Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Fort Snelling known as Fort Saint Anthony, is a United States military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, a National Park Service unit, includes historic Fort Snelling; the fort is located in Fort Snelling Unorganized Territory in Hennepin County, named after the fortification. The Minnesota Historical Society now runs the fort, located atop a bluff along the river; the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources runs Fort Snelling State Park, protecting the land at the bottom of the bluff. Fort Snelling once encompassed both parcels; the fort is designated as a National Historic Landmark and has been named a "national treasure" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. In 1805, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike acquired Pike's Purchase from the Sioux Nation for the United States, comprising 100,000 acres of land in the area. Significant European-American settlement began in the late 1810s.
Following the War of 1812, the United States Department of War built a chain of forts and installed Indian agents at them between Lake Michigan and the Missouri River. These forts protected the northwestern territories from Canadian and British encroachment; the Army founded Fort Saint Anthony in 1819. Colonel Josiah Snelling commanded the 5th Infantry Regiment, its soldiers constructed the original Fort Saint Anthony from 1820 to 1824. During construction, most soldiers lived at Camp Coldwater, which provided drinking water to the fort throughout the 19th century; the post surgeon began recording meteorological observations at Fort Saint Anthony in January 1820, beginning one of the longest near-continuous weather records in the country. Upon the fort's completion in 1825, the Army renamed it as Fort Snelling in honor of its commander and architect; the soldiers at the northwestern frontier outposts tried to restrict commercial use of the rivers to United States citizens, keep American Indian lands free of white settlement until permitted by treaties, enforce law and order, protect legitimate travelers and traders.
At Fort Snelling, the garrison attempted to keep the peace among the Dakota people. Colonel Snelling suffered from chronic dysentery, bouts of the illness made him susceptible to anger. Recalled to Washington, he left Fort Snelling in September 1827. Colonel Snelling died in summer 1828 from complications due to dysentery and a "brain fever". John Marsh, a native of Danvers, came to the fort during the early 1820s. At the fort, he set up the first school in the Northwest Territory, to educate the children of the officers. Marsh developed a good relationship with members of the local Dakota band, he compiled a dictionary for the Dakota language. He had been studying medicine at Harvard for two years before deciding to leave school without earning a degree, he used this opportunity to "read medicine" under the tutelage of Dr. Purcell; the physician died before Marsh completed the two-year course, so he still had no medical degree. In 1830 Fort Snelling was the birthplace of John Taylor Wood, who became known as a lieutenant in the Confederate navy.
He served on board the Merrimack at the Battle of Hampton Roads. Officer John Emerson purchased the slave Dred Scott in Missouri, a slave state, he worked and lived at Fort Snelling during much of the 1830s, having brought Dred and his wife Harriet Scott with him. Under the Missouri Compromise, slavery was prohibited in Minnesota Territory; when Emerson returned to Missouri with the Scotts, they sued for their freedom and that of their daughters, because they had been held illegally in a free territory. A longstanding precedent in freedom suits of "once free, always free" was overturned in this case, it was appealed to the United States Supreme court. In Dred Scott v. Sandford, Chief Justice Taney ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that African Americans had no standing under the constitution, so could not sue for freedom; the decision increased sectional tensions between the South. Career Army officer and artist Seth Eastman had two tours at Fort Snelling, the second a lengthy one in the 1840s when he commanded the fort.
He completed many paintings and drawings of the Dakota and other Native American peoples while here, helped record their customs and lives. He was commissioned by Congress to illustrate the six-volume study of Indian Tribes of the United States by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, published 1851-1857 with hundreds of his works; as the towns of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota were developed in this area and increased in population, there was less need for a forward frontier military post in the region. The Army sold Fort Snelling to Franklin Steele, a friend of the sitting President, James Buchanan, in 1858 for $90,000. During the American Civil War, Franklin Steele leased Fort Snelling back to the War Department for use as an induction station. More than 24,000 recruits from Minnesota were trained here. During the Dakota War of 1862, the Army used it as an internment camp, holding hundreds of Dakota women and elders as captives on the river flats below the fort through the winter of 1862–63. Hundreds died there due to disease outbreaks.
