International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital. It borders Södermanland, Västmanland and Gästrikland and it is bounded by lake Mälaren and the Baltic sea. It has a short and strangely shaped land border with Åland. The name literally means up land, a name which is encountered in especially older English literature. Its Latinised form, which is used, is Uplandia. The traditional provinces of Sweden serve no administrative or political purposes, the corresponding administrative county, or län, is Uppsala County, which occupies the larger part of the territory. The bulk of the population, however, is within Stockholm County, minor parts of the province are in Västmanland County, Gävleborg County and Södermanland County. Upplands arms were granted in 1560, distinctive in its depiction of a Globus cruciger, Uppland ranked as a duchy and the coat of arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazoned thus, Gules, a Royal Orb Or gemmed of the field, despite the fact that the Uppsala län has a different name and a smaller territory it was granted the same coat of arms in 1940.
Uppland was historically divided into chartered cities and districts, within Roslagen they were called skeppslag, and in the rest of the province hundreds. The abovementioned districts and cities have no administrative function today, the provincial population corresponds to the different overlapping counties as follows, Uppland is the birth place of Saint Brigitta of Sweden. The earliest unambiguous mention of the province of Uppland comes from the 1296, the Swedish capital of Stockholm is divided between two provinces. The southern half lies in Södermanland and the half in Uppland. Prince Waldemar Princess Ingiburga, his wife Prince Gustav Prince Sigvard Uppsala is the seat of the archbishop of the Lutheran Church of Sweden. The archaeological site Birka and the castle of Drottningholm are UNESCO World Heritage sites, football in the province is administered by Upplands Fotbollförbund. Uppland - Tourist site Uppland - Tourist information
Richard Dybeck was a Swedish jurist and lyricist, and today is mainly remembered as the author of the lyrics to what is now the de facto Swedish national anthem, Du gamla, Du fria. Dybeck was born in Odensvi Prästgård just outside the town Köping and he was the son of a clergyman, went to gymnasium in Västerås, and matriculated at Uppsala University in 1831. He completed his civil service degree in law in 1834 and entered the Svea hovrätt appeal court and he held a number of positions in the court system during the following years, but eventually began to spend all his time on his antiquarian and historical research. He was known to be interested in Asian culture, as was seen by his collection of historic prints and lithographs which originated from places like Myanmar. Richard Dybeck at Find a Grave
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock. The tradition began in the 4th century and lasted into the 12th century, most runestones are located in Scandinavia, but there are scattered runestones in locations that were visited by Norsemen during the Viking Age. Runestones are often memorials to dead men, Runestones were usually brightly coloured when erected, though this is no longer evident as the colour has worn off. The tradition of raising stones that had runic inscriptions first appeared in the 4th and 5th century, in Norway and Sweden, the earliest Danish runestones appeared in the 8th and 9th centuries, and there are about 50 runestones from the Migration Period in Scandinavia. Most runestones were erected during the period 950-1100 CE, and they were raised in Sweden. —The Ynglinga saga What may have increased the spread of runestones was an event in Denmark in the 960s, King Harald Bluetooth had just been baptised and in order to mark the arrival of a new order and a new age, he commanded the construction of a runestone.
The runestone has three sides of two are decorated with images. On one side, there is an animal that is the prototype of the animals that would be commonly engraved on runestones. Shortly after this stone had been made, something happened in Scandinavias runic tradition, scores of chieftains and powerful Norse clans consciously tried to imitate King Harald, and from Denmark a runestone wave spread northwards through Sweden. In most districts, the fad died out after a generation, but, in the central Swedish provinces of Uppland and Södermanland, there are about 3,000 runestones among the about 6,000 runic inscriptions in Scandinavia. The runestones are unevenly distributed in Scandinavia, Denmark has 250 runestones, Sweden has as many as between 1,700 and 2,500 depending on definition. The Swedish district of Uppland has the highest concentration with as many as 1,196 inscriptions in stone, outside of Scandinavia, the Isle of Man stands out with its 30 runestones from the 9th century and early 11th century.
Scattered runestones have found in England, Scotland. Runestones were placed on selected spots in the landscape, such as locations, bridge constructions. In medieval churches, there are often runestones that have been inserted as construction material, in southern Scania, runestones can be tied to large estates that had churches constructed on their land. In the Mälaren Valley, the appear to be placed so that they mark essential parts of the domains of an estate, such as courtyard, grave field. Runestones usually appear as single monuments and more rarely as pairs, in some cases, they are part of larger monuments together with other raised stones. However, although scholars know where 95% of all runestones were discovered, the remainder have been found in churches, bridges, graves and water routes
The Granby Runestone, designated as U337 under the Rundata catalog, is one of the longest Viking Age runic inscription located in Uppland, Sweden. The Granby Runestone has an inscription carved on a boulder consisting of a memorial to a father. The father Finnvids property is mentioned, some of these family members are mentioned on the inscriptions on other local runestones. Kalfr is mentioned on inscriptions U338 and U341, which are located in Söderby, and on U342, which is located in Granby. The runic text states that the inscription was carved by the runemaster Visäte, who was active in Uppland during the last half of the eleventh century. There are seven other runestones signed by Visäte in Uppland, including U74 in Husby, U208 in Råcksta, U236 in Lindö, U454 in Kumla, U669 in Kålsta, U862 in Säva, and U Fv1946,258 in Fällbro. In the runic text Visäte spelled Guð using an o-rune instead of a u-rune, the inscription is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr4, which is known as the Urnes style.
