East Midlands Ambulance Service
East Midlands Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust provides emergency 999, urgent care and patient transport services for the 4.8 million people within the East Midlands region of the UK - covering Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire. In 2016/17 EMAS received over 938,837 emergency 999 calls with ambulance clinicians dispatched to 653,215 incidents. EMAS employs about 3,290 staff at more than 70 locations, including two control rooms at Nottingham and Lincoln - the largest staff group are those who provide accident and emergency responses to 999 calls. In 2013 EMAS took on 140 new emergency care assistants. In 2014 EMAS announced. In 2010 − 11 EMAS missed key performance targets after a cold spell brought ice. By June 2015 EMAS had failed to meet their category 1 response times for the fifth successive year. EMAS provided patient transport services until contracts worth £20 million per year were taken over in 2012 by two private sector companies. In 2012−13 EMAS had a budget of £148 million.
The Trust spent £4.3 million on voluntary and private ambulance services in 2013−14 for support in busy periods. In 2015 the service faced a drop in funding of around £6 million a year. In October 2014 the Trust decided to spend £88,000 on upgrading its computer equipment. In 2018 the trust said it would need an extra £20 million a year to meet the new ambulance performance standards. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Official website
The A47 is a trunk road in England linking Birmingham to Lowestoft, Suffolk. Most of the section between Birmingham and Nuneaton is now classified as the B4114, it is the only A road in Zone 4 to enter Suffolk. No roads from Zones 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 enter the counties, which lie in Zone 1. Between the Clickers Way roundabout in Earl Shilton and the B582 junction near Leicester, the A47 runs through a forest. Between Birmingham and Nuneaton is the B4114 road; the A47 road is a holiday road, through West Midlands, Leicestershire, Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, since it ends in Lowestoft, a tourist destination with a beach. On the way it passes the city of Norwich and the Norfolk Broads, both popular tourist destinations in their own right, its other main function is the transport of goods by road to and from the A1 into Norfolk, north Suffolk and the ports at Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. The original route of the A47 was Birmingham to Great Yarmouth, but there were some changes made to its route in the early years.
At its eastern end, the A47 ran through Filby and Caister, with the Acle Straight bearing the number B1140. The A47 was rerouted along the Acle Straight in 1935, with the old route being renumbered as the A1064 and part of the A149; the second change dates from 1935. The A47 ran via Downham Market, not King's Lynn. In 1935, it was rerouted via King's Lynn, replacing part of the A141 and part of the A17; the old route via Downham Market was renumbered as the A1122 and part of the A1101. The third change took place some time before 1932; the original route of the A47 between Guyhirn and Wisbech was via Wisbech St Mary, with the direct route being part of the A141. This is because there was no road bridge over the River Nene at Guyhirn, hence no junction between the A47 and the A141; some time between 1923 and 1932 a bridge was built, the A47 and the A141 swapped routes between Guyhirn and Wisbech. Major improvements were made from the late 1970s until early in the 1990s; the 7 mile £5 million part-dual-carriageway East Dereham Bypass built on part of the disused railway line was opened in spring 1978 followed by a five-mile part-dual-carriageway Swaffham Bypass, costing £5 million, opened in June 1981.
Bypasses for Uppingham and Blofield were opened in 1983 respectively. The southern section of the Great Yarmouth Western Bypass was opened in May 1985 and the northern section in March 1986 at a cost of £19 million followed by improvements to the one mile Postwick-Blofield section, opened in November 1987. In 1989 Acle Bypass was completed as a cost of £7.1 million and the £1.2 million East Norton Bypass was opened in December 1990. The three mile £9 million East Dereham-North Tuddenham Improvement opened in August 1992 and the £62 million Norwich southern Bypass in September 1992. Escalating road protests starting with Twyford Down in 1992 and culminating with the Newbury bypass in 1996 led to over 300 road schemes being cancelled in November 1995 and to the cancellation of further schemes including the Thorney bypass by the new Labour government in 1997. In 2002 the government announced a new road building programme which included the three mile dual-carriageway Thorney bypass which opened on 14 December 2005.
