Richard Elliott Neustadt was an American political scientist specializing in the United States presidency. He served as adviser to several presidents. Neustadt was born in Philadelphia of a family of Swiss origin. Neustadt received a BA in History from the University of California, Berkeley in 1939, followed by an M. A. degree from Harvard University in 1941. After a short stint as an economist in the Office of Price Administration, he joined the U. S. Navy in 1942, where he was a supply officer in the Aleutian Islands, Oakland and Washington, he went into the Bureau of Budget while working on his Harvard Ph. D. which he received in 1951. He was the Special Assistant of the White House Office from 1950-53 under President Harry S. Truman. During the following year, he was a professor of public administration at Cornell from 1954–64, taught government at Columbia University, where he received a Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award in 1961, it was at Columbia that Neustadt wrote the book Presidential Power, in which he examined the decision-making process at the highest levels of government.
He argued that the President is rather weak in the U. S. government, being unable to effect significant change without the approval of the Congress, that in practice the President must rely on a combination of personal persuasion, professional reputation "inside the Beltway", public prestige to get things done. With his book appearing just before the election of John F. Kennedy, Neustadt soon found himself in demand by the President-elect, began his advisory role with a 20-page memo suggesting things the President should and should not try to do at the beginning of his term. During the 1960s, Neustadt continued to advise Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Neustadt was a professor at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, where he taught as a popular professor for more than two decades retiring in 1989, but continuing to teach there for years thereafter. Neustadt served as the first director of the Harvard Institute of Politics, founded as "a living memorial to President John F. Kennedy that engages young people in politics and public service."
His first wife, Bertha Cummings "Bert" Neustadt, died in 1984. Neustadt was a recipient of the 1988 University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for Ideas Improving World Order, co-authored with Ernest May. After his retirement he served as an advisor to Bill Clinton and as Chairman of the Presidential Debates Commission. One of Neustadt's closest students was a young Al Gore. Gore's interest in politics was reignited by a junior seminar taught by Neustadt in 1968 on the presidency. In the course, Gore role-played President Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Gore arranged to have private tutorials with Neustadt during his senior year, meeting with him two hours weekly. Neustadt died in London after complications from a fall. In addition to Shirley Williams, Neustadt left a daughter, a granddaughter, his son, predeceased him in 1995. 1960: Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership 1970: Alliance Politics 1986: Thinking In Time: The Uses Of History For Decision Makers, co-authored with Ernest May 1999: Report to JFK: The Skybolt Crisis in Perspective 2000: Preparing to be President: The Memos of Richard E. Neustadt, co-authored with Charles O. Jones, Harvard University Gazette obituary Associated Press obituary Guardian obituary Telegraph obituary Neustadt on William Howard Taft Neustadt on Calvin Coolidge Richard E. Neustadt and Harvey V. Fineberg.
The Swine Flu Affair: Decision-Making on a Slippery Disease. U. S. Department of Health and Welfare. July 1978. Jones, M. 2003 History in "Foreign Affairs", 1965-2000 http://search.proquest.com/docview/305217230/
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family; the Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller, along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world." Rockefeller Foundation's activities have included: Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed" Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom. Construction of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's Institute for Brain Research with a $317,000 grant in 1929, with continuing support for the institute's operations under Ernst Rüdin over the next several years. Funding an experiment conducted by Vanderbilt University where they gave 800 pregnant women radioactive iron, 751 of which were pills, without their consent.
In a 1969 article published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, it was estimated that three children had died from the experiment. As of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U. S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2016 assets were tallied with annual grants of $173 million. On January 5, 2017, the board of trustees announced the unanimous selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation, he assumed the position March 1, succeeding Judith Rodin who served as president for nearly twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71, in June 2016. Rodin in turn had succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005. A former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy and Public Relations began in 1904, influenced by Ida Tarbell's book published about Standard Oil crimes, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which prompted him to whitewash the Rockefeller image.
His initial idea to set up a large-scale foundation occurred in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's famous business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind". It was in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America, but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior and Harold Fowler McCormick, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment, they applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, with at one stage Junior secretly meeting with President William Howard Taft, through the aegis of Senator Nelson Aldrich, to hammer out concessions.
However, because of the ongoing antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter. On May 14, 1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation – two years after the Carnegie Corporation – with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes; the total benefactions of both him and Junior and their philanthropies in the end would far surpass Carnegie's endowments, his biographer Ron Chernow states, ranking Rockefeller as "the greatest philanthropist in American history." The first secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former secretary of Harvard University, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work.
On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D. C. At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade on the sciences, public health and medical education, it was located within the family office at Standard Oil's headquarters at 26 Broadway shifting to the GE Building, along with the newly named family office, Room 5600, at Rockefeller Center. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission, the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public heal
Eduardo J. Padrón
Eduardo José Padrón is the president of Miami Dade College. An economist by training, Padrón earned his Ph. D. from the University of Florida. After serving as a faculty member at MDC, he became the school's president in 1995. Time named him one of the ten best college presidents in 2009, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016. Born in Cuba, Padrón was a teenager when he came to the United States as part of Operation Pedro Pan; the initiative allowed Cuban parents to send their children to the U. S. alone. Padrón did not speak good English when he arrived, he struggled in a school system that did not yet include bilingual education programs. After graduating from Miami Senior High School, Padrón attended MDC and earned an undergraduate economics degree from Florida Atlantic University, he attended graduate school at the University of Florida, completing master's and doctoral degrees in economics. When Padrón finished his education, he was about to take a job at DuPont, but he was still connected to his old professors at MDC, they asked him to apply for a faculty position at the school.
Since 1995, he has served as the president of MDC. The school graduates more black and Hispanic students than any college in the nation. In 2006, Padrón retired from MDC, he started receiving retirement pay of $14,631 a month. One month Padrón returned to his position at the college and was receiving his annual salary again; this practice, undertaken by a number of Florida public officials, has been criticized by local media sources as "double dipping". Padrón's spokesperson said that college trustees asked Padrón to come back after he had announced his retirement; the spokesperson said. MDC is one of 14 Florida community colleges. Padrón says that the school's curricula focus on degree programs that will directly prepare graduates for the workforce. Padrón is chair of the board of directors of the Council on Foreign Relations, he was appointed honorary consul to Morocco in 2016. He chairs the President’s Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics. Padrón's individual honors and awards include: 2012 Aspen Institute Ascend Fellowship.
He is a guest columnist for the Miami Herald. He has been featured as a prominent Hispanic figure in People magazine, Hispanic Magazine and PODER. In 2009, Time included him on the list of “The 10 Best College Presidents.” In 2010, Florida Trend magazine named him “Floridian of the Year.” In 2011, The Washington Post named him one of the eight most influential college presidents in the U. S. In November 2016, Padrón was announced as one of the recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Padrón is divorced, he has two grandchildren. Official Miami Dade College profile
Cyrus Roberts Vance was an American lawyer and United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. Prior to that position he was the Deputy Secretary of Defense; as Secretary of State, Vance approached foreign policy with an emphasis on negotiation over conflict and a special interest in arms reduction. In April 1980, Vance resigned in protest of Operation Eagle Claw, the secret mission to rescue American hostages in Iran, he was succeeded by Edmund Muskie. Vance was the cousin of lawyer John W. Davis, he was the father of Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance Jr. Vance was born on March 27, 1917, in Clarksburg, West Virginia, he was the son of John Carl Vance II and his wife Amy Roberts Vance, had an older brother, John Carl Vance III. Following Vance's birth, his family relocated to Bronxville, New York, so that his father could commute to Manhattan, where he was an insurance broker. Vance's father was a landowner and worked for a government agency during World War I.
He died unexpectedly of pneumonia in 1922. Vance's mother was Amy Roberts Vance, who had a prominent family history in Philadelphia and was active in civic affairs. Following her husband's death, she moved her family to Switzerland for a year, where Vance and his brother learned French at L'Institut Sillig in Vevey. Vance's uncle John W. Davis, an Ambassador to the United Kingdom and 1924 United States presidential candidate, became his mentor and adopted him. Vance graduated from Kent School in 1935 and earned a bachelor's degree in 1939 from Yale College, where he was a member of the secret society Scroll and Key, he earned three varsity letters in ice hockey at Yale. He graduated from Yale Law School in 1942. While there, Vance's classmates included Sargent Shriver, William Scranton, Stanley Rogers Resor, William Bundy, all with whom he would work. Vance entered the military during World War II, serving in the United States Navy as a gunnery officer on the destroyer USS Hale until 1946, he saw sea action in the Battle of Tarawa, the Battle of Saipan, the Battle of Guam, the Bougainville Campaign, the Philippines Campaign.
After the war, he worked for the Mead Corporation for a year before joining the law firm Simpson Thacher & Bartlett in New York City. At the age of 29, Vance married Grace Elsie "Gay" Sloane on February 15, 1947, she was a Bryn Mawr College graduate and was the daughter of the board chairman of the W. & J. Sloane furniture company in New York City, they had five children: Elsie Nicoll Vance Amy Sloane Vance Grace Roberts Vance Camilla Vance Holmes Cyrus R. Vance, Jr. In 1957, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson asked Vance to leave Wall Street to work for the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services, where he helped draft the National Aeronautics and Space Act, leading to the creation of NASA. In 1961, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara recruited Vance to become General Counsel of the Department of Defense, he was made the Secretary of the Army by President John F. Kennedy, he was Secretary when Army units were sent to northern Mississippi in 1962 to protect James Meredith and ensure that the court-ordered integration of the University of Mississippi took place.
In 1964, Vance became the United States Deputy Secretary of Defense and now-President Johnson sent Vance to the Panama Canal Zone after student riots. After the 1967 Detroit riot, President Johnson sent Vance to Michigan. Vance next attempted to delay the Cyprus dispute. In 1968, President Johnson sent Vance to South Korea to deal with the USS Pueblo hostage situation. Vance first supported the Vietnam War but by the late 1960s changed his views and resigned from office, advising the president to pull out of South Vietnam. Vance served as a deputy to W. Averell Harriman during the Paris Peace Accords, which stalled due to the involvement of presidential candidate Richard Nixon. Vance called the failed peace talks "one of the great tragedies in history", he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969. President Jimmy Carter wanted to nominate George Ball to become Secretary of State, fearing Ball was too liberal to be confirmed, nominated Vance instead. Vance played an integral role as the administration negotiated the Panama Canal Treaties, along with peace talks in Rhodesia and South Africa.
He worked with Israeli Ministers Moshe Dayan and Ezer Weizman to secure the Camp David Accords in 1978. Vance insisted that the President make Paul Warnke Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, over strong opposition by Senator Henry M. Jackson. Vance pushed for closer ties to the Soviet Union, clashed with the more hawkish National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski. Vance tried to advance arms limitations by working on the SALT II agreement with the Soviet Union, which he saw as the central diplomatic issue of the time, but Brzezinski lobbied for a tougher more assertive policy vis-a-vis the Soviets, he argued for strong condemnation of Soviet activity in Africa and in the Third World as well as lobbying for normalized relations with the People's Republic of China in 1978. As Brzezinski took control of the negotiations, Vance was marginalized and his influence began to wane; when revolution erupted in Iran in late 1978, the two were divided on how to support the United States' ally the Shah of Iran.
