Raymond F. Chandler
Raymond F. Chandler III is a retired United States Army soldier who served as the 14th Sergeant Major of the Army, he was sworn in on March 1, 2011 and active on duty until January 30, 2015. Chandler served in all tank crewman positions and has had multiple tours as a troop and regimental master gunner, he has served in the 1st Infantry Division, 2nd Infantry Division, 4th Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd Armored Division, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, United States Army Armor School, the United States Army Sergeants Major Academy. He served as first sergeant in four different detachments and companies; as a sergeant major, he served as Operations SGM in 1/2 ACR and as CSM in 1/7 Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division, United States Army Garrison Fort Leavenworth and the United States Army Armor School CSM. Chandler was assigned as the United States Army Sergeants Major Academy CSM in December 2007. In June 2009, Chandler became the 19th Commandant of USASMA and the first enlisted commandant in USASMA history.
Raymond Francis Chandler is a native of Whittier, was raised in Massachusetts, entered the United States Army in Brockton, Massachusetts in September 1981. He attended both Armor Advanced Individual Training at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Throughout his 35-year career, Chandler served in every enlisted leadership position from all tank crewman positions to his position as Sergeant Major of the Army. Other assignments he held as a sergeant major were Operations SGM in 1/2 ACR and as CSM in 1/7 Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Chandler was assigned as the United States Army Sergeants Major Academy CSM in December 2007, he deployed once, that being with 1st Squadron, 7th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division to Iraq in 2004. Chandler became the 14th Sergeant Major of the Army on March 1, 2011; as Sergeant Major of the Army, Chandler served as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army's personal adviser on all enlisted-related matters in areas affecting soldier training and quality of life, including the adoption of the new Army Service Uniform.
The Sergeant Major of the Army is invited to testify before U. S. Congress, he was succeeded by Daniel A. Dailey on January 30, 2015. In February 2015, Chandler was appointed by Senator Jack Reed to serve on the National Commission on the Future of the Army as a commissioner; the commission submitted its report to President Obama and to the 114th Congress on January 28, 2016. Chandler serves on several councils in support of Military and Veterans services. Chandler's military education includes Noncommissioned Officer Education System, M60A3 and M1/M1A1 Tank Master Gunner Course, Battle Staff NCO Course, First Sergeant Course, Basic Instructor Training, Total Army Instructor Trainer Course, Small Group Instructor Trainer Course, Video Tele-Training Instructor Trainer Course, Army Management Staff Course, Garrison Command Sergeant Major Course and various other professional development courses, his civilian education includes a Bachelor of Science degree in public administration from Upper Iowa University.
Chandler is a recipient of the Order of Saint George, the Distinguished Order of Saint Martin and the Honorable Order of Saint Barbara
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross known as The American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United States movement to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement; the organization offers services and development programs. ARC was established in Washington, D. C. on May 21, 1881, by Clara Barton. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the home of Senator Omar D. Conger. Fifteen people were present at this first meeting, including Barton and Representative William Lawrence; the first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville, New York. Jane Delano founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910. Clara Barton founded the American chapter after learning of the Red Cross in Switzerland.
In 1869, she went to Europe and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War. She was determined to bring the organization to America. Barton became President of the American branch of the society, known as the American National Red Cross in May 1881 in Washington; the first chapters opened in upstate New York. John D. Rockefeller and four others donated money to help create a national headquarters near the White House. Frederick Douglass, famed abolitionist and friend of Clara Barton offered advice and support as Barton sought to establish the American chapter or the global Red Cross network; as Register of Deeds for the District of Columbia, Douglass signed the original Articles of Incorporation for the American Red Cross. Barton led one of the group's first major relief efforts, a response to the September 4–6, 1881 Great Fire of 1881 in the Thumb region of Michigan. Over 5,000 people were left homeless; the next major disaster was the Johnstown Flood, which occurred on May 31, 1889.
Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Pennsylvania in one of the worst disasters in United States history. Barton was unable to build up a staff she trusted and her fundraising was lackluster, she was forced out in 1904. Professional social work experts took control and made the group a model of Progressive Era scientific reform. New leader Mabel Thorp Boardman consulted with senior government officials, military officers, social workers, financiers. William Howard Taft was influential, they imposed an ethos of "managerialism", transforming the agency from Barton's cult of personality to an "organizational humanitarianism" ready for expansion. ARC is a nationwide network of 36 blood service regions. 166,000 Red Cross volunteers, including FemaCorps and AmeriCorps members, 30,000 employees annually mobilize relief to people affected by more than 67,000 disasters, train 4 million people in necessary medical skills and exchange more than a million emergency messages for U.
S. military service personnel and their family members. ARC is the largest supplier of blood products in the US, supplying 2,600 hospitals; the charity assists victims of international disasters and conflicts worldwide, connecting separated family members. In 2006, the organization had over $6 billion in total revenues, though revenues have fallen since Katrina. At that time, revenue from blood and blood products alone was over $2 billion - biological services represents about 63% of total operating expenses, though the unit operates at a deficit; the American Red Cross is divided into five divisions: Disaster Services, Blood Services, Training Services, International Services, Service to the Armed Forces. William K. Van Reypen 1905–06 Robert Maitland O'Reilly 1906 George Whitefield Davis 1906–15 William Howard Taft 1915–19 Livingston Farrand 1919–21 John Barton Payne 1921–35 Cary T. Grayson 1935–38 Norman Davis 1938–44 Basil O'Connor 1944–47, title changed to President, 1947–49 George Marshall 1949–1950 E. Roland Harriman 1950–1953, title changed to Chairman, 1954–73 Frank Stanton 1973–79 Jerome H. Holland 1979–85 George F.
Moody 1985–92 Norman Ralph Augustine 1992–2001 David T. McLaughlin 2001–04 Bonnie McElveen-Hunter 2004–present Recent presidents and CEOs include Gail McGovern, Elizabeth Dole, Bernadine Healy, Mary S. Elcano, Mark W. Everson and John F. McGuire. In 2007, U. S. legislation clarified the role for the Board of Governors and that of the senior management in the wake of difficulties following Hurricane Katrina. As of November 2017, the American Red Cross scores three out of four stars in Charity Navigator and B+ at CharityWatch. In 1996, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry magazine, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility; the study showed that ARC was ranked as the third "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 48% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "Love", "Like A lot" to describe the Red Cross. Cora L. Abbott, organizer of Turlock Red Cross Chapter Minnie C. Benson, American Red Cross Reserve alist Inez Mee Boren, organizing chairwoman of the Lindsay Strathmore Branch of the American Red Cross Emily M. Bruen, member of Committee for Red Cross Emilie Henry Burcham, treasurer Spokane Chapter American Red Cross Euna Pearl Burke, member of Board of Directors of Red Cross Emma P. Chadwick, member Executive Board of Red Cross Louise Keller Cherry, on
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Methodist Episcopal Church
The Methodist Episcopal Church was the oldest and largest Methodist denomination in the United States from its founding in 1784 until 1939. It was the first religious denomination in the US to organize itself on a national basis. In 1939, the MEC reunited with two breakaway Methodist denominations to form the Methodist Church. In 1968, the Methodist Church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church to form the United Methodist Church; the MEC's origins lie in the First Great Awakening when Methodism emerged as an evangelical revival movement within the Church of England that stressed the necessity of being born again and the possibility of attaining Christian perfection. By the 1760s, Methodism had spread to the Thirteen Colonies, Methodist societies were formed under the oversight of John Wesley; as in England, American Methodists remained affiliated with the Church of England, but this state of affairs became untenable after the American Revolution. In response, Wesley ordained the first Methodist elders for America in 1784.
