Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in cities where there is urban decay. Urban renewal refers to the clearing out of blighted areas in inner cities to clear out slums and create opportunities for higher class housing and more. Modern attempts at renewal began in the late 19th century in developed nations, experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s under the rubric of reconstruction; the process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world. Urban renewal is a process where owned properties within a designated renewal area are purchased or taken by eminent domain by a municipal redevelopment authority and reconveyed to selected developers who devote them to other uses; until 1970, the displaced owners and tenants received only the constitutionally-mandated "just compensation" specified in the Fifth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution; this measure of compensation covered only the fair market value of the taken property, omitted compensation for a variety of incidental losses like, for example, moving expenses, loss of favorable financing and notably, business losses, such as loss of business goodwill.
In the 1970s the federal government and state governments enacted the Uniform Relocation Assistance Act which provides for limited compensation of some of these losses. However the Act denies the displaced land owners the right to sue to enforce its provisions, so it is deemed an act of legislative grace rather than a constitutional right. Urban redevelopment has been controversial because of such practices as taking private property by eminent domain for "public use" and turning it over to redevelopers free of charge or for less than the acquisition cost. Thus, in the controversial Connecticut case of Kelo v. City of New London the plan called for a redeveloper to lease the subject 90-acre waterfront property for $1 per year; this process is carried out in rural areas, referred to as village renewal, though it may not be the same in practice. In some cases, renewal may result in urban sprawl when city infrastructure begins to include freeways and expressways. Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, by critics as a mechanism for control.
Though it may bring more wealth to communities, it may edge out its preexisting residents. Some redevelopment projects have been failures, including the Kelo case, in which the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the taking by a 5 to 4 vote, but where nothing was built on the taken property. Many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs; the goal of urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, today is an integral part of many local governments combined with small and big business incentives. Urban renewal sometimes lives up to the hopes of its original proponents – it has been assessed by politicians, urban planners, civic leaders, residents – it has played an undeniably important if controversial role, but at other times urban redevelopment projects have failed in several American cities, having wasted large amounts of public funds to no purpose.
Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality. It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social amenity, it may improve opportunities for safety and surveillance. Developments such as London Docklands increased tax revenues for government. In late 1964, the British commentator Neil Wates expressed the opinion that urban renewal in the United States had'demonstrated the tremendous advantages which flow from an urban renewal programme,' such as remedying the'personal problems' of the poor, creation or renovation of housing stock and cultural'opportunities'. In the United States successful urban redevelopment projects tend to revitalize downtown areas, but have not been successful in revitalizing cities as a whole; the process has resulted in the displacement of low-income city inhabitants when their dwellings were taken and demolished. Urban redevelopment became an engine of construction of shopping malls, automobile factories and dealerships, "large box" department stores.
Thus, in Washington, DC, the famous Southwest Washington renewal project displaced thousands of African-American families, but provided them with no replacement housing because at the time the law did not provide for any. The version of the project, approved by the U. S. Supreme Court in Berman, provided for low-cost replacement housing, one-third of, to rent for $17/room/month, but after the court's decision, that provision in the local law was repealed. Replacement housing – in the form of high-rise housing for low-income tenants – have not been successful; these projects are difficult to police, leading to an increase in crime, such structures might in themselves be dehumanising. Public housing projects like Cabrini-Green in Chicago and Pruitt-Igoe in St. Louis became so bad that they had to be demolished; the concept of urban renewal as a method for social reform emerged in England as a reaction to the cramped and unsanitary conditions of the urban poor in the industrializing cities of the 19th century.
The agenda that emerged was a progressive d
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Oakland is the academic and healthcare center of Pittsburgh and one of the city's major cultural centers. The neighborhood is home to three universities and hospitals, as well as an abundance of shopping and recreational activities. Oakland is home to the Schenley Farms National Historic District which encompasses two city designated historic districts: the residential Schenley Farms Historic District and the predominantly institutional Oakland Civic Center Historic District, it is home to the locally designated Oakland Square Historic District. The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire has Fire Station No. 14 on McKee Place and Fire Station No. 10 on Allequippa Street in Oakland. Oakland is divided into four neighborhoods: North Oakland, West Oakland, Central Oakland, South Oakland; each section has a unique identity, offers its own flavor of venues and housing. Oakland is Pittsburgh's second most populated neighborhood with 22,210 residents, a majority of these residents being students. North Oakland can be loosely defined as the area of Oakland between Neville and Bouquet Streets, encompassing all of Craig Street and running north to Polish Hill.