Inscriptions in this style are characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns. Photography of stone and information - Swedish National Heritage Board, drawing of the inscription - Stockholm County Museum
A runemaster or runecarver is a term for a specialist in making runestones. More than 100 names of runemasters are known from Viking Age Sweden with most of them from 11th century eastern Svealand, many anonymous runestones have more or less securely been attributed to these runemasters. During the 11th century, when most runestones were raised, there were a few professional runemasters and they and their apprentices were contracted to make runestones and when the work was finished, they sometimes signed the stone with the name of the runemaster. Many of the runic inscriptions have likely been completed by non-professional runecarvers for the practical purposes of burial rites or record-keeping. Due to the depictions of life, many of the nonprofessional runecarvers could have been anything from pirates to soldiers, merchants. The layout of Scandinavian towns provided centers where craftspeople could congregate, after the spread of Christianity in these regions, and the increase in runic literacy that followed, runes were used for record-keeping and found on things like weapons and coins.
Most early medieval Scandinavians were probably literate in runes, and most people probably carved messages on pieces of bone, however, it was difficult to make runestones, and in order to master it one needed to be a stonemason. A number of historians have theorized that there may be a connection between the word erulaR, in the priesthood and the old Norse title jarl. This suggests that it is possible that those who were versed in runic arts formed their own secular upper class of learned runemasters. This claim is corroborated by the distribution of runestones throughout Eastern Norway. This continued with the prominence of runestones that accompanied the rise of Christianity. Many of the runic inscriptions carved during this time were done so for the pleasure of God, runes were often erected by long-distance explorers seeking to document their visits or memorialize their fallen comrades. Runecarvers on commission or on their own carved memorials and gravestones more than anything else, in addition, memorial runes could provide additional details about an individuals death with more accuracy than oral tradition.
Additionally, based on the texts recovered, it appears that the families who raised runestones often had as many as six sons. This is most likely due to the practice of female infanticide, notable runemasters of the 11th to early 12th centuries include, Åsmund Kåresson Balle Fot Frögärd i Ösby Gunnborga Halvdan Öpir Torgöt Fotsarve Ulf of Borresta Visäte
Uppland Runic Inscription Fv1946;258
This inscription was discovered in 1946 and is carved on a rock-face of a cliff. The runic inscription, which is 2.23 meters high and 1.14 meters wide, above the serpent is the figure of a man with raised arms. The inscription is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr4 and this runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns. The animal heads are seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses. The runic text states that the inscription is a memorial by three sons in memory of their father, such assumptions are required since letters were often deliberately left out of the runic text under several accepted rules when carving inscriptions on runestones. For the text on U Fv1946,258, in the 1946 version Jansson transcribed the runes rauþkar, the name of the father, as an odd spelling of the Germanic name Hroðgæiʀ, which means Honor Spear. This interpretation, which ignores the a-rune in the name, was re-interpreted by Evert Salberger as being Rauðkar, the text is signed by the runemaster Visäte, who was active during the last half of the eleventh century in southern Uppland.
The runes isiti * iti, meaning Viseti risti, are located near the head of the serpent. Seven other runestones signed by Visäte include U74 in Husby, U208 in Råcksta, U236 in Lindö, U337 in Granby, U454 in Kumla, U669 Kålsta, over twenty additional runestones have been attributed to him on stylistic grounds. The Rundata designation for this inscription, U Fv1946,258, is from the year and page number of the issue of Fornvännen in which the inscription was first described. P, * uikr * uk * utryk * uk * bali * lata * raisa * mirki * iftʀ * faþur sn * rauþkar * uk skib * þu-- * -i-a-----i-iti * uk ---. Ok. skip <fa-t> Q, Onæmʀ ok Otryggʀ ok Balli lata ræisa mærki æftiʀ faður sinn Rauðkar ok skip, P, Vígr and Ótryggr and Balli have raised the landmark in memory of their father Hróðgeirr and the ship. Q, Ónæmr and Ótryggr and Balli have raised the landmark in memory of their father Rauðkárr, Photograph of inscription in 1997 - Swedish National Heritage Board Photograph of inscription in 2006 - Stockholm Läns Museum
Viking art has many design elements in common with Celtic, the Romanesque and Eastern European art, sharing many influences with each of these traditions. The alternative name for the Viking people, Norse or Norsemen, Viking raiders attacked wealthy targets on the north-western coasts of Europe from the late 8th until the mid-11th century CE. Pre-Christian traders and sea raiders, the Vikings first enter recorded history with their attack on the Christian monastic community on Lindisfarne Island in 793, the Vikings initially employed their longships to invade and attack European coasts and river settlements on a seasonal basis. Evidence exists for Vikings reaching Newfoundland well before the voyages of Christopher Columbus discovered the New World. Trading and merchant activities were accompanied by settlement and colonisation in many of these territories, importantly, it was the English archaeologist David M. Together these scholars have combined authority with accessibility to promote the understanding of Viking art as a cultural expression.