After the winter, the Dakota people interned at Fort Snelling were forced onto steamboats and taken to Crow Creek in Southeastern South Dakota. The survivors at Crow Creek were forced to move a
The Minnesota River is a tributary of the Mississippi River 332 miles long, in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It drains a watershed of nearly 17,000 square miles, 14,751 square miles in Minnesota and about 2,000 sq mi in South Dakota and Iowa, it rises in southwestern Minnesota, in Big Stone Lake on the Minnesota–South Dakota border just south of the Laurentian Divide at the Traverse Gap portage. It flows southeast to Mankato turns northeast, it joins the Mississippi south of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, near the historic Fort Snelling; the valley is one of several distinct regions of Minnesota. The name Minnesota comes from the Dakota language phrase, "Mnisota Makoce", translated to "land where the waters reflect the sky", as a reference to the many lakes in Minnesota rather than the cloudiness of the actual river. For over a century prior to the organization of the Minnesota Territory in 1849, the name St. Pierre had been applied to the river by French and English explorers and writers.
Minnesota River is shown on the 1757 edition of Mitchell Map as "Ouadebameniſsouté or R. St. Peter". On June 19, 1852, acting upon a request from the Minnesota territorial legislature, the United States Congress decreed the aboriginal name for the river, Minnesota, to be the river’s official name and ordered all agencies of the federal government to use that name when referencing it; the valley that the Minnesota River flows in is up to five miles 250 feet deep. It was carved into the landscape by the massive glacial River Warren between 11,700 and 9,400 years ago at the end of the last ice age in North America. Pierre-Charles Le Sueur was the first European known to have traveled along the river; the Minnesota Territory, the state, were named for the river. The river valley is notable as the center of the canning industry in Minnesota. In 1903 Carson Nesbit Cosgrove, an entrepreneur in Le Sueur presided at the organizational meeting of the Minnesota Valley Canning Company. By 1930, the Minnesota River valley had emerged as one of the country's largest producers of sweet corn.
Green Giant had five canneries in Minnesota in addition to the original facility in Le Sueur. Cosgrove's son and grandson, Robert served as heads of the company over the ensuing decades before the company was acquired by General Mills. Several docks for barges exist along the river. Farm grains, including corn, are transported to the ports of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, shipped down the Mississippi River. List of Minnesota rivers List of crossings of the Minnesota River Sansome, Constance Jefferson. "Minnesota Underfoot: A Field Guide to the State's Outstanding Geologic Features". Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-036-9. Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0960-8. Place Names: the Minnesota River Drainage Area of the Minnesota River History of the Minnesota River Valley Minnesota River at Mankato - pictures and more information Minnesota River Basin Data Center - center at Minnesota State University, Mankato Texts on Wikisource: "Minnesota River".
Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Minnesota, a river which crosses the state of Minnesota". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Minnesota River". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Minnesota, or St. Peter's, a river of Minnesota"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
St. Croix River (Wisconsin–Minnesota)
The St. Croix River is a tributary of the Mississippi River 169 miles long, in the U. S. states of Minnesota. The lower 125 miles of the river form the border between Minnesota; the river is a National Scenic Riverway under the protection of the National Park Service. A hydroelectric plant at St. Croix Falls supplies power to the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area; the St. Croix River rises in the northwestern corner of Wisconsin, out of Upper St. Croix Lake in Douglas County, near Solon Springs 20 miles south of Lake Superior, it flows south to Gordon southwest. It is joined by the Namekagon River in northern Burnett County, where it becomes wider. A few miles downstream the St. Croix meets the boundary between Minnesota and Wisconsin, which it demarcates for another 130 miles until its confluence with the Mississippi River. Other major tributaries include the Kettle River, Snake River, Sunrise River joining from the west, the Apple River, Willow River, Kinnickinnic River joining from the east.
