Paul Lawrence Fuemana was a Niuean-New Zealand singer and musician. Fuemana was the lead singer of the music duo, OMC, best known internationally for the 1995/1996 hit, "How Bizarre". Fuemana was born to parents Takiula Fuemana and Merelyn Fuemana, he was of half-Māori descent. His father, Takiula Fuemana, is from Mutalau, before emigrating to New Zealand, while his mother was Taranaki Māori. Fuemana was the youngest of four children. Fuemana was raised in Otara, a poor suburb in South Auckland with a large Pacific Islander population. OMC was passed on to Pauly Fuemana. Fuemana's musical duo, OMC, reached worldwide fame in late 1995 with the single "How Bizarre", from their debut album of the same name. OMC, which consisted of Fuemana and Alan Jansson, ceased recording in 1998, but recorded again in 2007; the song, named Single of the Year at the 1996 New Zealand Music Awards, hit number one around the world, including the United States, Austria, Canada and New Zealand. In 2002, their song ``; the single was a chart hit in many countries and spent multiple weeks at number one in several countries, reaching the top for two weeks in Austria, three weeks in Ireland, three weeks in New Zealand and five weeks in Australia.
He spoke about the hit: "I put a lot of hidden stories in there so people could read between the lines and sense it for what it is instead of telling them,'Yeah, we got pulled over by the cops, my mate got his head smashed in, we got arrested, they found some pot on him,'" Fuemana told Reuters in a 1997 interview. Fuemana declared bankruptcy in 2006, his older brother, Phil Fuemana, who pioneered a form of Polynesian influenced hip-hop and R&B, died of a heart attack in 2005 at the age of 41. Pauly Fuemana died following a protracted battle with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy succumbing to respiratory failure at North Shore Hospital, North Shore City, on 31 January 2010, his death occurred eight days before his 41st birthday. He had been in declining health for several years. For a few months prior to his death he had been suffering from a neurological condition and developed pneumonia, he is survived by his wife, Kirstine Fuemana, a New Zealand woman whom he married in 2002, his six children.
Fuemana's funeral was held on 5 February 2010, at the Pacific Island Presbyterian Church in Newton, New Zealand. The 200 attendees included rappers Dei Hamo and Darryl Thompson, known as DLT, Alan Jansson, Simon Grigg, Nathan Haines and the mayor of Auckland Super city, Len Brown. AudioCulture profile RIP PaulyFuemana on Facebook Sunday Star Times: Fuemana: the money, the violence, the drugs Stuff.co.nz: Pauly Fuemana - The Real Story
New school hip hop
The new school of hip hop was a movement in hip hop music starting 1983–84 with the early records of Run–D. M. C. and LL Cool J. Like the hip hop preceding it, it came predominantly from New York City; the new school was characterized in form by drum machine led minimalism tinged with elements of rock. It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, street b-boy attitude; these elements contrasted with the funk and disco influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands and party rhymes of artists prevalent in 1984, rendered them old school. New school artists made shorter songs that could more gain radio play, more cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began to establish the hip hop album as a fixture of the mainstream. More inclusively, golden age hip hop is a phrase framing the late 1980s in mainstream hip hop, said to be characterized by its diversity, quality and influence, associated with Public Enemy, KRS-One and his Boogie Down Productions, Eric B.
& Rakim, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, the Jungle Brothers due to their themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, their experimental music, their eclectic sampling. This same period is sometimes referred to as "mid-school" or a "middle school" in hip hop, the phrase covering acts such as Gang Starr, The UMC's, Main Source, Lord Finesse, EPMD, Just Ice, True Mathematics, Mantronix; the innovations of Run-D. M. C. MC Shan and LL Cool J, new school producers such as Larry Smith, Rick Rubin of Def Jam, were advanced on by the Beastie Boys, Marley Marl and his Juice Crew MCs, Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim. Hip-hop production became denser and beats faster, as the drum machine was augmented with the sampler technology. Rakim took lyrics about the art of rapping to new heights, while KRS-One and Chuck D pushed "message rap" towards black activism. Native Tongues artists' inclusive, sample-crowded music accompanied their positivity and playful energy.
