Upper West Side

The Upper West Side, sometimes abbreviated UWS, is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan, New York City, bounded by Central Park and the Hudson River, West 59th Street and West 110th Street. Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an affluent residential area with many of its residents working in commercial areas of Midtown and Lower Manhattan. To the Museum Mile district on the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is considered one of Manhattan's cultural and intellectual hubs, with Columbia University and Barnard College located just past the north end of the neighborhood, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School located at the south end; the Upper West Side is among New York City's wealthiest neighborhoods. The Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069, it is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. The Upper West Side is bounded on the south by 59th Street, Central Park to the east, the Hudson River to the west, 110th Street to the north.

The area north of West 96th Street and east of Broadway is identified as Manhattan Valley. The overlapping area west of Amsterdam Avenue to Riverside Park was once known as the Bloomingdale District. From west to east, the avenues of the Upper West Side are Riverside Drive, West End Avenue, Amsterdam Avenue, Columbus Avenue, Central Park West; the 66-block stretch of Broadway forms the spine of the neighborhood and runs diagonally north–south across the other avenues at the south end of the neighborhood. Broadway enters the neighborhood at its juncture with Central Park West at Columbus Circle, crosses Columbus Avenue at Lincoln Square, Amsterdam Avenue at Verdi Square, merges with West End Avenue at Straus Park. Traditionally the neighborhood ranged from the former village of Harsenville, centered on the old Bloomingdale Road and 65th Street, west to the railroad yards along the Hudson north to 110th Street, where the ground rises to Morningside Heights. With the construction of Lincoln Center, its name, though not the reality, was stretched south to 58th Street.

With the arrival of the corporate headquarters and expensive condos of the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle, the Riverside South apartment complex built by Donald Trump, the area from 58th Street to 65th Street is referred to as Lincoln Square by realtors who acknowledge a different tone and ambiance than that associated with the Upper West Side. This is a reversion to the neighborhood's historical name; the Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069. It is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department; the long high bluff above useful sandy coves along the North River was little used or traversed by the Lenape people. A combination of the stream valleys, such as that in which 96th Street runs, wetlands to the northeast and east, may have protected a portion of the Upper West Side from the Lenape's controlled burns. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the Upper West Side-to-be contained some of colonial New York's most ambitious houses, spaced along Bloomingdale Road.

It became infilled with smaller, more suburban villas in the first half of the nineteenth century, in the middle of the century, parts had become decidedly lower class. The name "Bloomingdale District" was used to refer to a part of the Upper West Side – the present-day Manhattan Valley neighborhood – located between 96th and 110th Streets and bounded on the east by Amsterdam Avenue and on the west by Riverside Drive, Riverside Park, the Hudson River, its name was a derivation of the description given to the area by Dutch settlers to New Netherland from Bloemendaal, a town in the tulip region. The Dutch Anglicized the name to "Bloomingdale" or "the Bloomingdale District", to the west side of Manhattan from about 23rd Street up to the Hollow Way, it consisted of villages along a road known as the Bloomingdale Road. Bloomingdale Road was renamed The Boulevard in 1868, as the farms and villages were divided into building lots and absorbed into the city. By the 18th century it contained numerous farms and country residences of many of the city's well-off, a major parcel of, the Apthorp Farm.

The main artery of this area was the Bloomingdale Road, which began north of where Broadway and the Bowery Lane join and wended its way northward up to about modern 116th Street in Morningside Heights, where the road further north was known as the Kingsbridge Road. Within the confines of the modern-day Upper West Side, the road passed through areas known as Harsenville, Strycker's Bay, Bloomingdale Village. With the building of the Croton Aqueduct passing down the area between present day Amsterdam Avenue and Columbus Avenue in 1838–42, the northern reaches of the district became divided into Manhattan Valley to the east of the aqueduct and Bloomingdale to the west. Bloomingdale, in the latter half of the 19th century, was the name of a village that occupied the area just south of 110th street. Much of the riverfront of the Upper West Side was a shipping and manufacturing corridor; the Hudson River Railroad line right-of-way was granted in the late 1830s to co