Just below Stillwater, Minnesota the river widens into Lake St. Croix, joins the Mississippi River at Prescott, Wisconsin 20 miles southeast of St. Paul, Minnesota; the St. Croix River was one of the original eight rivers to have significant portions placed under protection by the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968; the upper reaches of the river in Wisconsin below the St. Croix Flowage, 15 miles downstream from its source, as well as the Namekagon River, are protected as the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; the free-flowing nature of the river is interrupted only by a hydroelectric dam operated by the Northern States Power Company at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin; the lower 27 miles below the dam, including both sides of the river along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, were protected as part of the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway; this area includes the Dalles of the St. Croix River, a scenic gorge located near Interstate Park, south of St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Although the addition of an interstate bridge connected to MN Highway 36 was objected to by residents, nearby communities, conservation groups, the National Park Service, construction of the bridge was authorized by amending the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968.
Light and noise pollution are concerns of those opposed to the bridge, who cites the original act that kept such activity to the south along the Interstate 94 corridor. The St. Croix Crossing bridge was completed in August 2017; the St. Croix River Association is a watershed-wide non-profit advocating for conservation throughout the watershed. Founded in 1911 as an all-volunteer citizens group, it has evolved into a staffed, mature nonprofit organization and official "friends group" of the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, its mission is to protect and celebrate the St. Croix River and its watershed. Father Louis Hennepin wrote in 1683, from information provided by Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut: "There is another River which falls... into the Meschasipi... We named it The River of the Grave, or Mausoleum, because the Savages buried there one of their Men..., bitten by a Rattlesnake." In the original French, this is translated as "Rivière Tombeaux". Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin's 1688 map recorded a "Fort St. Croix" on the upper reaches of the river.
The name "Rivière de Sainte-Croix" was applied to the river sometime in 1688 or 1689, this more auspicious name supplanted Father Hennepin's earlier designation. On Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi by Guillaume Delisle and on A Map of North America by John Blair, the St. Croix River—more what was known as the east branch of the St. Croix River —is shown as the Ouasisacadeba, a French representation of the Dakota name for the St. Croix River. On the 1778 Mitchell Map, the river is titled "Ouadeba", which represents the Dakota watpá meaning "river"; the upper portion of river—originally called the north branch of the St. Croix River—was known to the Ojibwa as Manoominikeshiinh-ziibi. Downstream of its confluence with the Namekagon, the Ojibwa renamed the river as Gichi-ziibi or Okijii-ziibi At the time of European settlement of the valley and Ojibwe were engaged in a long and deadly war with each other; the portion of the river below the confluence with Trade River is called Jiibayaatig-ziibi in the Ojibwe language, reinforcing the earlier "Rivière Tombeaux" name in their language.
On Map of the Territories of Michigan and Ouisconsin by John Farmer, the St. Croix River is shown as the "Chippewa River". However, by 1843, Joseph Nicollet's Hydrographical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River reinforced the name provided by Franquelin's 1688 map; the river is the result of geologic forces going back 1.1 billion years. At that time, the Mid-Continent Rift rendered the middle of North America apart, creating a volcanic zone; the lava spewed forth cooled into hard basalt. That basalt is. About 500 million years ago, a shallow sea covered the area, laying down layers of sand and minerals that make up much of the sandstone bluffs now seen along the river. In the last 20,000 years, glaciers have scraped the landscape and released torrents of meltwater, which carved the St. Croix River's course; the river has been home to people for thousands of years. A bison kill site in May Township, Washington County, Minnesota is believed to be about 4,000 years old. An Oneota village from about 1200 A.
D. has been studied
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin
Prairie du Chien is a city in and the county seat of Crawford County, United States. The population was 5,911 at the 2010 census, its Zip Code is 53821. Referred to as Wisconsin's second oldest city, Prairie du Chien was established as a European settlement by French voyageurs in the late seventeenth century; the city is located near the confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers, a strategic point along the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway that connects the Great Lakes with the Mississippi. Early French visitors to the site found it occupied by a group of Fox Indians led by a chief whose name Alim meant chien in French; the French explorers named the location Prairie du Chien, French for "Dog's Prairie". This name applied only to the plain upon which the settlement is located, but it was applied to the city as well; the city of Prairie du Chien is located between the Town of Prairie du Chien and the Town of Bridgeport. The first known Europeans to reach Prairie du Chien were French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet, who arrived by canoe on June 17, 1673, discovering a route to the Mississippi River.
