Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium, bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle. Uranium-233 was investigated as a reactor fuel, it has been used in experimental nuclear reactors and has been proposed for much wider use as a nuclear fuel. It has a half-life of 160,000 years. Uranium-233 is produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium-232; when thorium-232 absorbs a neutron, it becomes thorium-233, which has a half-life of only 22 minutes. Thorium-233 decays into protactinium-233 through beta decay. Protactinium-233 has a half-life of 27 days and beta decays into uranium-233. 233U fissions on neutron absorption, but sometimes retains the neutron, becoming uranium-234. The capture-to-fission ratio of uranium-233 is smaller than those of the other two major fissile fuels, uranium-235 and plutonium-239. In 1946, the public first became informed of uranium-233 bred from thorium as "a third available source of nuclear energy and atom bombs", following a United Nations report and a speech by Glenn T. Seaborg.
The United States produced, over the course of the Cold War 2 metric tons of uranium-233, in varying levels of chemical and isotopic purity. These were produced at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site in reactors that were designed for the production of plutonium-239. Uranium-233 has been used as a fuel in several different reactor types, is proposed as a fuel for several new designs, all of which breed it from thorium. Uranium-233 can be bred in either fast reactors or thermal reactors, unlike the uranium-238-based fuel cycles which require the superior neutron economy of a fast reactor in order to breed plutonium, that is, to produce more fissile material than is consumed; the long-term strategy of the nuclear power program of India, which has substantial thorium reserves, is to move to a nuclear program breeding uranium-233 from thorium feedstock. The fission of one atom of uranium-233 generates 197.9 MeV = 3.171·10−11 J. As a potential weapon material, pure uranium-233 is more similar to plutonium-239 than uranium-235 in terms of source, half-life and critical mass.
In 1994, the US government declassified a 1966 memo that states that uranium-233 has been shown to be satisfactory as a weapons material, though it is only superior to plutonium in rare circumstances. It was claimed that if the existing weapons were based on uranium-233 instead of plutonium-239, Livermore would not be interested in switching to plutonium; the co-presence of uranium-232 can complicate the manufacture and use of uranium-233, though the Livermore memo indicates a likelihood that this complication can be worked around. While it is thus possible to use uranium-233 as the fissile material of a nuclear weapon, speculation aside, there is scant publicly available information on this isotope having been weaponized: The United States detonated an experimental device in the 1955 Operation Teapot "MET" test which used a plutonium/233U composite pit. Although not an outright fizzle, MET's actual yield of 22 kilotons was sufficiently below the predicted 33 kt that the information gathered was of limited value.
The Soviet Union detonated its first hydrogen bomb the same year, the RDS-37, which contained a fissile core of 235U and 233U. In 1998, as part of its Pokhran-II tests, India detonated an experimental 233U device of low-yield called Shakti V; the B Reactor and others at the Hanford Site optimized for the production of weapons-grade material have been used to manufacture 233U. Production of 233U invariably produces small amounts of uranium-232 as an impurity, because of parasitic reactions on uranium-233 itself, or on protactinium-233, or on thorium-232: 232Th → 233Th → 233Pa → 233U → 232U 232Th → 233Th → 233Pa → 232Pa → 232U 232Th → 231Th → 231Pa → 232Pa → 232UAnother channel involves neutron capture reaction on small amounts of thorium-230, a tiny fraction of natural thorium present due to the decay of uranium-238: 230Th → 231Th → 231Pa → 232Pa → 232UThe decay chain of 232U yields strong gamma radiation emitters. Thallium-208 is the strongest of these, at 2.6 MeV: 232U 228Th 224Ra 220Rn 216Po 212Pb 212Bi 208Tl 208Pb This makes manual handling in a glove box with only light shielding too hazardous, instead requiring complex remote manipulation for fuel fabrication.