In February 2017 the Highways Agency redesignated the stretch of the A12 road between Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft as the A47. A study on the A47 which concluded in 2001 looked at improving New Road, i.e. the section of the A47 between Acle and Great Yarmouth known as the Acle Straight. The improvement of the Acle Straight has become a point of contention between interested parties due to its passage through the Norfolk Broads, an area of important ecological and conservation significance that limits development; the study which recommended widening rather than dualling of the Acle Straight was opposed by the Broadland District Council, Great Yarmouth Borough Council, Norfolk Police Authority and the majority of local respondents who believed that dualling of the road is necessary to improve road safety, decrease journey time and support the economic development of Great Yarmouth. Dualling was however opposed by the Environment Agency, the Council for National Parks and the Broads Authority due to its impact on biodiversity and internationally important wildlife sites.
These parties did cautiously support further investigation into the option for widening following further investigation of its environmental impact. In 2006 a programme of safety improvement for the Acle Straight were announced; this would include road resurfacing, better road markings, improved visibility and the installation of safety cameras at an estimated total cost of £1.6 million. The result would be monitored while long-term improvements, such as widening, are considered. In October 2009 after it was announced that a £40,000 feasibility study, to see whether roadside ditches along the nine-mile stretch could be moved further back without disturbing delicate marshland habitat had been delayed until autumn 2010 at the earliest. A £117 million road scheme to the north of Norwich, linking the A1067 and Norwich International Airport to the A47, sponsored and managed by Norfolk County Council, it was priority scheme for Norfolk County Council and it attracted strong opposition both locally and from environmental groups.
On 2 June 2015 the scheme was given the go ahead, in 2017 parts of the road were opened with the complete road scheduled to be completed in early 2018. In 2007 Norfolk County C
Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson, was a distinguished bomber pilot in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. He was the first Commanding Officer of No. 617 Squadron, which he led in the "Dam Busters" raid in 1943, resulting in the destruction of two large dams in the Ruhr area of Germany. He was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces, in the aftermath of the raid in May 1943 and became the most decorated British serviceman at that time, he completed over 170 war operations before dying in action at the age of 26. Gibson was born in Simla, India, on 12 August 1918, the son of Alexander James Gibson and his wife Leonora Mary Gibson. At the time of Gibson's birth, his father was an officer in the Imperial Indian Forestry Service, becoming the Chief Conservator of Forests for the Simla Hill States in 1922. In 1924, when he was six, his parents separated, his mother was granted custody of Gibson, his elder brother Alexander and sister Joan, decided to return to England.
As her family came from Porthleven, Nora Gibson settled first in Penzance. Gibson started school in England at the same school as West Cornwall College, his mother moved to London and he was sent as a boarder to Earl's Avenue School, a preparatory school known as St George's, in Folkestone, Kent. In 1932 Gibson started at St Edward's School, the same school as Douglas Bader where he was placed in the same house, Cowell's. Gibson's housemaster was A. F. "Freddie" Yorke. Following her return from India, Gibson's mother developed a drinking problem which escalated into alcoholism, her behaviour became erratic and sometimes violent towards her children. The school organised lodgings for his brother during the school holidays. Nora's younger sister, Mrs Beatrice Christopher, gave Gibson his own room at her house, her husband, helped Nora out with school fees. They both attended some school functions to support their nephews. Gibson was an average student academically and played for the Rugby Second XV.
His interests included photography. At one stage as a teenager, he seems to have become interested and quite expert in the workings of cinema organs, he read all kinds of books the Arthurian legends and Shakespeare. His favourite play was Henry V, he was made a house prefect. From an early age Gibson wanted to fly, he had a picture of his boyhood hero, Albert Ball VC, the First World War flying ace, on his bedroom wall at his aunt's house. His ambition was to become a civilian test pilot, he wrote for advice to Vickers, receiving a reply from their chief test pilot, Captain Joseph "Mutt" Summers, who wrote that Gibson should first learn to fly by joining the RAF on a short service commission. Gibson was rejected when he failed the Medical Board, his application was successful, his personal file included the remark "satisfactory leg length test carried out". He commenced a short service commission in November 1936. Gibson commenced his flying training on 16 November 1936 at the Bristol Flying School, with No. 6 Flying Training Course and with civilian instructors.