Mary Ann Delafield DuBois

Mary Ann Delafield DuBois was an American sculptor and philanthropist. In 1854 she was co-founder of New York's Nursery and Child's Hospital, was the hospital's director. Mary Ann Delafield was born in London on November 6, 1813, she was the daughter of an English mother, Mary Delafield, American father, John Delafield, a banker, in England during the War of 1812. After her mother died in 1819, Mary Ann moved to New York City, where her father remarried to Harriet Wadsworth Tallmadge, a daughter of U. S. Representative Benjamin Tallmadge. Among her younger half-siblings were Mary Floyd Delafield. Among her extended family were uncles Dr. Edward Delafield, Civil War Gen. Richard Delafield, lawyer Joseph Delafield, banker Rufus King Delafield, her first cousin was Dr. Francis Delafield, the father of Edward Henry Delafield, a Connecticut politician, she attended the Litchfield Female Academy in 1825. During the Panic of 1837, DuBois persuaded her father-in-law to open an empty warehouse to accommodate men left homeless by the economic downturn.

In 1854 she and a doctor's wife, Anna R. Emmet, founded the Nursery and Child's Hospital, which focused on the needs of poor women and their small children; the hospital fostered foundlings, offered daycare and wet nurses for the babies of working women, was the first hospital in New York City to admit infants under two years of age. DuBois and Emmet ran the hospital with personal funds and energetic fundraising among her friends and in the wider community, including charity balls, until she lobbied the New York state legislature for support, her uncle, Edward Delafield, was the first president of the hospital's medical board, a consulting physician there. She was an active hospital director. DuBois's hospital merged with larger medical programs, is now considered part of the New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. Despite the demands of her philanthropic efforts, a large household, health issues, DuBois pursued sculpture as a serious amateur, she was a member of the Brooklyn Art Association.

She made miniature cameos, sometimes taught art classes, was elected to the National Academy of Design. She was a friend of sculptor Edward Augustus Brackett. In 1832, Mary Ann Delafield was married to a lawyer and tobacco merchant. Together, they had ten children, born between 1833 and 1852, her husband died in 1882, Mary Ann died six years in 1888, aged 75 years, of complications related to diabetes. She is interred at the New York Marble Cemetery. Mary Ann was a grandmother of physiologist Eugene Floyd DuBois. Another grandson, Delafield Dubois, was the wife of author Theodora McCormick Du Bois. An 1845 cameo miniature self-portrait by Mary Ann Delafield DuBois, in the collection of the Library of Congress

List of nicknames of Nazis

This is a list of nicknames and pseudonyms of Nazis. Common nicknames include variations of "Beast", "Butcher" and "Angel of Death". Most high-ranking Nazis did not have a nickname. Most of the notable Nazis who did have nicknames were concentration camp personnel; the common nickname of Sepp in German for Josef, for such Nazis as Josef Dietrich and Josef Oberhauser, is excluded from this list. The definite article "the" has been removed from the nicknames for the purposes of sorting properly; some Nazis used pseudonyms, in most cases to evade notice and capture after the war. Blumenthal, Ralph. "Scientists Decide Brazil Skeleton Is Josef Mengele". New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Retrieved 1 February 2014. Cesarani, David. Eichmann: His Life and Crimes. London: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-944844-0. Lagnado, Lucette Matalon. Children of the Flames: Dr Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-09695-6. Levy, Alan. Nazi Hunter: The Wiesenthal File.

London: Constable & Robinson. ISBN 978-1-84119-607-7. Longerich, Peter. Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6. Ramen, Fred. Reinhard Heydrich: Hangman of the Third Reich. New York: Rosen. ISBN 978-0-8239-3379-2. Snyder, Louis. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-1-56924-917-8. Zentner, Christian; the Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-897502-2