With the eventual commercial dominance of West Coast gangsta rap the emergence of the relaxed sounds of G-funk by the early nineties, the East Coast new school/golden age can be said to have ended, with hardcore rappers such as the Wu-Tang Clan and gangsta rappers such as Nas and The Notorious B. I. G. Coming to dominate the East Coast scene; the terms "old school" and "new school" have fallen more and more into the common vernacular as synonyms for "old" and "new" and are applied in this conversational way to hip hop, to the confusion and occasional exasperation of writers who use the terms historically. The phrase "leader of the new school", coined in hip hop by Chuck D in 1988, given further currency by the group with the exact name Leaders of the New School, remains popular, it has been applied to artists ranging from Jay-Z to Lupe Fiasco. Elements of new school had existed in some form in the popular culture since hip-hop's birth; the first MC's rapped over DJs swapping back and forth between two copies of the same record playing the same drum break, or playing instrumental portions or versions of a broad range of records.
This part of the culture was initiated by Kool DJ Herc in 1972 using breaks from James Brown, The Incredible Bongo Band and English rock group Babe Ruth in his block parties. Brown's music—"extensive vamps" in which his voice was "a percussive instrument with frequent rhythmic grunts", "with rhythm-section patterns... West African polyrhythms"—was a keynote of hip hop's early days. By 1975, Grandmaster Flash and Afrika Bambaataa had taken up Kool Herc's breakbeat style of DJing, each with their own accompanying rappers. Flash was associated with an important break known as "The Bells"—a cut-up of the intro to Bob James's jazz cover of Paul Simon's "Take Me To The Mardi Gras"—while Bambaataa delighted in springing occasional rock music breaks from records like "Mary, Mary", "Honky Tonk Women", "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" and Grand Funk Railroad's "Inside Looking Out" on unsuspecting b-boys; the earliest hip-hop records replaced the DJ with a live band playing funk and disco influenced tunes, or "interpolating" the tunes themselves, as in "Rapper's Delight" and "King Tim III".
It was the soft, futuristic funk tied to disco that ruled hip hop's early days on record, to the exclusion of the hard James Brown beats so beloved of the first b-boys. Figures such as Flash and Bambaataa were involved in some early instances of moving the sound away from that of a live band, as in Flash's DJ track "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel", innovating popular new sounds and subgenres, as in the synthesizer-laden electro of Bambaataa's "Planet Rock". Though the rawer elements present in live shows did not make it past the recording studio. Bambaataa's first records, for instance, two versions of "Zulu Nation Throwdown", were recorded with just drums and rhymes; when Bambaataa heard the released records, a complete live band had been added. Something closer to his intentions can be heard on a portion of Death Mix, a low-quality bootleg of a Zulu Nation night at James Monroe High School in the Bronx, released without his permission on Winley Records in 1983.
On the bootleg Live Convention'82, Grand Wizard Theodore c
Christian hip hop
Christian hip hop is a subgenre of hip hop music characterized by a Christian worldview, with the general purposes of evangelization, edifying some members of the church and/or entertaining. Christian hip hop music emerged from urban communities in the United States in the 1980s, when it existed exclusively in small underground scenes, with minimal formal industry promotion and little mainstream attention, it emphasizes the use of positive and uplifting messages to promote belief. Christian hip hop music, blending rhythmic music and faith-based lyrics, first emerged on record in 1982 with a track entitled "Jesus Christ" by Queens, New York artist McSweet; the first full-length, Christian hip hop album, Bible Break, by Oklahoma artist Stephen Wiley, was released in 1985 with the title track becoming a hit on Christian radio in 1986. Other early Christian hip recording artists from the mid-1980s included P. I. D. who recorded to funky rock rhythms, as well as JC & the Boys and Michael Peace. The most prominent Christian rappers have been tobyMac, the first rapper to have success in the mainstream Christian music scene, Lecrae, who has emerged on the mainstream rap scene.
