be used by Muhammad Ali, Prince of the Sa'id; the following list may not be complete: Sa'idi people Upper and Lower Egypt Geography of Egypt Edel, Elmar Zu den Inschriften auf den Jahreszeitenreliefs der "Weltkammer" aus dem Sonnenheiligtum des Niuserre Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, OCLC 309958651, in German. Media related to Upper Egypt at Wikimedia Commons

Lianna Swan

Lianna Catherine Swan, OLY is a British-Pakistani swimmer who holds seven Pakistani national records. She specialises in breaststroke. In July/August 2014, she represented Pakistan at the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, UK. Lianna represented Pakistan in 2016 South Asian Games in Guwahati, India. Lianna represented Pakistan at the Rio Olympics 2016 in Women's 50m freestyle. Swan was born in Bahrain to Nadia and a British father, she is a dual national of both the Pakistan. She took up swimming 6 years ago when she moved to Dubai, UAE, she completed her A-Levels in Dubai at Jumeirah College. Swan explained her decision to opt for Pakistan: "I would get a lot more out of being part of the Pakistan team because there’s a lot more people trying for the British team; the British team is prestigious as well, but being able to swim for your country, any country, is an achievement. I think when I first started swimming for Pakistan, the turning point for me." Swan won 9 gold and 3 silver medals during the National Championships held in June 2014.

This qualified her for the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Swan has competed in the 2010 Asian Games. Swan will participate in 5 events: breaststroke - 100m. In her first event: 50m breaststroke, she broke her own national record of 00.37.11 by swimming her heat in 00.35.72 and placing third. In the 100m freestyle event on 27 July 2014, she broke her own national record of 01:03:52 by swimming her heat in 01:03:32 and placing 6th. In February 2016, Lianna won gold medal in the women's 200m breaststroke in 2016 South Asian Games. 100m: 01:03:32 - Glasgow Commonwealth Games - 2014 50m: 00:35:72 - Commonwealth Games, Glasgow, UK - 2014 100m: 01:19:61 - 15th FINA World Championships, Spain - July 13 200m: 02:48:86 - 12 South Asian Games - 6 Feb 2016 200m: 02:32:61 - 15th FINA World Championships, Spain - July 13 Lianna Swan on Facebook

Order of Saint Michael the Archangel

The Order of Saint Michael the Archangel, is a dynastic order of knighthood instituted in 1988 by Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich, claimant to the headship of the former Russian Imperial House. It is not a state honour and is conferred by Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, current claimant of the headship of the former imperial house, it celebrates its foundation on the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel and the Synaxis of the All-Bodiless Powers on the 21/8 November. The order was founded in 1988 by Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich of Russia, Head of the Imperial House of Russia, it was created in commemoration of the 1,000 years of Russian Orthodoxy, the 375th anniversary of the ascension to the throne of the House of Romanov, the 50th anniversary of his own accession as head of the dynasty. At the time of its establishment, the Order was conferred in only one class for Knights and Dames, was awarded to "individuals who have distinguished themselves in the struggle for the liberation of Russia from godless communism, as well as fighters against communism in other countries."In 2012, in commemoration of the 400th anniversary of the end of the Time of Troubles, the Order was reorganized by Vladimir Kirillovich's daughter Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia, "for the purpose of strengthening and further developing the Russian Imperial tradition of philanthropy."

The Order is now awarded to "individuals of both sexes for distinguished services in charity and philanthropy." The Order of Saint Michael the Archangel has three classes, as follows: The first class: Knights and Dames Grand Cross of Saint Michael the Archangel The second class: Knights and Dames Commander of Saint Michael the Archangel The third class: Knights and Dames of Saint Michael the Archangel The Device of the Imperial Order of Saint Michael the Archangel is a four-pointed cross, black-enamelled gold, with flanged arms, centering a round enamel medallion. On the face is an image of Saint Michael the Archangel in gold, surrounded by a blue outer ring. On the back, appears the monogram of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich with the date “1613” in gold, the monogram of Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich, with the date “1988.” The cross is suspended from a Russian Imperial Crown. The Star of the Imperial Order of Saint Michael the Archangel is eight-pointed. In the center appears a Cross of the Order in miniature, surrounded by the Order’s Motto: “Mercy and Truth.”

Knights of the Order wear its Devices in the following way: Knights Grand Cross of Saint Michael the Archangel - wear a sash across their right shoulder with the suspended Grand Cross, the Star of the Order at left. Knight Commander of Saint Michael the Archangel - wear the Cross of the Order worn at the neck suspended from a ribbon. Knight of Saint Michael the Archangel - wear the Cross of the Order suspended from a ribbon worn on the left. Dames of the Order wear its Devices in the following way: Dames of the Grand Cross of Saint Michael the Archangel - wear the sash across their right shoulder with the suspended Grand Cross, the Star of the Order at left. Dames Commander of Saint Michael the Archangel – wear the Cross of the Order on the left shoulder suspended from a double bow. Dames of Saint Michael the Archangel – wear the Cross of the Order suspended from a single bow on the left shoulder. Created in 2012, the Association is a private philanthropic endeavor of Maria Vladimirovna, Grand Duchess of Russia.

Membership is reserved to men and women who are recommended for membership by two Knights or Dames of the Order of Saint Michael, approved by the Head of the Imperial House. Association members are awarded the right to wear a miniature badge of the order in bronze suspended from a ribbon on the left breast. Officers of the Association are conferred the right to wear a gold palm upon the ribbon; the Association's purpose is to raise funds to support charitable, philanthropic and cultural projects under the patronage of the Russian Imperial House. Not less than 80 percent of the funds collected annually by the Association is to be directed to these endeavors