Owing to poor weather the course did not conclude until 1 January 1937. After some leave, he moved to No. 24 Group at RAF Uxbridge for his RAF basic training. He was commissioned with the rank of acting pilot officer with effect from 31 January 1937, he underwent further flying training as a member of the junior section of No. 5 Flying Training Course at 6 Flying Training School, RAF Netheravon. He was awarded his pilot's wings on 24 May 1937; as part of the Advanced Training Squadron, during summer 1937, he participated in further training at No. 3 Armament Training Station, Sutton Bridge, Lincolnshire. He opted for bombers as these gave experience in multi-engined planes, this being typical for individuals planning on a civilian flying career, he returned to Netheravon and graduated on 31 August 1937. He passed all his ground exams first time, with an average of 77.29% and a flying rating of "average". However, his rating as a companion was below average owing to his sometimes rude and condescending behaviour towards junior ranks and ground crews in particular.
Gibson's initial posting was to No. 83 Squadron, stationed at west of Edinburgh. He was assigned to'A' Flight and was placed under the supervision of Pilot Officer Anthony "Oscar" Bridgman; the Squadron was flying Hawker Hinds. He joined a settled group of officers from similar minor public school backgrounds; as some stayed with the squadron for a few years, promotion was slow. He was promoted to pilot officer on 16 November 1937, his behaviour towards the ground crews continued to be perceived as unsatisfactory and they gave him the nickname the "Bumptious Bastard". In March 1938, the Squadron was transferred from No. 2 Group to No. 5 Group and relocated to RAF Scampton. In June they moved to RAF Leuchars for an armaments training camp. From October the squadron started their conversion to the Handley Page Hampden, completed by January 1939. At a Court of Inquiry in October 1938, Gibson was found guilty of negligence after a taxiing incident at RAF Hemswell, he spent Christmas Day 1938 in hospital at RAF Rauceby with chickenpox.
He was sent on convalescent leave, returning to the squadron in late January. In Spring 1939 the squadron took part in an armaments training camp at RAF Evanton near Invergordon in Scotland. With the likelihood of war increasing and as part of a plan to improve standards, Gibson was sent on a navigation course at Hamble n
The Birmingham–Peterborough line is a cross-country railway line in the United Kingdom, linking Birmingham and Peterborough, via Nuneaton and Oakham. Since the Beeching Axe railway closures in the 1960s, it is the only direct railway link between the West Midlands and the East of England; the line is important for cross-country passenger services, East of Peterborough, the route gives access from the Midlands to various locations in the east of England, such as Ely and Stansted Airport via the West Anglia lines. It is strategically important for freight, as it allows container trains from the Port of Felixstowe to travel to the Midlands and beyond; the present route is an amalgamation of lines. The sections were: The route from Birmingham to Whitacre Junction was built for the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway in 1840, which became part of the Midland Railway; the line from Whitacre junction to Nuneaton was built by the Midland Railway, opened in 1864. The line between Nuneaton and Wigston was built by the South Leicestershire Railway and was completed in 1864.
The South Leicestershire Railway was taken over by the London and North Western Railway in 1867. The section between Wigston and Syston via Leicester was built for the Midland Counties Railway in 1840, it is now part of the Midland Main Line. The eastern section, the Syston and Peterborough Railway, was built for the Midland Railway and opened in 1846; the entire route became part of the London and Scottish Railway in the 1923 grouping, the LMS was nationalised on 1 January 1948 as part of British Railways. Most Birmingham-Leicester passenger trains were taken over by diesel units from 14 April 1958, taking about 79 minutes between the two cities. In 1977 the Parliamentary Select Committee on Nationalised Industries recommended considering electrification of more of Britain's rail network. By 1979 BR presented a range of options to do so by 2000, some of which included the Birmingham to Peterborough Line. Under the 1979–90 Conservative governments that succeeded the 1976–79 Labour government, the proposal was not implemented.
