Lake County, California
Lake County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 64,665; the county seat is Lakeport. The county takes its name from Clear Lake, the dominant geographic feature in the county and the largest natural lake wholly within California. Lake County forms CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is directly north of the San Francisco Bay Area. Lake County is part of California's Wine Country, which includes Napa and Mendocino counties, it includes over 35 wineries. Lake County was formed in 1861 from parts of Napa and Mendocino counties, but the area had European-American settlers from at least the 1840s. Lake County has long been known as a farming community; the 1911 California Blue Book lists the major crops as Bartlett beans. Other crops include grain, hay, peaches, apples and walnuts. Stockraising included goats, hogs and dairying; some vineyards were planted in the 1870s by European Americans but the first in the state were established in the 18th century by Spanish missionaries.
By the early 20th century, the area was earning a reputation for producing some of the world's greatest wines. However, in 1920, national Prohibition ended Lake County's wine production. With authorized cultivation limited to sacramental purposes, most of the vineyards were ripped out and replanted with walnut and pear orchards. A re-emergence of Lake County's wine industry began in the 1960s when a few growers rediscovered the area's grape-growing potential and began planting vineyards. Several Lake County American Viticultural Areas, such as High Valley AVA and Red Hills Lake County AVA, have been recognized as having distinct character; the area has increased vineyard acreage from fewer than 100 acres in 1965 to more than 9,455 acres of vineyard in 2015. Lake County's grape prices, at $1,634 per ton overall reached an all-time high in 2015. In 2014, Lake County surpassed Mendocino County in price paid per ton of grapes in the North Coast premium market; the number of wineries continues to grow, with over 35 wineries now located in Lake County.
Lake County has been ranked by the American Lung Association as having the cleanest air in the nation, including in 2013, 2014 and 2015. Lake County has been ranked twenty-four times as having the cleanest air in California; the American Lung Association's website gives Lake County air a "C" grade for high ozone days and an "A" grade for particle pollution. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,329 square miles, of which 1,256 square miles is land and 73 square miles is water. Two main watercourses drain the county: Cache Creek, the outlet of Clear Lake. Both of these flow to the Sacramento River; the main streams which flow into Clear Lake are Forbes Creek, Scotts Creek, Middle Creek and Kelsey Creek. At the extreme north of the county Lake Pillsbury and the Van Arsdale Reservoir dam the Eel River, providing water and power to Ukiah in Mendocino County. Clear Lake is believed to be the oldest warmwater lake in North America, due to a geological fluke; the lake sits on a huge block of stone which tilts in the northern direction at the same rate as the lake fills in with sediment, thus keeping the water at the same depth.
The geology of the county is chaotic, being based on Franciscan Assemblage hills. Numerous small faults are present in the south end of the lake as well as many old volcanoes, the largest being Cobb Mountain; the geologic history of the county shows events of great violence, such as the eruption of Mount Konocti and Mount St. Helena and the collapse of Cow Mountain, which created the hills around the county seat of Lakeport. Blue Lakes, Lake Pillsbury, Indian Valley Reservoir are the county's other major bodies of water. Lake County has habitats for a variety of species of concern including the uncommon herb, Legenere limosa, the rare Eryngium constancei, the tule elk. Waterfowl and other wildlife abound in the Clear Lake basin. Due to its surrounding hilly terrain, Lake is the only one of California's 58 counties never to have been served by a railroad line. Glenn County - northeast Colusa County - east Yolo County - southeast Napa County - southeast Sonoma County - southwest Mendocino County - west Mendocino National Forest Cow Mountain Recreation Area Cache Creek Wilderness and Cache Creek Wildlife AreaIn 2015 President Barack Obama created the Berryessa Snow Mountain National Monument, incorporating these and other areas.
Boggs Mountain Demonstration State Forest Anderson Marsh State Historic Park Loch Lomond Vernal Pool Ecological Reserve Boggs Lake Ecological Reserve Clear Lake State Park Rodman Slough Preserve In the late 19th century, the worldwide popularity of mineral water for the relief of myriad physical ailments resulted in the development of mineral resorts around Clear Lake. Greene Bartlett discovered Bartlett hot springs in 1870; the springs were developed by 1900 included a mineral water bottling plant. The resort burned down in 1934. Harbin Hot Springs was developed by settlers in the 1860s. Harbin burned to the ground in the Valley Fire of 2015. Highland Springs opened in 1891, was destroyed by fire in 1945. During its time, Highland had a spacious hotel. Saratoga Springs Resort was opened by J. J. Liebert in 1873 with several cabins, within two decades had room for 350 guests. Witter Springs Resort opened in 1873 with a hotel and gue
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are located on the western coasts of continents, between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator between oceanic climates towards the poles, semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates; the resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" of agricultural products have traditionally developed: wheat and olive.
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, including Algiers, Beirut, İzmir, Marseille, Rome and Valencia. Examples of major cities with Mediterranean climates that lie outside of the historic Mediterranean basin include major examples as Adelaide, Cape Town, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Perth, San Francisco and Victoria. Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates and "cool dry-summer" climates are referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group. Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months; the second letter indicates the precipitation pattern. Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level; the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C.
Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, parts of New Zealand. Additional highland areas in the subtropics meet Cs requirements, though they, are not associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, the eastern part of the Azores. Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm. Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do, the rare Csc zones become Eo, with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.
During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are influenced by cold ocean currents which keep the weather in the region dry and pleasant. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night. In winter, Mediterranean climate zones are no longer influenced by the cold ocean currents and therefore warmer water settles near land and causes clouds to form and rainfall becomes much more likely; as a result, areas with this climate receive all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture increases; the rainfall tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Southern California the summer is nearly or dry.
In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate. The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have mild winters and warm summers; however winter and summer temperatures can vary between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season. In contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C due to
Mendocino National Forest
The Mendocino National Forest is located in the Coastal Mountain Range in northwestern California and comprises 913,306 acres. It is the only national forest in the state of California without a major paved road entering it. There are a variety of recreational opportunities — camping, mountain biking, backpacking, fishing, nature study and off-highway vehicle travel; the forest lies in parts of six counties. In descending order of forestland area they are Lake, Mendocino, Tehama and Colusa counties. Forest headquarters are located in California. There are local ranger district offices in Covelo, Upper Lake, Stonyford; the forest includes four wilderness areas: Sanhedrin Wilderness - 10,571 acres Snow Mountain Wilderness — 37,680 acres Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness — 147,070 acres Yuki Wilderness - 53,887 acres The Sanhedrin and Yuki wildernesses were signed into law on October 17, 2006. This legislation, entitled "Northern California Coastal Wild Heritage Wilderness Act", added areas to both the Yolla Bolly - Middle Eel Wilderness and Snow Mountain Wilderness, established the two new wilderness areas in the Mendocino National Forest.
Rivers include: Eel River, Rice Fork Eel River, Middle Fork Eel River, Black Butte River, Stony Creek. Lake Pillsbury is the largest recreational lake in the forest at 2,280 acres and offers boat ramps and resorts. Letts Lake, southeast of Lake Pillsbury is 35 acres in size and has hiking trails, campgrounds and is close to trailheads into Snow Mountain Wilderness. Other lakes include Plaskett Lakes in the middle of the forest, Hammerhorn and Long Lakes near Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness in the northern portion. In 1902 the first surveys of public domain lands were conducted by Professor Lachie of the University of California, working under the direction of Gifford Pinchot, Chief of the United States Forest Service, to determine what land should be included in a forest reserve. In 1905 the U. S. Congress moved the reserves from the General Land Office in the Department of the Interior to the new Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; the Division of Forestry became the U. S. Forest Service.
President Theodore Roosevelt set aside the reserve on February 6, 1907 as the Stony Creek Forest Reserve and one month the reserve was added to the national forest system as the Stony Creek National Forest. Because of the difficulty of managing such a large tract of land, the northern portion was reassigned to Trinity National Forest the final boundaries of the new Stony Creek forest were drawn and was signed into law by executive order of the president on July 2, 1908 and renamed the California National Forest. "In order to avoid the confusion growing out of the state and a national forest therein having the same name" President Herbert Hoover signed executive order 5885 renaming California National Forest to Mendocino National Forest on July 12, 1932. The development of the forest increased to 81 offices and guard stations until improvements in transportation and communications allowed some offices to be closed. Today there are three ranger districts, with some of the former guard stations now being utilized as "work centers" that are staffed by fire crews.
Two areas managed by the Mendocino National Forest are outside the contiguous boundaries and they are the Genetic Research Center in Chico and the Lake Red Bluff Recreation Area in central California. Acquired by the Forest Service in 1974, it was a plant breeding research and plant introduction facility, started in 1904 on a 209-acre site under the Agriculture Research Service; the center's research changed to developing and producing genetically improved plant material for the reforestation program of the Pacific Southwest Region. Major work is done in the areas of biological and clinical research on anti-cancer drugs derived from plants; the infamous Rattlesnake Fire occurred here in 1953. One Forest Service employee and 14 volunteer firefighters perished; the circumstances of the tragedy resulted in major changes in firefighting training. The firefighters are memorialized at the Rattlesnake Fire Memorial overlooking Rattlesnake Canyon. Access to it can be found off of Forest Highway 7 on County Road 307/Alder Springs Road.
The Trough Fire burned 25,000 acres of the Mendocino National Forest in 2001 including land in the Snow Mountain Wilderness. The tule elk is one of the largest land mammals native to California, with cows weighing up to 350 pounds, the largest bulls weighing 500 pounds. Hunted to near extinction during the state's gold rush era, the animals were reintroduced to the Lake Pillsbury Basin in the late 1970s by the California Department of Fish and Game, the herd has grown, numbering around 80 in 2007; the elk live on the north shore of the lake at the bottom of Hull Mountain, enjoy wild clovers and grasses, along with the green summer and fall foliage around Lake Pillsbury's edges. Mendocino National Forest and Los Padres National Forest are the only two national forests in California to have tule elk. There is a 10-day hunting season beginning on the second Wednesday in September each year. An estimated 60,000 acres of old growth occur here, including forests of Coast Douglas-fir, Ponderosa Pine, White Fir and Pacific madrone.
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol