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Urbain Le Verrier

Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier FRS HFRSE was a French astronomer and mathematician who specialized in celestial mechanics and is best known for predicting the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics. The calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranus's orbit and the laws of Kepler and Newton. Le Verrier sent the coordinates to Johann Gottfried Galle in Berlin. Galle found Neptune in the same night he received Le Verrier's letter, within 1° of the predicted position; the discovery of Neptune is regarded as a dramatic validation of celestial mechanics, is one of the most remarkable moments of 19th-century science. Le Verrier was born at Saint-Lô, France, in a modest bourgeois family, being his parents, Louis-Baptiste Le Verrier and Marie-Jeanne-Josephine-Pauline de Baudre, studied at École Polytechnique, he studied chemistry under Gay-Lussac, writing papers on the combinations of phosphorus and hydrogen, phosphorus and oxygen. He switched to astronomy celestial mechanics, accepted a job at the Paris Observatory.

He spent most of his professional life there, became that institution's Director, from 1854 to 1870 and again from 1873 to 1877. In 1846, Le Verrier became a member of the French Academy of Sciences, in 1855, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Le Verrier's name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. Le Verrier's first work in astronomy was presented to the Académie des Sciences in September 1839, entitled Sur les variations séculaires des orbites des planètes; this work addressed the most-important question in astronomy: the stability of the Solar System, first investigated by Laplace. He was able to derive some important limits on the motions of the system, but due to the inaccurately-known masses of the planets, his results were tentative. From 1844 to 1847, Le Verrier published a series of works on periodic comets, in particular those of Lexell, Faye and DeVico, he was able to show some interesting interactions with the planet Jupiter, proving that certain comets were the reappearance of previously-known comets flung into different orbits.

Le Verrier's most famous achievement is his prediction of the existence of the unknown planet Neptune, using only mathematics and astronomical observations of the known planet Uranus. Encouraged by physicist Arago, Director of the Paris Observatory, Le Verrier was intensely engaged for months in complex calculations to explain small but systematic discrepancies between Uranus's observed orbit and the one predicted from the laws of gravity of Newton. At the same time, but unknown to Le Verrier, similar calculations were made by John Couch Adams in England. Le Verrier announced his final predicted position for Uranus's unseen perturbing planet publicly to the French Academy on 31 August 1846, two days before Adams's final solution was mailed to the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Le Verrier transmitted his own prediction by 18 September in a letter to Johann Galle of the Berlin Observatory; the letter arrived five days and the planet was found with the Berlin Fraunhofer refractor that same evening, 23 September 1846, by Galle and Heinrich d'Arrest within 1° of the predicted location near the boundary between Capricorn and Aquarius.

There was, to an extent still is, controversy over the apportionment of credit for the discovery. There is no ambiguity to the discovery claims of Le Verrier, d'Arrest. Adams's work was begun earlier than Le Verrier's but was finished and was unrelated to the actual discovery. Not the briefest account of Adams's predicted orbital elements was published until more than a month after Berlin's visual confirmation. Adams made full public acknowledgement of Le Verrier's priority and credit when he gave his paper to the Royal Astronomical Society in November 1846: I mention these dates to show that my results were arrived at independently, to the publication of those of M. Le Verrier, not with the intention of interfering with his just claims to the honours of the discovery. Early in the 19th century, the methods of predicting the motions of the planets were somewhat scattered, having been developed over decades by many different researchers. In 1847, Le Verrier took on the task to "... embrace in a single work the entire planetary system, put everything in harmony if possible, declare with certainty that there are as yet unknown causes of perturbations...", a work which would occupy him for the rest of his life.

