Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Malmö. It had 168,096 inhabitants in 2017. Located 71 km north of the capital Stockholm it is the seat of Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden. Uppsala is home to Scandinavia's largest cathedral – Uppsala Cathedral. Founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia. Among many achievements, the Celsius scale for temperature was invented there. Uppsala was located a few kilometres north of its current location at a place now known as Gamla Uppsala. Today's Uppsala was called Östra Aros. Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Norse gods; the Fyrisvellir plains along the river south of Old Uppsala, in the area where the modern city is situated today, was the site of the Battle of Fyrisvellir in the 980s.
The present-day Uppsala was a port town of Gamla Uppsala. In 1160, King Eric Jedvardsson was attacked and killed outside the church of Östra Aros, became venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. In 1274, Östra Aros overtook Gamla Uppsala as the main regional centre, when the cathedral of Gamla Uppsala burnt down, the archbishopric and the relics of Saint Eric were moved to Östra Aros, where the present-day Uppsala Cathedral was erected; the cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres. The city is the site of the oldest university in Scandinavia, founded in 1477, is where Carl Linnaeus, one of the renowned scholars of Uppsala University, lived for many years. Uppsala is the site of the 16th-century Uppsala Castle; the city was damaged by a fire in 1702. Historical and cultural treasures were lost, as in many Swedish cities, from demolitions during the 1960s and 1970s, but many historic buildings remain in the western part of the city.
The arms bearing the lion can be traced to 1737 and have been modernised several times, most in 1986. The meaning of the lion is uncertain, but is connected to the royal lion depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden. Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the river runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation around 30 m, the site of Uppsala's castle, from which large parts of the town can be seen; the central park Stadsskogen stretches from the south far into town, with opportunities for recreation for many residential areas within walking distance. Only some 70 km or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm; the train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city accessible by air. The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact; the city has a distinct town and gown divide with clergy and academia residing in the Fjärdingen neighbourhood on the river's western shore, somewhat separated from the rest of the city, the ensemble of cathedral and university buildings has remained undisturbed until today.
While some historic buildings remain on the periphery of the central core, retail commercial activity is geographically focused on a small number of blocks around the pedestrianized streets and main square on the eastern side of the river, an area, subject to a large-scale metamorphosis during the economically booming years in the 1960s in particular. During recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the built-up areas have expanded and some suburbanization has taken place. Uppsala lies south of the 60th parallel north and has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Due to its northerly location, Uppsala experiences over 18 hours of visible sunshine during the summer solstice, under 6 hours of sunshine during the winter solstice. Despite Uppsala's northerly location, the winter is not as cold as other cities at similar latitudes due to the Gulf Stream. For example, in January Uppsala has a daily mean of −2.7 °C.
In Canada, at the same latitude, Fort Smith experiences a daily mean of −22.4 °C. With respect to record temperatures, the difference between the highest and lowest is large. Uppsala’s highest recorded temperature was 37.4 °C, recorded in July 1933. On the same day Ultuna, which lies a few kilometres south of the centre of Uppsala, recorded a temperature of 38 °C; this is the highest temperature recorded in the Scandinavian Peninsula, although the same temperature was recorded in Målilla, Sweden, 14 years later. Uppsala’s lowest temperature was recorded in January 1875, when the temperature dropped to −39.5 °C. The second-lowest temperature recorded is −33.1 °C, which makes the record one of the hardest to beat, due to the fact that temperatures in Uppsala nowadays goes below −30 °C. The difference between the two records is 76.9 °C. The warmest month recorded is July 2018, with a daily mean of 22.0 °C. Since 2002 Uppsala has ex
Library of the Printed Web is a physical archive devoted to web-to-print artists’ books and other printout matter. Founded by Paul Soulellis in 2013, the collection was acquired by The Museum of Modern Art Library in January 2017; the project has been described as "web culture articulated as printed artifact," an "archive of archives," characterized as an "accumulation of accumulations," much of it printed on demand. Techniques for appropriating web content used by artists in the collection include grabbing, hunting and performing, detailed by Soulellis in "Search, Publish," and referenced by Alessandro Ludovico. Among the 130 artists included in Library of the Printed Web are Olia Lialina, Mishka Henner, Clement Valla, Karolis Kosas, Lauren Thorson, Cory Arcangel, Silvio Lorusso, Angela Genusa, Jean Keller, Aaron Krach, Joachim Schmid, Benjamin Shaykin, Chantal Zakari, Richard Prince, David Horvitz and Penelope Umbrico. Over 240 works are in the collection. Library of the Printed Web continues to grow through curatorial acquisition and artist contributions.
The collection is used for experimental publishing research, as a way to question issues of copyright and appropriation by artists on the internet, as the basis for academic workshops in design and new media. The project is featured at book fairs, independent publishing conferences and schools, appearing at Miss Read Berlin Art Book Fair, Stadtbibliothek Stuttgart, Merz Akademie, Printed Matter's NY Art Book Fair, Offprint London, Theorizing the Web, Interrupt 3 at Brown University, The Internet Yami-Ichi, Printed Matter's LA Art Book Fair and Ends Art Book Fair at Yale Art Gallery, Rhode Island School of Design School of Visual Arts, International Center of Photography, School of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Offprint Paris. In 2013 Library of the Printed Web was featured at Theorizing the Web and The Book Affair at the opening of the 55th Venice Biennale. Printed Web is an artists' publication devoted to web-to-print art and discourse, published by Paul Soulellis / Library of the Printed Web.