The route is now part of Network Rail. In the 1980s, local services were worked by Class 105 Diesel Multiple Units and long-distance services, such as those between Birmingham New Street and Norwich, were operated by formations of Class 31 locomotives with rakes of four Mark 1 carriages. From 1986 the first Sprinter trains operated on the line, Class 150s, subsequently replaced by Class 156 SuperSprinter units from 1988. From this time, the service operated hourly between Birmingham New Street and Ely with alternate services continuing to Cambridge or Norwich. Central Trains operated the route from privatisation, for operational convenience combined services on the route either side of Birmingham New Street, which created through services such as Aberystwyth and Chester to Cambridge and Stansted Airport and Liverpool Lime Street to Stansted Airport, although these were subsequently cut back - services to Aberystwyth ceased in 2001, although a few services continued to terminate at Shrewsbury until 2004, whilst Liverpool was removed in 2003 to improve performance.
The service in 2016 consists of two trains per hour between Birmingham and Leicester, one of the two calling at limited stops to Leicester and continuing to Stansted Airport via Peterborough and Cambridge, operated by CrossCountry. East Midlands Trains operates a handful of services along the section between Syston and Peterborough as part of its London London St Pancras service via Corby. In addition, there are a few services between Nottingham and Norwich operated by EMT which serve Stamford. Cross Country services are worked by Class 170 Turbostar units, while EMT use Class 158 Express Sprinter trains on services to Norwich and Class 222 Meridian trains for London services. In addition, EMT operate an evening Spalding to Nottingham service, worked by a Class 153 SuperSprinter. Freight trains use the route between the West Midlands and the East Anglia container trains to the Port of Felixstowe and sand trains to King's Lynn; this is a large project with a number of elements that will allow more railfreight traffic between the Haven ports and the Midlands.
The work was prompted by the'Felixstowe South' expansion at the Port of Felixstowe. It is in response to the predicted increase in the number of high-cube shipping containers arriving at the ports that cannot be accommodated on the route; the percentage of high-cube containers is expected to increase from 30% in 2007 to 50% in 2012. Without loading gauge enhancement these larger containers would have to be transported by road or via a longer rail route via London, operating at capacity. Network Rail completed the gauge enhancement from Ipswich to Peterborough in 2008. Work will take place in three phases: Phase 1 Nuneaton North Chord Peterborough to Nuneaton Gauge Phase 2aDualling 8 km of the Felixstowe Branch Line Dualling the Ipswich to Ely Line between Soham Junction and Ely Removing speed restrictions for freight trains between Ipswich and Peterborough Phase 2b Capacity enhancement Peterborough to Nuneaton during CP5The work, detailed in the Network Rail Freight Route Utilisation Strategy, should be completed by 2014.
At an estimated cost of £291 million. The government is providing £80 million and it will receive £5 million from Network Rail and £1 million from the East of England Development Agency, it has been estimated. In February 2010 Network Rail confirmed t
William John Donthorn was a notable early 19th-century English architect, one of the founders of what became the Royal Institute of British Architects. He was born in Norfolk and a pupil of Sir Jeffry Wyattville, he worked both in the Gothic and Classical styles, but is best known for his severe Greek Revival country houses - most of which have been demolished. In 1834 he was one of several prominent architects to form the Institute of British Architects in London. A large number of his drawings are in the RIBA drawings collection, now housed at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Cromer Hall, Norfolk, 1829 Elmham Hall, Norfolk Hillington Hall, Norfolk Watlington Hall, Norfolk Pickenham Hall, South Pickenham, Norfolk. Between 1902 and 1905 architect Robert Weir Schultz extensively rebuilt and enlarged the hall, incorporating the previous house, in the Arts and Crafts style. Improvements to Felbrigg Hall, Norfolk Upton Hall, near Southwell, Nottinghamshire Highcliffe Castle near Christchurch, Dorset workhouses in Ely and Wisbech and Downham Market and Oakham and Uppingham Sessions House, Peterborough Holy Trinity Church, Upper Dicker, East Sussex The Old Rectory, near Basingstoke, Hampshire Home Farm, Norfolk.
