Upper Midwest

The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U. S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States, it is a sub-region of the Midwest. Although the exact boundaries are not uniformly agreed-upon, the region is defined as referring to the states of Minnesota, Michigan, South Dakota, North Dakota; the National Weather Service defines its Upper Midwest as the states of Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. The United States Geological Survey uses two different Upper Midwest regions: The USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center considers it to be the six states of Illinois, Iowa, Michigan and Wisconsin, which comprise the watersheds of the Upper Mississippi River and upper Great Lakes; the USGS Mineral Resources Program considers the area to contain Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. The Association for Institutional Research in the Upper Midwest includes the states of Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota and the upper peninsula of Michigan in the region. According to the Library of Congress, the Upper Midwest includes the states of Minnesota and Michigan.

The USDA reported that corn, soybean and sugar beet crops saw harvest gains in 2018, but were still below the five-year averages. In North Dakota, for example, 49% of corn was harvested by November 4 compared with the five-year average of 97%; this was in part due to weather conditions in October. The region has dramatic variations between winter temperatures. For example, Sioux Falls averages 25 days each year with temperatures above 90 °F and 45 days each year with temperatures below 5 °F. Mitchell, South Dakota has a record high of 116 °F and a record low of −39 °F; the growing season is shorter and drier than areas farther south and east. The region's western boundary is sometimes considered to be determined by where the climate becomes too dry to support growing non-irrigated crops other than small grains or hay grass; the Inland North dialect, most prominently characterized by the Northern Cities Vowel Shift, is centered in the eastern part of the Upper Midwest, including Wisconsin and the northern parts of Illinois and Ohio.

North Central American English, a residual accent of American English, is spoken in Minnesota, parts of Wisconsin and Iowa, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, portions of Montana, the Dakotas. The Upper Midwest was the heartland of early 20th-century Progressive Party politics, the region continues to be favorable to the Democratic Party of the United States and moderate Republicans, with Minnesota favoring each Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and Wisconsin from 1988 to 2012. Minnesota narrowly supported native Walter Mondale in 1984 in an election where Ronald Reagan won every other state. Michigan and Wisconsin often favor Democratic candidates. However, beginning with the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans experienced substantial gains in state legislative and executive offices in Iowa, Minnesota and Michigan; this trend has continued through 2016. There are three Democratic governors in the region and three Republican governors. Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign made significant in-roads in the Upper Midwest.

Trump won the electoral votes of Iowa, Michigan, North Dakota, South Dakota, leaving Illinois and Minnesota the sole Blue States in the Upper Midwest in 2016. Hillary Clinton won Minnesota, finishing less than 2 percentage points ahead of Donald Trump; the economy of the region was based upon the mining of iron and copper, as well as a large timber industry. Mechanization has reduced employment in those areas, the economy is based on tourism. Popular interest in the environment and environmentalism, added to traditional interests in hunting and fishing, has attracted a large urban audience who live within driving range. Louisiana Northern Tier 100th meridian west Siouxland Culture: Culture of Illinois Culture of Iowa Culture of Michigan Culture of Minnesota Culture of North Dakota Culture of South Dakota Culture of Wisconsin The History of the Upper Midwest: An Overview USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center U. S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Mineral Resources Program

Döbereiner's lamp

Döbereiner's lamp called a "tinderbox", is a lighter invented in 1823 by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner. 1880. In the jar, similar to the Kipp's apparatus, zinc metal reacts with dilute sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen gas; when a valve is opened, a jet of hydrogen is released onto a platinum sponge. The sponge catalyzes a reaction with atmospheric oxygen, which heats the catalyst and ignites the hydrogen, producing a gentle flame, it was commercialized for lighting pipes. The world's largest manufacturer of these lighters was Heinrich Gottfried Piegler from Schleiz in Thuringia, it is said. Examples of the lighter are exhibited in the Deutsches Museum and in the old pharmacy at Heidelberg Castle. Timeline of hydrogen technologies Hoffmann, Roald. "Döbereiner's Lighter". American Scientist. 86: 326. Doi:10.1511/1998.4.326. George B. Kauffman. "Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner's Feuerzeug". Platinum Metals Review. 43: 122–128

Tunisian General Labour Union

The Tunisian General Labour Union is a national trade union center in Tunisia. It has a membership of 517,000 and was founded January 20, 1946; the UGTT is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation and the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions. The UGTT worked together with the Tunisian Human Rights League, the Tunisian Confederation of Industry and Handicrafts and the Tunisian Order of Lawyers – collectively labelled the National Dialogue Quartet – to address the national discord following the Jasmine Revolution of 2011; the National Dialogue Quartet was announced as the laureate of the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize "for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia". 1946–1952: Farhat Hached 1952–1952: Nouri Boudali 1952–1954: Mohamed Kraïem 1954–1956: Ahmed Ben Salah 1956–1963: Ahmed Tlili 1963–1965: Habib Achour 1965–1970: Béchir Bellagha 1970–1978: Habib Achour 1978–1981: Tijani Abid 1981–1984: Taieb Baccouche 1984–1989: Habib Achour 1989–2000: Ismaïl Sahbani 2000–2011: Abdessalem Jerad 2011-2017: Houcine Abassi from 2017: Noureddine Taboubi ICTUR.

Trade Unions of the World. London, UK: John Harper Publishing. ISBN 0-9543811-5-7. Official website