The project began in 2014 as a way to present new work by artists included in Soulellis’ Library of the Printed Web. Artists are invited to submit existing network-based work for the printed page. In the spirit of Seth Siegelaub, each issue is curated as a group exhibition for the printed page. Printed Web circulates as print-on-demand publications, but includes PDFs, ZIPs, GIFs, server directories. More than 180 artists and writers have contributed to the project through issue #4. Individual issues are held in special artists’ publications collections and libraries, including Museum of Modern Art NY, Yale University, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Walker Center, NY Public Library. Printed Web 2 was included in the exhibition "Aerial Imagery in Print, 1860 to Today" at Museum of Modern Art, organized by MoMA Library, featuring a project by James Bridle. Printed Web 3 was an open call and launched on the front page of Rhizome and at Offprint London in May 2015, featuring work by 147 artists.
Printed Web 4 was a co-publication with International Center of Photography and featured in the exhibition "Public, Secret," curated by Charlotte Cotton in June 2016. The text "Folding the Web" by Michael Connor, artistic director of Rhizome, was included in Printed Web 4. Printed Web 5: Bot Anthologia features algorithmic media: bots, feeds and other autonomous projects, it was presented at Interrupt 4 at Brown University. Joachim Schmid Penelope Umbrico Christian Bök Clement Valla Kenneth Goldsmith Hito Steyerl Benjamin Shaykin Christopher Alexander Mishka Henner David Horvitz Amperamp Press Constant Dullaart Daniel Temkin James Bridle John Zissovici Cheryl Sourkes Brian Droitcour Tan Lin Angela Genusa Webdriver Torso Rafaël Rozendaal Olia Lialina Cory Arcangel Open call: 147 artists Silvio Lorusso Wolfgang Plöger Lorna Mills Molly Soda Travess Smalley Angela Genusa Eva and Franco Mattes Anouk Kruithof Elisabeth Tonnard Christopher Clary Michael Connor Included 30+ artists who make bots, feeds and other autonomous projects.
Ian Cheng Jason Ronallo Anders Hoff Brent Watanabe John Emerson Allison Parrish Mario Klingemann Colin Mitchell Chris Novello Matthew Plummer-Fernandez and Julien Deswaef John Cayley Matthew Thomas Joana Moll Darius Kazemi David Lublin Bob Poekert Ash Wolf Sean S. LeBlanc Eugenio Tisselli V. Gregor Weichbrodt Everest Pipkin & Loren Schmidt Derek Arnold
Alfred Clunies-Ross was a rugby union international who represented Scotland in the first international rugby match in 1871. Clunies-Ross, a Cocos Malays from a Scots family, was the first non-white rugby union international player. Alfred was born around 1851 in the Cocos Islands. Of mixed Indo origin, the son of John George Clunies-Ross and S'pia Dupong from Surakarta, his father was second ruler-proprietor of the Cocos Islands, referred to by the press as the King of those islands, his elder brother George became the third ruler-proprietor of the islands. The Clunies-Ross family had originated in the Shetland Islands and both Alfred and his brothers had been sent to Scotland for education. Alfred attended Madras College. There he excelled at sport. In a report found in the "St Andrews Gazette" of a cricket match played between St Andrews University and Madras College in March 1864, the following is written about Alfred: "the clever hitting and fielding of Affie Ross, a lively and smart little fellow, to all appearances not yet reached his teens".
Another reference is made of his playing a football fixture on 9 January 1869 at the Baxter Park, Dundee against Aberdeen University. His brother Alex was in the team, Alfred is referred to at this point as Alf Ross, he went on to study medicine in Edinburgh. Alfred played for the University of St Andrews and such was his prowess he was selected to play in the first international rugby match in 1871 between Scotland and England; this was played on 27 March 1871 at Raeburn Place and won by Scotland. After he moved to London, he was at St George's Hospital until 1873 and subsequently played for the London Wasps from 1874 to 1880. Alfred left St Andrews University for London before graduating. Although he worked at St George's Hospital in London in 1873 he still did not attain a medical degree, as confirmed in 1885 when E. W. Birch in his government report wrote of Alfred: "He was a medical student but did not graduate." Birch went on: "He is the doctor of the place. He is a bachelor, an exceedingly well-informed man, talks well on most subjects, is popular with the natives.
He is an excellent carpenter." Alfred married his cousin Ellen at Cocos in 1886 and they had 5 children, among whom were Ellen and Cosimo. In 1888 it is known. Of his years, it is known that in 1901 he became ill and moved to Singapore. Having not recovered from the illness he returned to Cocos to recuperate in 1902 but died in 1903. James Robertson - the first known black rugby union player, he played for Edinburgh District in the early 1870s. Andrew Watson - the first black person to play association football. Watson played for Maxwell and Queens Park before being capped for Scotland national football team. Robert Walker, another black player to play association football alongside Watson at Parkgrove