Christian rap has exclusively come out of Protestant traditions in the United States, although there is a small Catholic rap scene that has emerged, there are small Christian rap scenes in the UK, Brazil and many other countries where Christians reside and where hip hop music is popular. The first commercially released and distributed Gospel hip hop record was by Queens, New York MC Pete Harrison, under the recording name'McSweet', The Gospel Beat: Jesus-Christ and arranged by Harrison and produced by Mac Sulliver on Lection Records of PolyGram; the first notable full album released was Stephen Wiley's Bible Break, written by Wiley and produced by Mike Barnes on Brentwood Records. In the same year by David Guzman founded The Boyz; some of America's premiere Christian rappers, such as: Michael Peace, SFC, Dynamic Twins, MC Peace, T-Bone came out of this crew. A more commercially successful crew known as P. I. D. Released five recordings. Michael Peace is an American one of Christian rap's first solo artists.
In the late 1980s, other crews emerged, including dc Talk, E. T. W. and S. F. C.. ETW was led by producer/artist Mike Hill who went on to pastor one of the largest inner city youth groups in the country out of Tulsa Oklahoma. S. F. C. was led by Chris Cooper who rapped as Super C and became Sup the Chemist and finally Soup the Chemist. Christian emcee Danny "D-Boy" Rodriguez was another well-known early Gospel rap artist, but was murdered in 1990 in Texas. Prior to his death, he helped launch the career of his sister, Genie Rodriguez-Lopez, known as MC GeGee - one of the first female Christian rap artists, by collaborating on her first album I'm for Real, she would go on to release a second album in 1991, titled And Now the Mission Continues. The 1990s saw the continuing trend of funky rap artists blending faith and rap, such as D. O. C. who emerged from Oklahoma as well as the Gospel Gangstaz from Compton and South Central Los Angeles. In 1991, JC Crew emerged featuring T-Bone. Other Christian rap artists include Dynamic Twins, Freedom of Soul, IDOL King, Apocalypse, 12th Tribe, Holy Alliance.
12th Tribe and Holy Alliance were produced by Scott Blackwell of MYX Records. S. F. C.'s 1992 album Phase III was DJed and produced by DJ Dove, whose credits include the Gang Affiliated, Gospel Gangstas' 1993 debut album. Around the same time as Phase III, Dynamic Twins came out with their 1993 album No Room To Breathe. Freedom of Soul followed with their second album, The Second Coming their last album as a group. Gotee Records formed in 1994, co-founded by dc Talk member Toby McKeehan, better known as TobyMac, making it the first record label marketed explicitly for Christian hip hop and R&B, backed by a major label; the label was among the first to market the Contemporary Christian music market through distribution at Christian bookstores and playing on Christian radio. This trend continued with other labels such as Tooth & Nail's Uprok Records and others that gave an outlet to hip hop artists who identified themselves as Christian and wanted a broader market. A number of artists and labels such as Reach Records and Peace Records, Godchaserz Ent.
Lampmode Recordings, Collision Records, End of Earth Records, Rezurrected Muzic, Cross Movement Records, Grapetree Records, Syntax Records, Deepspace5 Records, Universal Funk Records, Illect Recordings and The New Unstoppable Records have purposely marketed to people outside of churchesIn addition, many major Gospel stars were getting in on the hip hop & rap genre. Kirk Franklin joined with the 1 Nation Crew in the album Kirk Franklin Presents 1NC. In September 2009, the Higherground Record Pool and One Accord DJ Alliance held their first Gospel DJ Conference at the Crowne Plaza, Queens, NY; the first known Gospel DJs were honored at the event. Kingdom Affiliates Record Pool was represented at the conference. Most Christian rap artists like Lecrae and his label-mates from Reach Records have been setting records with sales and award-winning albums. Although described to be Christian rappers, artists such as Lecrae, Andy Mineo, KB, Trip Lee
Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion involving the art of mimicking drum machines, using one's mouth, lips and voice. It may involve vocal imitation of turntablism, other musical instruments. Beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture referred to as "the fifth element" of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music; the term "beatboxing" is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in general. Techniques similar to beatboxing have been present in many American musical genres since the 19th century, such as early rural music, both black and white, religious songs, ragtime and hokum. Examples include the Appalachian technique of eefing and the blues song Bye bye bird by Sonny Boy Williamson II. Additional influences may include forms of African traditional music, in which performers utilize their bodies as percussion instruments and produce sounds with their mouths by breathing loudly in and out, a technique used in beatboxing today. Vocal percussion, "the imitation or approximation of percussion instruments," and beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion but can be described as, "music with your mouth... beatboxing is making and being the music, not just rhythm."...
Beatboxing is both the rhythm — predominantely through the bass and snare drums as well as hi-hat — while incorporating various sound effects such as DJ scratching and bass lines. Using the mouth, lips and voice to make music is thus the beatboxer's equivalent to a pianist's fingers and arms. Many well-known performers used vocal percussion even though this was not directly connected to the cultural tradition that came to be known as beatboxing. Paul McCartney's. Pink Floyd's "Pow R. Toc H." includes vocal percussion performed by the group's lead vocalist, Syd Barrett. Jazz singers Bobby McFerrin and Al Jarreau were well known for their vocal styles and techniques, which have had great impact on techniques beatboxers use today. Michael Jackson was known to record himself beatboxing on a dictation tape recorder as a demo and scratch recording to compose several of his songs, including "Billie Jean", "The Girl Is Mine", others. Gert Fröbe, a German actor most known for playing Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger, "beatboxes" as Colonel Manfred von Holstein in Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines, a 1965 British comedy film.
The term "beatboxing" is derived from the mimicry of early drum machines known as beatboxes the Roland TR-808. The term "beatbox" was used to refer to earlier Roland drum machines such as the TR-55 and CR-78 in the 1970s, they were followed by the TR-808, released in 1980, which became central to hip hop music and electronic dance music. It is the TR-808 that human beatboxing is modeled after."Human beatboxing" in hip-hop originated in the 1980s. Its early pioneers include Doug E. Fresh, the self-proclaimed first "human beatbox". Wise inspired an entire new fan base of human beatboxers with his human turntable technique. Other pioneers of beatboxing include Rahzel well known for his realistic robotic sounds and for his ability to sing and beatbox Scratch a beatboxer and musician well known for further revolutionizing the use of vocal scratching in beatboxing, Kenny Muhammad The Human Orchestra, a beatboxer known for his technicality and outstanding rhythmic precision, who pioneered the inward k snare, a beatbox technique that imitates a snare drum by breathing inward.
The Internet has played a large part in the popularity of modern beatboxing. Alex Tew started the first online community of beatboxers in 2000 under the banner of HUMANBEATBOX. COM. An early example of modern beatboxing was seen in the 2001 South Korean romantic comedy film My Sassy Girl. In 2001, Gavin Tyte, a member of this community created the world's first tutorials and video tutorials on beatboxing. In 2003, the community held the world's first Human Beatbox Convention in London featuring beatbox artists from all over the world. Beatboxing's current popularity is due in part to releases from artists such as Rahzel, RoxorLoops, Reeps One, Alem. Sometimes, modern beatboxers will use their hand or another part of their body to extend the spectrum of sound effects and rhythm; some have developed a technique that involves blowing and sucking air around their fingers to produce a realistic record scratching noise, known as the "crab scratch." Another hand technique includes the "throat tap," which involves beatboxers tapping their fingers against their throats as they throat sing or hum.
Beat boxers these days can produce upto 8 different sounds at the same time. Today there is an increase in the variety. People have gone as far as adding beatboxing in with different instruments to create a different sound unlike any other. Artist Greg Patillo goes as far as adding in beatboxing while playing the flute to iconic songs. Beatbox has become modernized and has been seen in popular movies such as Pitch Perfect and Pitch Perfect 2. Both of these movies showcase classical songs performed with a cappella covers in which all of the beats to the songs are done using the idea and technique of beatboxing to complete the sound capable to imitate the original song; as with other musical disciplines, some form of musical not
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Hip hop fashion
Hip hop fashion known as big fashion, is a distinctive style of dress originating from African American and other inner city youth on the scene of New York City followed by Los Angeles, Chicago, the San Francisco Bay Area, Memphis, Atlanta, St. Louis and others; each city has contributed various elements to the overall style seen worldwide today. Hip hop fashion complements the attitudes of hip hop culture in general. Hip hop fashion has changed during its history, today it is a prominent part of popular fashion across the whole world and for all ethnicities. In the late 1970s, sportswear and fashion brands were established, such as Le Coq Sportif, Kangol and Pro-Keds, attached themselves to the emerging hip hop scene. During the 1980s, hip hop icons wore clothing items such as brightly colored name-brand tracksuits and leather bomber jackets, Clarks shoes, Britishers a.k.a. British Walkers, sneakers. Popular haircuts ranged from the early-1980s Jheri curl to the early-1990s hi-top fade popularized by Will Smith and Christopher "Kid" Reid of Kid'n Play, among others.
Another trend in hip hop clothing was pioneered by Dapper Dan in the early 1980s with the adaptation and brandishing of high-net-worth fashion house brands such as Louis Vuitton and Gucci and logos in custom-designed tracksuits and mink coats. Popular accessories included large eyeglasses, Kangol bucket hats, name belts, multiple rings. Heavy gold jewelry was popular in the 1980s. In general, men's jewelry focused on women's jewelry on large gold earrings. Performers such as Kurtis Blow and Big Daddy Kane helped popularize gold necklaces and other such jewelry, female rappers such as Roxanne Shanté and the group Salt-N-Pepa helped popularize oversized gold door-knocker earrings; the heavy jewelry was suggestive of prestige and wealth, some have connected the style to Africanism. MC Schoolly D, for instance, claimed that wearing gold "is not something, born and raised in America; this goes back to Africa... the artists in the rap field are battling. We're the head warriors. We got to stand up and say we're winning battles, this is how we're doing it."1980s hip hop fashion is remembered as one of the most important elements of old school hip hop, is celebrated in nostalgic hip hop songs such as Ahmad's 1994 single "Back in the Day", Missy Elliott's 2002 single of the same name.
According to Gwendolyn O'Neal, the author of African American Aesthetics of Dress, "while an African-American aesthetic of dress is neither African nor American, it is shaped by unique ‘cultural’ experiences resulting from being of African descent and living in America." The rapper Jay-Z echoed this in a Black Book Magazine interview. It is not because of conspicuous consumption that the hip hop lifestyle brought in these high end fashion products. Preppy looks caught on with 80s youth in the first wave of hip hop influence. “This group of black yuppy wannabes or ‘buppies’ rocked to 80s hip hop music and wore styles from Polo, The Timberland and Tommy Hilfiger... were drawn to Hilfiger because of its all-American, WASP-y, country club feeling—it was exclusive and aspirational”. The immense popularity of the brand Tommy Hilfiger among the hip hop subculture community led to the brand's global expansion; as music played a significant role in the way people dressed during the 90's, many celebrities were known as fashion icons rappers.
Legendary rapper, was not only known for his resonating lyrics, but his timeless style. He was seen as a trend setter during that period and bandanas paired with baggy overalls or Red Wings jersey was known to be his classic style. In return, he made bandanas into an iconic headwear accessory. Today, his fashion influences has taught society to be more acceptable towards different styles as well as inspired fashion designers from all over the world to be innovative towards their designs. Furthermore, Snoop Dogg's strong charisma and his laid-back approach to his rhymes complemented his flannel and sweatshirts with Chucks; when he revamped his style to a cleaner cut of suited and booted look, his Doberman-like facial features and slender frame were masked by his charisma and chic vibe. He has since influenced people that with pride comes with confidence, the key of feeling comfortable and looking good in your individual fashion style. Moreover, hip hop has adopted and transformed traditional or “old world” luxury symbols and made them modern-day, “cool” commodities.
Rapper LL Cool J wore a Kangol hat back in the 1980s, when few Americans knew anything about the European hat maker, but its association with hip hop would invigorate the brand. In 2003, London-based Kangol acknowledged the popularity given its sixty-year-old brand by a young LL Cool J in 1983. Black nationalism was influential in rap during the late 1980s, fashions and hairstyles reflected traditional African influences. Blousy pants were popular among dance-oriented rappers like M. C. Hammer. Fezzes, kufis decorated with the Kemetic ankh, Kente cloth hats, Africa chains and Black Nationalist colors of red and green became popular as well, promoted by artists such as Queen Latifah, KRS-One, Public Enemy, X-C