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Upper Peninsula of Michigan

The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the south by Lake Michigan, the Straits of Mackinac, Lake Huron. Topographically, the base of the Upper Peninsula as a geologic feature lies in northeastern Wisconsin between the base of the Door Peninsula and Superior Bay. Michigan's Upper Peninsula is bounded on land by Wisconsin to the west. Five Michigan Upper Peninsula counties include nearby major islands: Mackinac Island, Round Island and Bois Blanc Island in Lake Huron are in Mackinac County; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry.

The peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste. Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain; the forested land, soil types, short growing season and logistical factors make the Upper Peninsula poorly suited for agriculture. The economy is based on logging and tourism; the first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages. They arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries.

American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies. Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808.

When the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula. In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota; when Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal.

In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union. At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise; the land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the Cali

Next Slovenian parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections will be held in Slovenia no than 5 June 2022. The 90 members of the National Assembly are elected by two methods. 88 are elected by open list proportional representation in eight 11-seat constituencies and seats are allocated to the parties at the constituency level using the Droop quota. The elected Deputies are identified by ranking all of a party's candidates in a constituency by the percentage of votes they received in their district; the seats that remain unallocated are allocated to the parties at the national level using the D'Hondt method with an electoral threshold of 4%. Although the country is divided into 88 electoral districts, deputies are not elected from all 88 districts. More than one deputy is elected in some districts, which results in some districts not having an elected deputy. Parties must have at least 35% of their lists from each gender, except in cases where there are only three candidates. For these lists, there must be at least one candidate of each gender.

Two additional deputies are elected by the Hungarian minorities. Voters rank all of the candidates on the ballot paper using numbers. A candidate is awarded the most points; the candidate with most points wins

Martin Ernst von Schlieffen

Martin Ernst von Schlieffen was a German general, politician and garden architect. Schlieffen was the son of the Prussian officer and landowner, Hans Michael von Schlieffen and his wife Anna Helena von Petersdorff, he was a member of the Schlieffen family. In 1745 he joined the Prussian army, he served in the garrison regiment in Berlin, until the regiment was divided into smaller garrisons in Eberswalde and Templin. In 1749 he was transferred to the Guards in Potsdam, with King Frederick II. Through reading, he educated himself as a writer. In 1755 he got a lung infection and was dismissed from the Prussian military, was not re-employed in 1757 after his recovery. In 1757 he joined the Hessian military, by 1763 had become a general, he had served time as adjutant-general to Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In 1772 he was promoted to Lieutenant-General by Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel, made Minister of State of Hesse, he was made a knight of the Order of the Golden Lion. Schlieffen became the most important adviser of Landgraves Frederick II and William IX.

In 1776 he accompanied to London the troops, lent to England by the Hessian Landgrave for the war in North America. In 1789 he entered the service of Prussia again under Frederick William II, he was soon awarded the Order of the Black Eagle. In the following years, he undertook several diplomatic missions at abroad. In 1790 he commanded the troops marching into Lüttich. In 1792 he resigned from the army, he withdrew to his estate at Windhausen, but lived some of the time in Mecklenburg. For his retirement home at Windhausen, he built Schloss Windhausen, as well as the Germanic Gardens next to it, he devoted himself to scientific studies and was a prolific writer, for which he received membership in the Prussian and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. He was a friend of Friedrich Schiller; the author wrote a family history of the von Schlieffens, as well as an autobiography. In the Kingdom of Westphalia, he was made a Baron on 2 April 1813 and was three times awarded the Order of the Crown of Westphalia.

He died at the age of 92 years. Ernst Friedländer: "Schlieffen, Martin Ernst von". In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 31, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890, p. 516 f. Eduard Brauns: Wander- und Reiseführer durch Nordhessen und Waldeck. A. Bernecker Verlag, Melsungen 1971 Walther Killy, Rudolf Vierhaus: Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie. K. G. Saur Verlag, Munich 1998, Vol. 8, p. 667 Jochen Lengemann: Biographisches Handbuch der Reichsstände des Königreichs Westphalen und der Ständeversammlung des Großherzogtums Frankfurt. Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-458-16185-6, p. 182 Anton Balthasar König: "Martin Ernst von Schlieffen". In: Biographisches Lexikon aller Helden und Militairpersonen. Vol. III