Urartu is a geographical region used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the historic Armenian Highlands. The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into gradual decline and was conquered by the Iranian Medes in the early 6th century BC; the geopolitical region would re-emerge as Armenia shortly after. The peoples of Urartu are the earliest identifiable ancestors of the Armenians. Various names were given to the polity that emerged in the region. Urartu/Ararat The name Urartu comes from Assyrian sources. Shalmaneser I recorded a campaign in which he subdued the entire territory of "Uruatri"; the Shalmaneser text uses the name Urartu to refer to a geographical region, not a kingdom, names eight "lands" contained within Urartu. Urartu is cognate with the Biblical Ararat, Akkadian Urashtu, Armenian Ayrarat. In addition to referring to the famous Biblical highlands, Ararat appears as the name of a kingdom in Jeremiah 51:27, mentioned together with Minni and Ashkenaz.
Mount Ararat is located 120 kilometres north of the kingdom's former capital, though the identification of the biblical "mountains of Ararat" with the Mt. Ararat is a modern identification based on postbiblical tradition. Van The name Kingdom of Van, is derived from the Urartian toponym Biainili, pronounced as Vanele, called Van in Old Armenian, hence the names "Kingdom of Van" or "Vannic Kingdom". Nairi Boris Piotrovsky wrote that the Urartians first appear in history in the 13th century BC as a league of tribes or countries which did not yet constitute a unitary state. In the Assyrian annals the term Uruatri as a name for this league was superseded during a considerable period of years by the term "land of Nairi". Khaldini Scholars such as Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt believed that the people of Urartu called themselves Khaldini after the god Ḫaldi. Shupria Shupria is believed to have been a Hurrian or Mitanni state, subsequently annexed into the Urartian confederation. Shupria is mentioned in conjunction with a district in the area called Arme which some scholars have linked to the name of Armenia.
Shurili Linguists John Greppin and Igor M. Diakonoff argued that the Urartians referred to themselves as Shurele, a name mentioned within the royal titles of the kings of Urartu; the word Šuri has been variously theorized as referring to chariots, the region of Shupria, or the entire world. Armenia In the 6th century BC, with the emergence of Armenia in the region, the name of the region and its people were synonymously referred to as Armenia and Armenians, in two of the three languages used in the Behistun and the XV inscriptions; the name Ararat was translated as Armenia in 1st century AD in historiographical works and early Latin translations of the Bible, as well as the Books of Kings and Isaiah in the Septuagint. Some English language translations, including the King James Version follow the Septuagint translation of Ararat as Armenia. Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser I first mention Uruartri as one of the states of Nairi, a loose confederation of small kingdoms and tribal states in the Armenian Highland in the 13th to 11th centuries BC which he conquered.
Uruartri itself was in the region around Lake Van. The Nairi states were subjected to further attacks and invasions by the Assyrians under Tukulti-Ninurta I, Tiglath-Pileser I, Ashur-bel-kala, Adad-nirari II, Tukulti-Ninurta II, Ashurnasirpal II. Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC as a powerful northern rival of Assyria, which lay to the south in northern Mesopotamia and northeast Syria; the Nairi states and tribes became a unified kingdom under king Aramu, whose capital at Arzashkun was captured by the Assyrians under Shalmaneser III. Contemporaries of the Uruartri, living just to the west along the southern shore of the Black Sea, were the Kaskas known from Hittite sources. Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians may have emigrated northwest into the Lake Van region from their religious capital Musasir. According to Zimansky, the Urartian ruling class were few in number and governed over an ethnically and linguistically diverse population. Zimansky went so far as to suggest that the kings of Urartu might have come from various ethnic backgrounds themselves.
The Middle Assyrian Empire fell into a period of temporary stagnation for decades during the first half of the 8th century BC, which had aided Urartu's growth. Within a short time it became one of the largest and most powerful states in the Near EastSarduri I, son of either Arame or the poorly attested Lutipri resisted the Assyrian attacks from the south, led by Shalmaneser III, consolidated the military power of the state, moved the capital to Tushpa, his son, Ispuini annexed the neighbouring state of Musasir, which bec
Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, abbreviated as SYSUCC, is a public hospital in Guangzhou, China. It is affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University; the hospital was founded in March 1964. It is a Level III Class A hospital and the largest integrated cancer center in southern China for care, research and prevention. SYSUCC is ranked among the top three cancer center’s in China, is one of the best in Asia; the current President of the center is Prof. Xu Rui-Hua. SYSUCC is a member of the Union for International Cancer Control; the predecessor of SYSUCC was the Tumor Hospital in South China. The founders were Professor Hsieh Chih Kuang, a pioneer of clinical radiology and the founding father of radiation oncology in China, Professor Liang Boqiang, the originator of modern pathology in China. In 1948, Hsieh Chih Kuang went to study radiology at Lingang University and with the help of Ke Lin, the Dean of the Zhongshan Medical School, they established the Tumor Hospital in South China; the hospital opened its doors in March 1964 under the leadership of Hsieh Chih Kuang.
A few days a Cancer Institute was opened under the leadership of Liang Boqiang. In 1966, the name of the hospital was changed to the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Sun Yat-sen Medical School; the name was changed again in 1985, to the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Sun Yat-sen Medical University. Twenty-three years after both their respective establishments, in 1987, the Cancer Hospital and the Cancer Institute merged under the name Sun Yat-sen Medical University Cancer Center; the name was simplified in 2001 to: Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. According to the 2018 Nature Index report for global healthcare, the achievements of SYSUCC's active research environment were number 81 among the top 100 medical institutes in the world. "The Nature Index is a accessible database of author affiliation information collated from research articles published in an independently selected group of high-quality science journals." SYSUCC hosts the State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, national recognition for the highest degree of expertise.