Gothic house with classical stables, all grade II listed
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Rutland; the region has an area of 15,627 km2, with a population over 4.5 million in 2011. There are five main urban centres, Leicester, Lincoln and Nottingham. Others include Boston, Chesterfield, Grantham, Kettering, Mansfield, Newark-on-Trent and Wellingborough. Relative proximity to London and its position on the national motorway and trunk road networks help the East Midlands to thrive as an economic hub. Nottingham and Leicester are each classified as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the region is served by East Midlands Airport, which lies between Derby and Nottingham. The high point at 636 m is Kinder Scout, in the Peak District of the southern Pennines in northwest Derbyshire near Glossop. Other upland, hilly areas of 95 to 280 m in altitude, together with lakes and reservoirs, rise in and around the Charnwood Forest north of Leicester, in the Lincolnshire Wolds.
The region's major rivers, the Nene, the Soar, the Trent and the Welland, flow in a northeasterly direction towards the Humber and the Wash. The Derwent, rises in the High Peak before flowing south to join the Trent some 2 miles before its conflux with the Soar; the centre of the East Midlands area lies between Bingham and Bottesford, Leicestershire. The geographical centre of England lies in Higham on the Hill in west Leicestershire, close to the boundary between the Leicestershire and Warwickshire; some 88 per cent of the land is rural in character, although agriculture accounts for less than three per cent of the region's jobs. Lincolnshire is the only maritime county of the six, with a true North Sea coastline of about 30 miles due to the protection afforded by Spurn Head and the North Norfolk foreshore. Church Flatts Farm in Coton in the Elms, South Derbyshire, is the furthest place from the sea in the UK. In April 1936 the first Ordnance Survey trig point was sited at Cold Ashby in Northamptonshire.
The Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts and The Wildlife Trusts are based next to the River Trent and Newark Castle railway station. The National Centre for Earth Observation is at the University of Leicester; the region is home to large quantities of limestone, the East Midlands Oil Province. Charnwood Forest is noted for its abundant levels of volcanic rock, estimated to be 600 million years old. A quarter of the UK's cement is manufactured in the region, at three sites in Hope and Tunstead in Derbyshire, Ketton Cement Works in Rutland. Of the aggregates produced in the region, 25 per cent are from Derbyshire and four per cent from Leicestershire. Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire each produce around 30 per cent of the region's sand and gravel output. Barwell in Leicestershire was the site of Britain's largest meteorite on 24 December 1965; the 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake was 5.2 in magnitude. Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Conservation Areas include: Charnwood Forest Coversand Heaths Derbyshire Peak Fringe and Lower Derwent Humberhead Levels Leighland Forest The Lincolnshire Limewoods and Heaths The Lincolnshire coast The Peak District Rockingham Forest Sherwood Forest Rutland, SW Lincolnshire and N Northamptonshire The Wash Areas of the East Midlands designated by the East Midlands Biodiversity Partnership as Biodiversity Enhancement Areas include: The Coalfields The Daventry Grasslands The Fens The Lincolnshire Coastal Grazing Marshes The Lincolnshire Wolds The National Forest The Yardley-Whittlewood RidgeTwo of the nationally designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are: The Peak District The Lincolnshire Wolds Several towns in the southern part of the region, including Market Harborough, Rothwell, Kettering, Thrapston and Stamford, lie within the boundaries of what was once Rockingham Forest – designated a royal forest by William the Conqueror and was long hunted by English kings and queens.
The National Forest is an environmental project in central England run by The National Forest Company. Areas of north Leicestershire, south Derbyshire and south-east Staffordshire covering around 200 square miles are being planted in an attempt to blend ancient woodland with new plantings, it stretches from the western outskirts of Leicester in the east to Burton upon Trent in the west, is planned to link the ancient forests of Needwood and Charnwood. Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire attracts many visitors, is best known for its ties with the legend of Robin Hood. Regional financial funding decisions for the East Midlands are taken by East Midlands Councils, based in Melton Mowbray. East Midlands Councils is an unelected body made up of representatives of local government in the region; the defunct East Midlands Development Agency was headquartered next to the BBC's East Midlands office in Nottingham and made financial decisions regarding economic development in the region. Since the Conservative-Lib Dem coalition government launched its austerity programme after the 2010 general election, regional bodies such as those have been devolved to smaller groups now on a county level.