The hazards are significant at 5 parts per million. Implosion nuclear weapons require 232U levels below 50 ppm. Gun-type fission weapons additionally need low levels (1 ppm
Saltasaurini is a tribe of titanosaur sauropods known from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. The clade was named in 2007 by Leonardo Salgado and José Bonaparte for the "least inclusive clade comprising Neuquensaurus and Saltasaurus", being equivalent to the use of Saltasaurinae in Salgado et al.. Found only in the Campanian to Maastrichtian sediments of the Neuquén Basin, Salgado & Bonaparte decided a more restrictive clade was needed because of the expansion of Saltasaurinae as defined to include far more taxa than it encompassed. Saltasaurini includes the original core of Saltasaurinae: Neuquensaurus, Saltasaurus and Bonatitan, although some studies exclude Bonatitan from the clade
Hammel and Abrahamson is an architecture and planning firm that originated in Minnesota. It was founded in 1953 by Minnesotans Dick Curt Green. All three of HGA's founders were schooled in the Bauhaus tradition, which stressed a collaborative and inter-disciplinary approach to Modernism, they began their work designing K-12 school buildings. The firm expanded into other areas, such as healthcare, corporate environments and higher education, they are one of the largest firms in Minnesota. HGA has expanded into eleven national offices. C. In October 2018, HGA announced its acquisition of Wilson Architects, a Boston-based firm specializing in science and technology facilities for higher education and corporate clients. Tim Carl, FAIA, Chief Executive Officer Scott Lindvall, AIA, Chief Operating Officer Kent Mainquist, CPA, Chief Financial Officer Jennifer Klund, AIA, ACHA, Chairperson of the Board Barbara Barker Center for Dance, University of Minnesota, Minnesota Benedicta Arts Center and expansion, College of Saint Benedict, Saint Joseph, Minnesota Bigelow Chapel, United Theological Seminary, New Brighton, Minnesota Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California Chaffey College Center for the Arts, Rancho Cucamonga, California Colonial Church of Edina, Minnesota Columbus State University Performance and Visual Arts Campus, Georgia General Mills Corporate Headquarters, Golden Valley, Minnesota Great Lakes Aquarium, Minnesota Janet Wallace Fine Arts Center expansion and renovation, Macalester College, Saint Paul, Minnesota Lakewood Cemetery Garden Mausoleum, Minnesota Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Multidisciplinary Simulation Center, Minnesota Medtronic World Headquarters, Minnesota Minnesota History Center, Saint Paul, Minnesota Minnesota State Capitol restoration, Saint Paul, Minnesota Museum of the North, University of Alaska, Alaska Napa Valley College Performing Arts Center, California Northeast Georgia Health Center, Georgia Northrop Auditorium renovation, Minnesota Orpheum Theatre restoration, Minnesota Pantages Theater restoration, Minnesota Plains Art Museum, North Dakota Rochester Art Center, Minnesota Southridge High School, Washington Surly Brewery, Minnesota Target Field, Minnesota Temple Israel addition, Minnesota Texas A&M University–Commerce Music Building, Texas UC Davis Medical Center, California Union Depot restoration, Saint Paul, Minnesota Valley Performing Arts Center, California State University, Los Angeles, California Valparaiso University Center for the Arts, Indiana Walker Art Center renovation, Minnesota Logan, Katharine Of Glass and Warmth and Wood, ArchitectureWeek HGA Website Emporis Website Hammel, From Bauhaus to Bow Ties: HGA Celebrates 35 Years HGA Website Firm history at Great Buildings ArchitectureWeek article
The Trout Inn is a historic public house in Lower Wolvercote north of Oxford, close to Godstow Bridge, directly by the River Thames. The pub features in Evelyn Waugh's novel Brideshead Revisited and in Colin Dexter's Inspector Morse series, written and filmed in and around Oxford. For example, it appears in the TV episode "The Wolvercote Tongue". An alternative reality version appears in Philip Pullman's La Belle Sauvage, it appears in the 1997 film version of The Saint. In 2001 the Trout Inn was visited by US President Bill Clinton and his daughter Chelsea, a graduate student at University College, Oxford; the Trout Inn is a Grade II listed building built principally in the 17th century, with some 18th-century alterations and additions. Godstow Bridge, to the south of the inn, consists of two stone arches across the Thames, the northern one dating from medieval times, the southern rebuilt in 1892. Both bridges are Grade II Listed, as is the wooden footbridge at the Trout Inn; the Perch Victoria Arms, Marston The Trout Inn Oxford Restaurant Guide information