The Cathedral of Learning, the engineering or midsection of the University of Pittsburgh campus, the Craig Street business district are in North Oakland. RAND's Pittsburgh center is located in North Oakland as well as the long time RIDC business incubator on Henry Street; the Islamic Center of Pittsburgh, the largest mosque in the city, is located in North Oakland. This sector is home to the Schenley Farms Historic District and many mid-rise condominium and apartment buildings. Central Oakland is bordered by Schenley Park, the Boulevard of the Allies, Fifth Avenue, Halket Street. Many students at the University of Pittsburgh who decide to live off-campus reside in this neighborhood. Many of its homes are historic masonry structures dating from the turn of the century; the area is mistakenly called South Oakland. Its Main Business District runs along Forbes and Fifth Avenue, contains a diversity of restaurants and financial services; these businesses are organized by the Oakland Business Improvement District.
Smaller business districts in Central Oakland provide additional dining options along Atwood Street and Semple Street. It is the location of the isolated and historic neighborhood of Panther Hollow which runs along Boundary Street in Junction Hollow as well as the Oakland Square Historic District. South Oakland runs along the Monongahela River and forms a triangular shape between the Monongahela River, the Boulevard of the Allies, the western bank of Junction Hollow. Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC and the Pittsburgh Technology Center are major landmarks of this neighborhood; the neighborhood is split between a riverfront flood plain to the southwest and a plateau to the northeast. The plateau is divided into two residential areas which are separated from one another by Bates Street, which runs up a valley from the flood plain to the plateau; the residents of the neighborhood on the north side of Bates Avenue call their neighborhood Oakcliffe. The flood plain was packed with industrial sites such as the Pittsburgh Works Consolidated Gas Co. and the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. but presently, the Pittsburgh Technology Center hosts facilities such as the Entertainment Technology Center of Carnegie Mellon University.
Some residents of Central Oakland think of their neighborhood as being part of South Oakland. However, the border between Central Oakland and South Oakland is further south; the area between Forbes Avenue and Boulevard of the Allies is part of Central Oakland. Articles in some news media have made this error. South Oakland is reputed to be a student neighborhood, but only 36.9% of its population is between the ages of 18 and 24, compared to Central Oakland's figure of 74.1%. The difference is because the area between Forbes Avenue and the Boulevard of the Allies houses many undergraduate students. While it is considered to be in South Oakland, it is the heart of Central Oakland. South Oakland was the childhood home of Andy Warhol, the residence of fellow pop artist Keith Haring. Haring had his first art show while living in Oakland. NFL Hall of Fame Quarterback Dan Marino was born in Oakland, not far from Warhol's home. Dan Marino Field on Frazier Street was named in honor of its native son. Although they were not contemporaries and Marino grew up on the same block with their former houses only a few doors apart.
West Oakland, the smallest of the four districts, is bordered by Fifth Avenue in the south, DeSoto Street in the east, the Birmingham Bridge to the west, Allequippa Street to the north. Carlow University and most of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center can be found there. Although the campus of Carnegie Mellon University and parts of Schenley Park, including Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens and Flagstaff Hill are popularly referred to as being in Oakland, are located with the 15213 zip code, they are part of the adjacent neighborhood of Squirrel Hill North; the border between Oakland and Squirrel Hill runs along Junction Hollow. The name first appeared in 1839 in Harris' Intelligencer; the area got its name from the abundance of oak trees found on the farm of William Eichenbaum, who settled there in 1840. Oakland developed following the Great Fire of 1845 in Downtown Pittsburgh, with many people moving out to suburban territory. By 1860, there was considerable commercial development along
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Allegheny County is a county in the southwest of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2017 the population was 1,223,048, making it the state's second-most populous county, following Philadelphia County; the county seat is Pittsburgh. Allegheny County is included in the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the Pittsburgh Designated Market Area. Allegheny was Pennsylvania's first to bear a Native American name, being named after the Allegheny River; the word "Allegheny" is with uncertain meaning. It is said to mean "fine river", but sometimes said to refer to an ancient mythical tribe called "Allegewi" that lived along the river before being destroyed by the Lenape. Little is known of the region's inhabitants prior to European contact. During the colonial era, various native groups claimed or settled in the area, resulting in a multi-ethnic mix that included Iroquois, Lenape and Mingo. European fur traders such as Peter Chartier established trading posts in the region in the early eighteenth century.