The artistic record therefore, as it has survived to the present day, ongoing archaeological excavation and opportunistic finds, of course, may improve this situation in the future, as indeed they have in the recent past. Wood was undoubtedly the primary material of choice for Viking artists, being easy to carve, inexpensive. The same is true of the textile arts, although weaving. Subsequently, and likely influenced by the spread of Christianity, the use of carved stone for permanent memorials became more prevalent, jewellery was worn by both men and women, though of different types. Married women fastened their overdresses near the shoulder with matching pairs of large brooches, modern scholars often call them tortoise brooches because of their domed shape. The shapes and styles of womens paired brooches varied regionally, women often strung metal chains or strings of beads between the brooches, or suspended ornaments from the bottom of the brooches. Men wore rings on their fingers and necks, and held their cloaks closed with penannular brooches and their weapons were often richly decorated on areas such as sword hilts.
Decorated metalwork of a nature is frequently recovered from Viking period graves. The deceased was dressed in their best clothing and jewellery, and was interred with weapons, tools, a non-visual source of information for Viking art lies in skaldic verse, the complex form of oral poetry composed during the Viking Age and passed on until written down centuries later. Several verses speak of painted forms of decoration that have but rarely survived on wood, the 9th century skald poet Bragi Boddason, for example, cites four apparently unrelated scenes painted on a shield. One of these depicted the god Thors fishing expedition, which motif is referenced in a 10th-century poem by Úlfr Uggason describing the paintings in a newly constructed hall in Iceland. The art historian Bernhard Salin was the first to systematise Germanic animal ornament, the latter two were subsequently subdivided by Arwidsson into three further styles, Style C, flourishing during the 7th century and into the 8th century, before being largely replaced by Style D
The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time
Swedish National Heritage Board
The Swedish National Heritage Board is a Swedish government agency responsible for World Heritage Sites and other national heritage monuments and historical environments. It is governed by the Ministry of Culture, the goals of the agency are to encourage the preservation and protection of historic environments and to promote the respect for and knowledge of historic environments. The National Heritage Board was founded in 1630, on the 20 May that year, Johannes Bureus who was a prominent rune researcher and King Gustavus Adolphus private teacher, was appointed the first riksantikvarien. Bureus teachings had made the king interested in ancient monuments and national sites and artifacts. Together with a priest and a student, Bureus went on a journey though Sweden to draw and document runestones, collect old coins, law books, letter. In 1666, Johan Hadorph the seventh National Antiquarian, established the Placat och Påbudh, Om Gamble Monumenter och Antiquiteter, aside from laws of the Vatican City, it was the first antiquities regulation in Europe.
The decree made it possible to protect ancient monuments and sites from treasure hunters and vandalism, public interest in ancient monuments and their protection subsided after the time of the Swedish Empire in the 1720s. In 1780, most of the collections owned by the government were handed over to the National Library. In 1768, the remainder of the objects were placed in the care of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters and Antiquities, with the National Antiquarian as the academys secretary. During the 18th century, there was a new interest in science as well as Neoclassicism. Some renewal of the studies was brought about when Johan Gustaf Liljegren became National Antiquarian in 1826, among the projects he started was an organized inventory of objects and sites and archaeological excavations were done at Birka and Visby. A new antiquities regulation was created in 1867. It stated that any violation of an ancient monument was a criminal offence, while the Heritage Boards collection of historical objects was still in Stockholm, several additional positions within the area of heritage preservation were instituted during the 20th century.
Sigurd Curman created a central head agency with a number of County Antiquarians to head all the county museums in Sweden, the County Antiquarians coordinated their work with the National Heritage Board, which function as an independent government agency since 1938. Part of the collections are today under the Statens historiska museer. The Antikvarisk-topografiska arkivet and the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters and these departments are housed in the Eastern Stable at the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm. These were separated into two agencies, the National Heritage Board and the National Historical Museums, in 1998, on 2 June 2005, the government decided to relocate a major part of the National Heritage Boards activeties from Stockholm to Gotland. The move was made to compensate for the loss of jobs on the island when the Swedish military closed down all permanent garrisons there, the National Heritage Board moved to the newly built facilities at the old A7 military compound in Visby, in 2008