It was founded in 2005 by the Ministry of Technology in China. The laboratory is integrated into SYSUCC and its activities cover a broad spectrum in oncology from basic to translational and clinical research. There are 269 SKLs in China, 26 of them are dedicated to medicine and only seven are cancer related. In 2001, SYSUCC established a biobank to collect peripheral blood, bone marrow, tissue samples after surgery, along with other clinical information from cancer patients, they have the largest number of nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples in the world. SYSUCC is establishing a new automatic bio-sample storage retrieval system capable of storing up to 6 million samples. SYSUCC has its own Clinical Trials Center to assist scientists to test new therapies, it includes a National Clinical Study Center for Anticancer Drugs and a National Key Laboratory of Anti-cancer Drug Development. The CTC is CFDA certified. SYSUCC sponsors Cancer Communications, an oncology journal published in English known as the Chinese Journal of Cancer.
It publishes basic and translational cancer research. In 2014, it became Science Citation Indexed, it has a current Impact Factor of 3.822. The Editorial Board consists of members from around the world. SYSUCC has established collaborative and friendly relationships with many renowned international institutes from around the world. SYSUCC has been a sister institute with MD Anderson Cancer Center since 2003; the purpose is to create collaborative oncology research projects between MDACC and other sister institutes in the fight against cancer. In 2004, SYSUCC set up a joint laboratory with the Karolinska Institutet of Sweden for research in immunotherapy, molecular virology and oncological epidemiology. SYSUCC signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the UK’s University of Warwick in 2015, creating a partnership in cancer diagnosis and research. SYSUCC and the University of Warwick are exploring opportunities in regards to digital pathology and anti-cancer drug research. In 2017, SYSUCC and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center signed a broad five-year Memorandum of Understanding to carryout research on cancer diagnosis and treatment
Lorenzo De Ferrari was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in his native city of Genoa. Lorenzo was the son of the painter Gregorio De Ferrari and Margherita Piola, the daughter of another famous Genoese painter, Domenico Piola, he studied by making copies of work by Guido Reni and Anthony van Dyck, accompanied his father to Marseille at the age of twelve, where he worked as his assistant for two years. Upon their return to Genoa, it is probable he assisted in the restoration of Andrea Ansaldo's dome in the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata del Vastato. According to Jane Turner's The Dictionary of Art, his style was "...influenced by the graceful, elongated figures, spiraling movements and elaborate quadratura of his father." He was influenced by the more refined and academic work of several contemporary Genoese artists who had worked in Rome, such as Paolo Girolamo Piola and Domenico Parodi. He used elements established by the Piola family in his ceiling decoration, such as pairs of ignudi and corner ornaments.
His earliest dated work, Allegory in Honor of Doge Lorenzo Centurione, was completed in 1717 and engraved by Maxmilian Joseph Limpach. Its complexity attests to a high degree of skill when he began working with his father on the decoration of the church of Santi Camillo e Croce, where he painted in his father's style an altarpiece Saints Nicholas and Lucy, he collaborated with Gregorio in the decoration of the cupola, the Triumph of the Holy Cross. He painted the lunette fresco, Heraclius Carrying the Cross to Jerusalem, simplifying his father's designs. From 1720 to 1722, Lorenzo painted an altar piece and child with Saints Joseph, Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier, for the Church of Santi Ignazio e Francesco Saverio. In the same period, to celebrate the canonization of Luigi Gonzaga and Stanislaus Kostka, he designed an ornamental structure erected in the Genoese church of the Gesú. Two years he completed frescoes in the nave of Santa Marta. In the 1720s he completed a vault in the Palazzo Pallavicini-Podesta-Bruzzo, which he worked on with Francesco Biggi, based on designs by P. G. Piola.
Lorenzo executed a fresco, according to its style executed between 1730–34, based on the stories of Aeneas in the Palazzo Sauli. Some time afterwards, in 1734, he visited Rome, where he is said to have met the major painters Sebastiano Conca and Marco Benefial. Returning through Florence, he met Francesco Maria Niccolo Gaburri; the latter, Luogotenente of the Florentine Academy of Fine Arts, helped get him awarded an honorary membership. This trip, although short influenced Lorenzo as an artist and contribution his formation of a more intricate, Rococo style. In 1736, he erected a series of elaborate structures, of which no trace remains today, in the Genoa Cathedral to celebrate the canonization of Catherine Fieschi Adorno. In the same year he collaborated with Giovanni Battista Natali on a series of frescoes in the gallery of the Palazzo Spinola, where the central medallion shows Venus and Bacchus with Cupid, all of which demonstrate his newly formed style. Circa 1738, Lorenzo decorated four illusionistic frescoes in the church of Gesù, in the style of Domenichino.
Around the same time, he completed a series of vault frescoes in the Palazzo Gio Carlo, painted to celebrate a Doria marriage. His final work before his death was the Galleria d'Oro in the Palazzo Spinola. Never married, Lorenzo was nicknamed l'Abate de' Ferrari. Soprani, Raffaello. Carlo Giuseppe Ratti. Delle vite de' pittori, scultori, ed architetti genovesi. Stamperia Casamara in Genoa, dalle Cinque Lampadi, con licenza de Superiori. Pp. 263–271. Lanzi, Luigi. Thomas Roscoe. History of Painting in Italy. III. London. CS1 maint: location Turner, Jane; the Dictionary of Art. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Pp. 10–11. Genoa: drawings and prints, 1530-1800 digitized text from The Metropolitan Museum of Art libraries