In 1749, Captain Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville claimed the Ohio Valley and all of western Pennsylvania for Louis XV of France. The captain traveled along the Ohio and Allegheny rivers inserting lead plates in the ground to mark the land for France. Since most of the towns during that era were developed along waterways, both the French and the British desired control over the local rivers. Therefore, the British sent Major George Washington to expel the French from their posts, with no success. Failing in this objective, he nearly drowned in the ice-filled Allegheny River while returning; the English tried in 1754 to again enter the area. They sent 41 Virginians to build Fort Prince George; the French learned of the plan and sent an army to capture the fort, which they resumed building with increased fortification, renaming it Fort Duquesne. The loss cost the English dearly because Fort Duquesne became a focal point of the French and Indian War; the first attempt to retake the fort, the Braddock Expedition, failed miserably.
It was recaptured in 1758 by British forces under General John Forbes. The British built a new, larger fort on the site, including a moat, named it Fort Pitt; the site is now Pittsburgh's Point State Park. Both Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed the region, now Allegheny County. Pennsylvania administered most of the region as part of its Westmoreland County. Virginia considered everything south of the Ohio River and east of the Allegheny River to be part of its Yohogania County and governed it from Fort Dunmore. In addition, parts of the county were located in the proposed British colony of Vandalia and the proposed U. S. state of Westsylvania. The overlapping boundaries, multiple governments, confused deed claims soon proved unworkable. In 1780 Pennsylvania and Virginia agreed to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, the region became part of Pennsylvania. From 1781 until 1788, much of what had been claimed as part of Yohogania County, was administered as a part of the newly created Washington County, Pennsylvania.
Allegheny County was created on September 24, 1788, from parts of Washington and Westmoreland counties. It was formed due to pressure from settlers living in the area around Pittsburgh, which became the county seat in 1791; the county extended north to the shores of Lake Erie. In the 1790s, a whiskey excise tax was imposed by the United States federal government; this started the so-called Whiskey Rebellion when the farmers who depended on whiskey income refused to pay and drove off tax collector John Neville. After a series of demonstrations by farmers, President George Washington sent troops to stop the rebellion; the area developed in the 1800s to become the nation's prime steel producer. In 1913 the County's 125th anniversary was celebrated with a week long chain of events, the final day September 27 was marked with a steamboat parade consisting of 30 paddle wheelers which sailed from Monongahela Wharf down the Ohio to the Davis Island Dam; the boats in line were the flag ship. Woodward, Volunteer, A. R. Budd, J. C.
Risher, Rival, Jim Brown, Charlie Clarke, Robt. J. Jenkins, Bertha, Midland Sam Barnum, Cadet and Troubadour. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 745 square miles, of which 730 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Three majors traverse Allegheny County: the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River converge at Downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River; the Youghiogheny River flows into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, 10 miles southeast. There are several islands in these courses; the rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Although the county's industrial growth caused the clearcutting of the area's forests, a significant woodland remains. Butler County Armstrong County Beaver County Westmoreland County Washington County Until January 1, 2000, Allegheny County's government was defined under Pennsylvania's Second Class County Code; the county government was charged with all local activities, including elections, airports, public health, city planning.
All public offices were headed by elected citizens. There were three elected county commissioners. On January 1, 2000 the Home-Rule Charter went into effect, it replaced the three elected commissioners wi
South Side Flats (Pittsburgh)
The South Side Flats is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's South Side area. It is located just south of the Monongahela River; the neighborhood has one of the City of Pittsburgh's largest concentrations of 19th-century homes, which has prompted outsiders to call the neighborhood the City's Georgetown. It includes many restaurants as well as residences; the main throughway in the South Side Flats is East Carson Street. The street is home to a significant portion of Pittsburgh's nightlife; the South Side was once composed of a number of smaller communities. These included Birmingham and East Birmingham, both named for the English Midlands industrial center, Birmingham; these boroughs were collectively annexed to the city in 1872. The South Side and much of the hillsides to its south had been granted to Major John Ormsby in 1763, in recognition his assistance in the building of Fort Pitt. By the 1770s, Ormsby had built an estate on these lands and established a ferry for connecting his home with the community in Pittsburgh.