As a region today, there is no overriding body with significant financial or planning powers for the East Midlands. The East Midlands' largest settlements are Leicester, Derby, Chesterfield, Mansfield and Kettering. Leicester is the largest
A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. Easy to build with unskilled forced, but still militarily formidable, these castles were built across northern Europe from the 10th century onwards, spreading from Normandy and Anjou in France, into the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century; the Normans introduced the design into England and Wales following their invasion in 1066. Motte-and-bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. By the end of the 13th century, the design was superseded by alternative forms of fortification, but the earthworks remain a prominent feature in many countries. A motte-and-bailey castle was made up of two structures, a motte, a type of mound – artificial – topped with a wooden or stone structure known as a keep; the term "motte and bailey" is a modern one, is not medieval in origin.
The word "motte" is the French version of the Latin mota, in France the word motte was an early word for a turf. The word "bailey" comes from basse-cour, referring to a low yard. In medieval sources, the Latin term castellum was used to describe the bailey complex within these castles. One contemporary account of these structures comes from Jean de Colmieu around 1130, describing the Calais region in northern France. De Colmieu described how the nobles would build "a mound of earth as high as they can and dig a ditch about it as wide and deep as possible; the space on top of the mound is enclosed by a palisade of strong hewn logs, strengthened at intervals by as many towers as their means can provide. Inside the enclosure is a citadel, or keep, which commands the whole circuit of the defences; the entrance to the fortress is by means of a bridge, rising from the outer side of the moat and supported on posts as it ascends, reaches to the top of the mound." At Durham Castle, contemporaries described how the motte-and-bailey superstructure arose from the "tumulus of rising earth" with a keep rising "into thin air, strong within and without" with a "stalwart house...glittering with beauty in every part".
Mottes were made out of earth and flattened on top, it can be hard to determine whether a mound is artificial or natural without excavation. Some were built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows; the size of mottes varied with these mounds being 3 metres to 30 metres in height, from 30 to 90 metres in diameter. This minimum height of 3 metres for mottes is intended to exclude smaller mounds which had non-military purposes. In England and Wales, only 7% of mottes were taller than 10 metres high. A motte was protected by a ditch around it, which would have been a source of the earth and soil for constructing the mound itself. A keep and a protective wall would be built on top of the motte; some walls would be large enough to have a wall-walk around them, the outer walls of the motte and the wall-walk could be strengthened by filling in the gap between the wooden walls with earth and stones, allowing it to carry more weight. Smaller mottes could only support simple towers with room for a few soldiers, whilst larger mottes could be equipped with a much grander building.
Many wooden keeps were designed with bretèches, or brattices, small balconies that projected from the upper floors of the building, allowing defenders to cover the base of the fortification wall. The early 12th-century chronicler Lambert of Ardres described the wooden keep on top of the motte at the castle of Ardres, where the "first storey was on the surface of the ground, where were cellars and granaries, great boxes, tuns and other domestic utensils. In the storey above were the dwelling and common living-rooms of the residents in which were the larders, the rooms of the bakers and butlers, the great chamber in which the lord and his wife slept... In the upper storey of the house were garret rooms... In this storey the watchmen and the servants appointed to keep the house took their sleep". Wooden structures on mottes could be protected by skins and hides to prevent them being set alight during a siege; the bailey was an enclosed courtyard overlooked by the motte and surrounded by a wooden fence called a palisade and another ditch.
The bailey was kidney-shaped to fit against a circular motte, but could be made in other shapes according to the terrain. The bailey would contain a wide number of buildings, including a hall, kitchens, a chapel, stores, forges or workshops, was the centre of the castle's economic activity; the bailey was linked to the motte either by a flying bridge stretching between the two, or, more popularly in England, by steps cut into the motte. The ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. Wherever possible, nearby streams and rivers would be dammed or diverted, creating water-filled moats, artificial lakes and other forms of water defences. In practice, there was a wide number of variations to this common design. A castle could have more than one bailey: at Warkworth Castle an inner and an outer bailey was constructed, or alternatively, several baileys could flank the motte, as at Windsor Castle