Le Verrier began by re-evaluating, to the 7th order, the technique of calculating the planetary perturbations known as the perturbing function. This derivation, which resulted in 469 mathematical terms, was complete by 1849, he next collected observations of the positions of the planets as far back as 1750. Examining these and correcting for inconsistencies with the most recent data occupied him until 1852. Le Verrier published, in the Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, tables of the motions of all of the known planets, releasing them as he completed them, starting in 1858; the tables formed the fundamental ephemeris of the Connaissance des Temps, the astronomical almanac of the Bureau des Longitudes, until about 1912. About that time, Le Verrier's work on the outer planets was expanded by Gaillot. Le Verrier

Bobi Tsankov

Bobi Tsankov was a Bulgarian journalist, crime writer and radio personality, killed in Sofia for unclear reasons. Boris "Bobi" Tsankov was born in Sofia on 12 August 1979. A controversial figure, in 2003 he was arrested and in 2006 he was convicted for fraud, he has been a host for Viva Radio. In September 2009 he started publishing a series on article on the tabloid Weekend about local crime figures. On TV he claimed to be close to some of underworld bosses of Bulgaria. In November 2009 he published Secrets of the Mobsters, described as an autobiographical thriller, while according to the police it was a mix of fact and fiction. In 2004 a bomb exploded in front of his home. On 5 January 2010 he was shot dead in central Sofia in broad daylight by two gunmen, he was 30 years old. Two other men were wounded: they were his bodyguards according to Dnevnik while according to the police they were clients of the same law firm that Tsankov had visited. Director-General of UNESCO Irina Bokova and Nina Ognianova of the Committee to Protect Journalists condemned the killing.

Mark Gray, a spokesperson for the European Commission, EurActiv noted that shootings were a serious problem in Bulgaria. Krasimir Marinov, a suspected crime boss, was arrested and charged with incitement to murder, but was freed. Authorities were seeking his brother Nikolai Marinov. Stefan Bonev was detained; the motives of his murder remain unclear: it has been argued that it could have been related to his writings or to his frauds. List of journalists killed in Europe List of Bulgarian journalists Bulgarian mafia 2010 in organized crime

Malcolm C. Grow

Major General Malcolm Cummings Grow was the first Surgeon General of the United States Air Force from July 1, 1949 to November 30, 1949. Grow received his medical degree from Jefferson Medical College in 1909. In August, 1915 Dr. Grow met Dr. Edward Egbert, Chief Surgeon of the American Red Cross Hospital in Kiev, in Washington, D. C. Dr. Egbert convinced Grow to travel with him to Saint Petersburg, Russia, to assist in the Russian war effort. Dr. Grow was commissioned Lt. Colonel in the Imperial Russian Medical Corps and served as regimental surgeon in the First Division of the First Siberian Army Corps in Galicia. Surgeon Grow twice distinguished himself and received the Order of Saint Stanislaus, 3rd class with swords, was awarded the Cross of St. George, 4th class for gallantry in action. Dr. Grow left Russia after the February Revolution of 1917, entered the U. S. Army Medical Service the same year. While chief flight surgeon of the Army Air Corps from 1934 to 1939 he founded the Aero Medical Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

In July 1943, General Grow received the Legion of Merit for developing body armor to protect combat crews. A study of wounds incurred by members of combat crews showed that nearly 70 percent were caused by missiles of low velocity, he led the way in developing a light body armor and steel helmet that saved many lives and materially improved combat crew morale. In May 1944, General Grow was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for developing a device to protect gunners from windblast. Frostbite cases decreased and flight efficiency increased. After a study of psychiatric failures in combat, he helped institute rest homes, a new special pass system, special training for medical officers in tactical units; as a result, every casualty of this type was returned to duty. Such efforts in research, won for him the John Jeffries Award in 1947, the Gorgas Medal in 1950 and many others, including many from other nations. Just prior to his retirement, he received an oak leaf cluster to his Distinguished Service Medal for his efforts in promoting the study of aeromedicine, airborne medical equipment, organizational planning.

Grow was appointed acting air surgeon for the Army Air Forces in 1945 and Air Surgeon in 1946. He served as the first Surgeon General of the United States Air Force from July 1, 1949 to November 30, 1949, he retired from the Air Force on December 1, 1949, died October 20, 1960. The Malcolm Grow Medical Center at Andrews Air Force Base is named in his honor. Grow, Malcolm C. Surgeon Grow. An American in the Russian Fighting. New York, NY: Frederick A. Stokes Company. 1918 Grow, Malcolm C. and Harry G. Armstrong. Fit to Fly. New York: D. Appleton-Century company, 1941 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document ""