Vance argued in favor of reforms. Unable to receive a direct course of action from Carter, the mixed messages that the shah received from Vance and Brzezinski contributed to his confusion and indecision as he fled Iran in January 1979 and his regime collapsed. Vance negotiated the SALT II a
Deval Laurdine Patrick is an American politician, civil rights lawyer and businessman who served as the 71st Governor of Massachusetts, from 2007 to 2015. He was first elected in 2006, he was reelected in 2010 and is the only African American to date to have served as Governor of Massachusetts. A Democrat, Patrick served from 1994 to 1997 as the United States Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division under President Bill Clinton. Born to and raised by a single mother on the South Side of Chicago, Patrick earned a scholarship to Milton Academy in Massachusetts in the eighth grade, he went on to attend Harvard College and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau. After graduating, he practiced law with the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund and joined a Boston law firm, where he was named a partner, at age 34. In 1994, Bill Clinton appointed him as the United States assistant attorney general for the civil rights division of the United States Department of Justice, where he worked on issues including racial profiling and police misconduct.
During his governorship, Patrick oversaw the implementation of the state's 2006 health care reform program, enacted under Mitt Romney. Under Patrick, Massachusetts joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the planned introduction of casinos in Massachusetts. Shortly after Patrick's second term began on January 6, 2011, he declared he would not seek re-election in 2014. Patrick is a managing director at Bain Capital and serves as the chairman of the board for Our Generation Speaks, a fellowship program and startup incubator whose mіѕѕіоn іѕ to bring together young Israeli and Palestinian leaders through entrepreneurship. Members of his own inner circle and Barack Obama's inner circle encouraged Patrick to run for president in 2020. Patrick was born on July 31, 1956 in the South Side of Chicago, where his family resided in a two-bedroom apartment in the Robert Taylor Homes' housing projects. Patrick is Laurdine "Pat" Patrick, a jazz musician in Sun Ra's band.
In 1959, Patrick's father abandoned their family in order to play music in New York City and because he had fathered a daughter, La'Shon Anthony, by another woman. Deval had a strained relationship with his father, who opposed his choice of high school, but they reconciled. Patrick was raised by his mother; the family spent many months living on welfare. While Patrick was in middle school, one of his teachers referred him to A Better Chance, a national non-profit organization for identifying and developing leaders among academically gifted minority students, which enabled him to attend Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts. Patrick graduated from Milton Academy in 1974 and went on to attend college, the first in his family, he graduated from Harvard College, where he was a member of the Fly Club, with a Bachelor of Arts degree, cum laude, in English and American literature, in 1978. He spent a year working with the United Nations in Africa. In 1979, Patrick enrolled at Harvard Law School. While in law school, Patrick was elected president of the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau, where he first worked defending poor families in Middlesex County, Massachusetts.
At Harvard, Patrick won "Best Oralist" in the prestigious Ames Moot Court Competition, in 1981. Patrick graduated from Harvard Law School with a J. D. cum laude, in 1982. He proceeded to fail the State Bar of California exam twice, before passing on his third try. Patrick served as a law clerk to Judge Stephen Reinhardt on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit for one year. In 1983, he joined the staff of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, where he worked on death penalty and voting rights cases. While at LDF, he met Bill Clinton, the Governor of Arkansas, when he sued Clinton in a voting case. In 1986, he joined the Boston law firm of Hill & Barlow and was named partner in 1990, at the age of 34. While at Hill & Barlow, he managed high-profile engagements such as acting as Desiree Washington's attorney in her civil lawsuit against Mike Tyson. In 1994, President Bill Clinton nominated Patrick as the United States Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division, he was subsequently confirmed by the United States Senate.
Federal affirmative action policy was under judicial and political review, Patrick defended Clinton's policy. Patrick worked on issues including racial profiling, police misconduct, the treatment of incarcerated criminals."Between 1995 and 1997, Patrick coordinated an investigation into a series of arsons of predominantly black churches across the South. The investigation brought together a number of state and federal agencies, was the largest federal investigation in history until the time of 9/11. In the end, more than 100 arrests were made, but no evidence of national or regional conspiracy was found. In 1997, Patrick returned to Boston to join the firm of Day, Berry & Howard, was appointed by the federal district court to serve as Chairman of Texaco's Equality and Fairness Task Force to oversee implementation of th