Akeel J. Morris is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Long Island Ducks of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, he played in Major League Baseball for the New York Mets, Atlanta Braves, Los Angeles Angels. Akeel Morris was born in Saint Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands to Kenneth, a crane operator from Saint Kitts, Corlette, an insurance agent from Antigua; as a child, before focusing on pitching, his favorite baseball player was Derek Jeter. Morris attended Charlotte Amalie High School. In December 2009, he pitched a perfect game. Morris' parents paid for their son to travel to the Dominican Republic to audition for the New York Mets. Morris was drafted by the New York Mets in the 10th round of the 2010 Major League Baseball draft, he made his professional debut that season for the Gulf Coast League Mets. He appeared in eight games with six starts, going 1–1 with a 2.19 ERA and 28 strikeouts over 24 2⁄3 innings. Morris played 2012 with the Kingsport Mets, he played 2013 with the Brooklyn Cyclones.
After splitting time between starting and relieving his first four seasons, Morris became a full-time reliever for the Savannah Sand Gnats in 2014. In a game against the Augusta GreenJackets in April, Morris struck out four batters in one inning, he finished the season with a 0.63 ERA in 57 innings over 41 appearances with 89 strikeouts and 16 saves. Morris began the 2015 season with the St. Lucie Mets of the Class A-Advanced Florida State League, was promoted to the major leagues on June 15, he made his debut on June 18 against the Toronto Blue Jays at Rogers Centre in the eighth and allowed five runs on three hits and three walks in 2/3 of an inning. The Blue Jays beat the Mets 8-0. On June 17, 2015 Morris was sent to the Binghamton Mets to make room for Logan Verrett. Morris finished the 2015 season with an ERA of 67.50 in one game, 2/3 of an inning pitched with a WHIP of 9.000 while giving up 3 hits, 5 runs, 1 home run, 3 walks. With Binghamton, he finished 1-0, 2.45 ERA in 23 games in 29.1 innings pitched with a WHIP of 1.091 while giving up 17 hits, 8 runs, 1 home run and 15 walks while striking out 35 batters.
On June 8, 2016, the Mets traded Morris to the Atlanta Braves for Kelly Johnson. He was assigned to AA Mississippi on the same day. On August 12, Morris was recalled by the Braves; the next day, Morris was optioned down to AA Mississippi.. On July 6, 2017, Morris was promoted to the Braves major league roster. Morris was designated for assignment on March 31, 2018. On April 3, 2018, Morris was traded to the Los Angeles Angels in exchange for cash considerations or a player to be named later; the Angels called up Morris four days and he pitched in the game that day. He elected free agency on November 2, 2018. On April 1, 2019, Morris was drafted by the High Point Rockers of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball at the 2019 ALPB Player Showcase. On July 8, 2019, Morris was traded to the Southern Maryland Blue Crabs of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. On July 12, he was traded to the New Britain Bees in order to complete an earlier trade, without appearing in a game for the Blue Crabs.
On November 6, 2019, Morris was selected by the Long Island Ducks in the New Britain Bees dispersal draft. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Akeel Morris stats MiLB.com Akeel Morris on Instagram Akeel Morris on Twitter
Šentjur is a town in eastern Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Šentjur; the town lies on the Voglajna River east of Celje. The area was part of the traditional region of Styria; the municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region. The name of the settlement was changed from Sveti Jurij pri Celju to Šentjur pri Celju in 1952; the town was renamed again from Šentjur pri Celju to Šentjur in 1990. The parish church from which the settlement gets its name is dedicated to Saint George and belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Celje, it was built between 1708 and 1721. Šentjur on Geopedia Municipality of Šentjur portal