In 1811, Ormsby's son-in-law, Dr. Nathaniel Bedford, laid out a town on the flats, naming it Birmingham in tribute to his native city. Bedford had come to Pittsburgh around 1770 and was the first practicing physician in the district known as Allegheny County, he named the streets after his Ormsby's children. Carson St. was named after a sea captain, a friend of Dr. Bedford. In the early days it was part of the main road to Washington, Pennsylvania; the nearby municipality of Mount Oliver would be named for John Ormsby's son Oliver Ormsby. The two areas were once connected by a coal incline run by the Keeling Coal Company, now the site of South Side Park. Birmingham became a sizable industrial center because of the easy access to river and rail transport; the region would first become a center of glass production, followed by a concentration of iron and steel manufacturing. In 1850, Benjamin Franklin Jones invested in a South Side iron works. During the depression of 1873, he formed a partnership with James H. Laughlin.
The firm of Jones and Laughlin Steel Company would become the South Side's largest employer. By 1910, it would employ over 15,000 workers; the expansion of the plant in 1950 would require the demolition of residential homes between 31st and 33rd streets. The majority of workers who had settled in the area were immigrants of Eastern Europe, they found home throughout the Flats and Slopes of South Side and had brought much of their culture and traditions to the area. Many of the Eastern European churches and bars are still present in the South Side; the decline of the steel industry was a major blow to the neighborhood. In addition to layoffs at the J&L Plant, the Levinson Steel Company, located on the South Side closed in 1981; the facility had been located along the river between 19th to 21st streets, was converted into a strip mall. A series of arsons hit the South Side neighborhood in the early 1980s. Prominent buildings on the corner of 18th and Carson Streets and the Arcade Theater on Carson St. were demolished by fire.
The Arcade Theater had opened in 1929 and was the first theatre outside of Downtown Pittsburgh to have sound and air-conditioning. A Rite Aid pharmacy sits on the site of the theater; the early 1980s saw the beginnings of redevelopment on the South Side. The Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation helped establish and partner with the South Side Local Development Company in 1982. In 1985, the South Side's East Carson Street was selected to participate in the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Main Street Urban Demonstration Program. Community involvement played a major role in the redevelopment of the former J&L site; the Jones and Laughlin Company had merged with the Ling-Temco-Vought Corporation in 1974. The company would merge its J&L Steel subsidiary with Republic Steel to form LTV Steel in 1984; the South Side J&L/LTV plant shut down in 1986. Once closed, City of Pittsburgh Councilman Otis Lyon wanted the site's Bessemer converter building, an open hearth building, four smokestacks, a J&L sign to be preserved.
The plan fell through when it was determined that these structures posed a safety hazard, although the J&L sign is mothballed beneath the Panhandle Bridge for future use. Riverboat gambling was considered for the site and in 1993, the City of Pittsburgh Urban and Redevelopment Authority purchased the site with money loaned by a potential developer for $9.3 million. The URA redeveloped the site to be the Southside Works complex; the project has brought national retailers to the eastern end of the neighborhood. The South Side Flats covers 0.936 square miles. The South Side Riverfront Park runs the majority of the border of the Flats to the Monongahela River, it hosts a myriad of events, like the annual Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival. The Three Rivers Heritage Trail runs through the park; the east-west section of the South Side Flats are bordered by the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of South Shore to the west and South Side Slopes to the south. The Flats curve to follow a north-south direction; the Flats run adjacent to three Pittsburgh neighborhoods across the Monongahela River and are directly linked via bridges.
The Birmingham Bridge connects the Flats w
Reymer Brothers Candy Factory
The Reymer Brothers Candy Factory in the Bluff neighborhood of Pittsburgh, was built in 1906 in the Richardsonian Romanesque style. Reymer and Anderson was one of the first confectionaries in Pittsburgh and it boomed during the Civil War when people sent their candies to soldiers, they prospered during the last half of the nineteenth century as Phillip Reymer's sons and Harmer, took over the business. By 1906 when the new factory was built, the Reymer family had left the business but their name lived on. In 1908 the firm claimed that it was "one of the largest confectionary houses in the world," and that it had 5,000 vendors in the Pittsburgh area; the firm ran five teahouses in Pittsburgh. These may have contributed to perception that the firm were unprofitable. An uncarbonated soft drink "Lemon Blennd" accounted for 70% of their sales in 1959; the company was taken over in 1959 by a competitor, Dimling's, which went out of business in 1969. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997