Travel between French Canada and the Mississippi River continued to pass through Prairie du Chien, although routes via the Illinois River were used. In 1685, the French explorer Nicolas Perrot established a trading post in the area as part of the large and lucrative French fur trade industry. After Americans entered the trade in the nineteenth century, John Jacob Astor built the Astor Fur Warehouse, an important building in the regional fur trade, centered in Prairie du Chien; the significance of Prairie du Chien as a center of the fur trade did not diminish until the mid-nineteenth century, when European demand declined, as did game stock. In 1763, after Great Britain defeated France in the French and Indian War, it took possession of the French territory in North America east of the Mississippi River, including Prairie du Chien. During the American Revolutionary War, the city was used as a meeting point for British troops and their Native American allies. After the American victory, the Treaty of Paris granted the area to the new United States of America, but the British and their Loyalists were slow to withdraw.
Only after the War of 1812 did the city become American. The US was slow to present any authority over Prairie du Chien, but late in the War of 1812 when the government realized the importance of holding the site to prevent British attacks from Canada, it began construction of Fort Shelby in 1814. In July, British soldiers captured the fort during the Siege of Prairie du Chien; the British maintained control over the city until the war's end in 1815. Not wanting another invasion through Prairie du Chien, the Americans constructed Fort Crawford in 1816; the fort was the site of the negotiations and signing of the Treaties of Prairie du Chien, by which the Fox and Sauk ceded much of their land to the US. Representing them and the United Nations of the Chippewa and Pottawatomie in the 1829 negotiations was Billy Caldwell, of Scots-Irish and Mohawk descent, he became involved with the Pottawatomie after moving to the US as a young man from Canada. In 1829, the army doctor William Beaumont carried out many of his famous experiments on digestion in the hospital of Fort Crawford.
Beaumont's discoveries are still the basis of current knowledge on the human digestive process. Col. Zachary Taylor, who became the 12th U. S. President, was the commanding officer at Fort Crawford during the Black Hawk War of 1832. Taylor oversaw the surrender of Black Hawk in Prairie du Chien. Lt. Jefferson Davis, who became president of the Confederate States of America, was stationed at Fort Crawford at the same time. Here Jefferson Davis met Zachary Taylor's daughter, Sarah "Knoxie" Taylor, whom he married in 1835. Outside the walls of the fort, early nineteenth century life in Prairie du Chien was still dominated by the fur trade. Prairie du Chien's most well-known traders during this time were Michel Brisbois, Joseph Rolette, Nathan Myrick, Hercules L. Dousman. Dousman built a fortune in the fur trade, combined with income from investments in land and railroads, propelled him to become the first millionaire in Wisconsin. Dousman died in 1868, his son, H. Louis Dousman, inherited much of his fortune.
In 1870 Louis Dousman used his inheritance to construct a luxurious Victorian mansion over the site of the former Fort Shelby. When Louis died unexpectedly in 1886, his family renamed the home "Villa Louis" in his memory; the Dousman family continued to occupy the home until 1913. Nearly 40 years in 1952, the mansion became Wisconsin's first state-operated historic site. After the fur trade declined in the mid-nineteenth century, Prairie du Chien's attention shifted to agriculture and the railroad. Although the city was first connected to the Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad in 1857, the width of the Mississippi River posed a challenge for further expansion of the railroad into Iowa; this problem was temporarily solved by disassembling the trains at Prairie du Chien and ferrying them across the river to be put back on the tracks on the other side. A better solution was found by Michael Spettel and John Lawler, who designed the permanent Pile-Pontoon Railroad Bridge to span the river in 1874. Lawler took most of the credit for this invention, made a small fortune through its operation.
The bridge remained in use until its removal in 1961. Lawler donated property to establish two Catholic boarding schools in Prairie du Chien, St. Mary's Institute, Campion High School in the part of the century. St. Mary's College remained in Prairie du Chien until 1928. Cam