Under the leadership of its first bishops, Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, the Methodist Episcopal Church adopted episcopal polity and an itinerant model of ministry that saw circuit riders provide for the religious needs of a widespread and mobile population. Early Methodism was countercultural in that it was anti-elitist and anti-slavery, appealing to African Americans and women. While critics derided Methodists as fanatics, the Methodist Episcopal Church continued to grow during the Second Great Awakening in which Methodist revivalism and camp meetings left its imprint on American culture. In the early 19th century, the MEC became the largest and most influential religious denomination in the United States. With growth came greater institutionalization and respectability, this led some within the church to complain that Methodism was losing its vitality and commitment to Wesleyan teachings, such as the belief in Christian perfection and opposition to slavery; as Methodism took hold in the Southern United States, church leaders became less willing to condemn the practice of slavery or to grant African American preachers and congregations the same privileges as their white counterparts.
A number of black churches were formed as African Americans withdrew from the MEC, including the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. By the 1830s, however, a renewed abolitionist movement within the MEC made keeping a neutral position on slavery impossible; the church divided along regional lines in 1844 when pro-slavery Methodists in the South formed their own Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Around the same time, the holiness movement took shape as a renewal movement within the MEC focused on the experience of Christian perfection, but it led a number of splinter groups to break away from the church. Due to large-scale immigration of Catholics, the Catholic Church displaced the MEC as the largest US denomination by the end of the 19th century; the Methodist Episcopal Church originated from the spread of Methodism outside of England to the Thirteen Colonies in the 1760s. Earlier, Methodism had grown out of the ministry of John Wesley, a priest in the Church of England who preached an evangelical message centered on justification by faith, the possibility of having assurance of salvation, the doctrine of Christian perfection.
Wesley was loyal to the Anglican Church, he organized his followers into parachurch societies and classes with the goal of promoting spiritual revival within the Church of England. Members of Methodist societies were expected to attend and receive Holy Communion in their local parish church, but Wesley recruited and supervised lay preachers for itinerant or traveling ministry. Around fifteen or twenty societies formed a circuit. Anywhere from two to four itinerant preachers would be assigned to a circuit on a yearly basis to preach and supervise the societies within their circuit. One itinerant preacher in each circuit would be made the "assistant", he would direct the activities of the other itinerant preachers in the circuit, who were called "helpers". Wesley gave out preaching assignments at an annual conference. In 1769, Wesley sent itinerants Robert Williams, Richard Boardman, Joseph Pilmore to oversee Methodists in America after learning that societies had been organized there as early as 1766 by Philip Embury, Robert Strawbridge, Thomas Webb.
In 1773, Wesley appointed Thomas Rankin general assistant, placing him in charge of all the Methodist preachers and societies in America. On July 4, 1773, Rankin presided over the first annual conference on American soil at Philadelphia. At that time there were 1,160 Methodists in America led by ten lay preachers. Itinerant Methodist preachers would become known as circuit riders. Methodist societies in America operated within the Church of England. There were several Anglican priests who supported the work of the Methodists, attending Methodist meetings and administering the sacraments to Methodists; these included Charles Pettigrew of North Carolina, Samuel Magaw of Dover and Philadelphia, Uzel Ogden of New Jersey. Anglican clergyman Devereux Jarratt was a active supporter, founding Methodist societies in Virginia and North Carolina; the American Revolution left America's Anglican Church in disarray. Due to the scarcity of Anglican ministers, Methodists in the United States were unable to receive the sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion.
On September 1, 1784, Wesley responded to this situation by ordaining two Methodists a
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
University of Northern Iowa
The University of Northern Iowa is a public university in Cedar Falls, Iowa. UNI offers more than 90 majors across the colleges of Business Administration, Humanities and Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences and graduate college; the fall 2018 enrollment is 11,212. More than 88 percent of its students are from the state of Iowa; the University of Northern Iowa was founded as a result of two influential forces of the nineteenth century. First, Iowa wanted to care for orphans of its Civil War veterans, secondly, Iowa needed a public teacher training institution. In 1876, when Iowa no longer needed an orphan home, legislators Edward G. Miller and H. C. Hemenway started the Iowa State Normal School; the school's first building was known as Central Hall. The building contained classrooms, common areas, a living facility for most of the students, it was a home to the college's first principal, James Cleland Gilchrist. The building was the heart and soul of the school, allowing students to study courses of two-year, three-year, four-year degrees.
In 1965, a fire destroyed Central Hall, school faculty and Cedar Falls citizens donated over $5,000 to start building Gilchrist Hall. The school has been known under the following names: Iowa State Normal School, 1876–1909 Iowa State Teachers College, 1909–1961 State College of Iowa, 1961–1967 University of Northern Iowa, 1967–present University of Northern Iowa Colleges include: Business Education Humanities and Sciences Social and Behavioral Sciences Graduate College The class entering in fall 2018 had 1,766 freshmen enroll; the incoming class of 2016 marked the most diverse class in UNI's history with 11.2 percent minority students. Minority students now account for just over 10 percent of UNI's student body. UNI has implemented a Liberal Arts Core in order to provide a common liberal arts foundation for all undergraduate students. UNI provides an opportunity for the students to study in 25+ countries and select from over 40 programs; the mission of the Study Abroad Center at the University of Northern Iowa is to provide service and leadership in international education to UNI students, staff, the community and the State of Iowa.
The Culture and Intensive English Program is an intensive program in English for non-native speakers. It is designed to prepare students for academic work at the graduate degree level. University of Northern Iowa students are encouraged to participate in the Conversation Partner Program to help foreign students with their English ability and foster cross-cultural relationships while gaining mutual understanding; the university is the publisher of The North American Review, a celebrated literary magazine that began in Boston in 1815. Its past editors have included James Russell Lowell, Charles Eliot Norton, Henry Adams. In 1968, when the magazine was purchased by UNI, Robley Wilson was appointed editor, a position he continued in until his retirement in 2000; the current editors are Vince Gotera. The University of Northern Iowa Teaching and Research Greenhouse is a greenhouse complex incorporating botanical gardens for research and education, it is located on the campus of the University of Northern Iowa in Iowa.
The greenhouse contains plants from many ecotypes, including 250 tropical plants, an extensive collection of arid climate plants, the 1,200-square-foot Aquatic Learning Center. From 2014 through 2018 the UNI hosted the Midwest Summer Institute: Inclusion and Communication for All, a two-day conference on Facilitated communication sponsored by the Inclusion Connection and Syracuse University's Institute on Communication and Inclusion. In 2018, just before the fifth annual conference held on June 18-19, a group of over thirty "researchers and academics around the globe" signed a letter to the UNI asking the university to cancel the conference because the practice has been "thoroughly discredited over 25 years ago"; the letter stated that "overwhelming scientific evidence suggests that facilitated communication constitutes a serious violation of the individual and human rights of people with disabilities, robbing them of the opportunity to communicate independently with available innovative technologies."
Proponents of the method have defended the conference. The National Council Against Health Fraud released an article, critical of the school's support of Facilitated Communication and summarized the American Speech–Language–Hearing Associations draft position on Facilitated Communication as a harmful pseudoscience; the 2018 conference was held as scheduled, but the university withdrew its support shortly thereafter. On Oct 24, 2018, Provost Jim Wohlpart announced. Critics were pleased with this result but are skeptical of UNI's statement that the workshop was hosted by an outside agency, as UNI continues to employ "current staff members who trained with Douglas Biklen; the school's mascot is the Panther. They participate in the NCAA's Division I in the Missouri Valley Football Conference, the Missouri Valley Conference for most other sports, the Big 12 Conference for wrestling; the major arena on campus is the UNI-Dome the home of the football team. The Dome serves as a venue for many local concerts, high school football playoffs, trade shows, other events.
In 2006, the University opened a new arena, the McLeod Center, to serve as the home for several athletic programs, including volleyball and men's and women's basketball. UNI Athletics has enjoyed great suc
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill