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Urban growth boundary

An urban growth boundary, or UGB, is a regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl by, in its simplest form, mandating that the area inside the boundary be used for urban development and the area outside be preserved in its natural state or used for agriculture. Legislating for an "urban growth boundary" is one way, among many others, of managing the major challenges posed by unplanned urban growth and the encroachment of cities upon agricultural and rural land. An urban growth boundary circumscribes an entire urbanized area and is used by local governments as a guide to zoning and land use decisions, by utility and other infrastructure providers to improve efficiency through effective long term planning. If the area affected by the boundary includes multiple jurisdictions a special urban planning agency may be created by the state or regional government to manage the boundary. In a rural context, the terms town boundary, village curtilage or village envelope may be used to apply the same constraining principles.

Some jurisdictions refer to the area within an urban growth boundary as an urban growth area, or UGA. While the names are different, the concept is the same. Another term used is urban service area. Opposition to unregulated urban growth and ribbon development began to grow towards the end of the 19th century in England; the campaign group Campaign to Protect Rural England was formed in 1926 and exerted environmentalist pressure. Implementation of the notion dated from Herbert Morrison's 1934 leadership of the London County Council, it was first formally proposed by the Greater London Regional Planning Committee in 1935, "to provide a reserve supply of public open spaces and of recreational areas and to establish a green belt or girdle of open space". New provisions for compensation in the 1947 Town and Country Planning Act allowed local authorities around the country to incorporate green belt proposals in their first development plans; the codification of Green Belt policy and its extension to areas other than London came with the historic Circular 42/55 inviting local planning authorities to consider the establishment of Green Belts.

In the United States, the first urban growth boundary was established in 1958, around the city of Lexington, Kentucky. Lexington's population was expanding, city leaders were concerned about the survival of the surrounding horse farms tied to the city's cultural identity; the first statewide urban growth boundary policy was implemented in Oregon, under governor Tom McCall, as part of the state's land-use planning program in the early 1970s. Tom McCall and his allies convinced the Oregon Legislature in 1973 to adopt the nation's first set of statewide land use planning laws. McCall, with the help of a unique coalition of farmers and environmentalists, persuaded the Legislature that the state's natural beauty and easy access to nature would be lost in a rising tide of urban sprawl; the new goals and guidelines required every city and county in Oregon to have a long-range plan addressing future growth that meets both local and statewide goals. Albania maintains the'yellow line' system hailing from its socialist regime — limiting urban development beyond a designated boundary for all municipalities.

After the release of Melbourne 2030 in October 2002, the state government of Victoria legislated an urban growth boundary to limit urban sprawl. Since the urban growth boundary has been increased a number of times. In Canada, Toronto and Waterloo, Ontario have boundaries to restrict growth and preserve greenspace. In Montréal and in the rest of the province of Québec, an agricultural protection law serves a similar purpose, restricting urban development to "white zones" and forbidding it on "green zones", they are notably absent from cities such as Calgary and Winnipeg that lie on flat plains and have expanded outwardly on former agricultural land. In British Columbia the Agricultural Land Reserve serves a similar purpose where adjacent to urban areas. In 2017, President Xi Jinping delivered a speech in the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, in which he mentioned the delineation of "boundaries for urban development". On November 11, 2019, the General Office of CPC and the General Office of the State Council issued a guiding opinion, requiring "three control lines", including boundaries of urban development, to be designated in territory spatial planning.

In France, Rennes decided in the 1960s to maintain a green belt after its ring road. This green belt is named Ceinture verte. In the plan of some new towns, green belts are included and growth cannot sprawl into or across the green belts. In addition a majority of new towns are surrounded by country parks. Over the past two decades, greater Auckland has been subject to a process of growth management facilitated through various strategic and legislative documents. An overarching objective has been to manage the growth of Auckland in a higher density, centres-based manner consistent with the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy. Effect is given to this strategy through a series of layers of control including the Local Government Amendment Act, the Regional Policy Statement and via District Plans. A key outcome of this process was the establishment of a Metropolitan Urban Limit or urban fence that dictated the nature and extent of urban activities that could occur within the MUL and hence dictated the relative values of land within the MUL.

An Integrated Development Plan is required in terms of Chapter 5 of the national Municipal Systems Act No 32 of 2000 for all local authorities in South Africa. This plan would as one of its components include a Spatial Development Framework plan w

Ganju Lama

Ganju Lama was a Sikkimese Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Ganju Lama was born in Sangmo, southern Sikkim, India, on 22 July 1924, he enlisted in British Gurkha Army in 1942 at the age of seventeen. His parents were both of Sikkimese Bhutia descent and lived in Sikkim, which made him unusual, as he was neither an ethnic Gurkha nor a Nepalese subject. At that time, Gurkha regiments were prepared to accept any recruit who resembled the Gurkha and lived near the border of Nepal. Ganju Lama's tribe lived in the kingdom of Sikkim, his name was Gyamtso Shangderpa, but a clerk in the recruiting office wrote it down as Ganju, the name stuck. After leaving the regimental centre in 1943, he joined the 1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles, near Imphal, India. Ganju Lama was nineteen years old, a rifleman in the 1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles, in the Indian Army during World War II when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross: On 12 June 1944, near Ningthoukhong, India,'B' Company was attempting to stem the enemy's advance when it came under heavy machine-gun and tank machine-gun fire.

Rifleman Ganju Lama, with complete disregard for his own safety, took his PIAT gun and, crawling forward, succeeded in bringing the gun into action within 30 yards of the enemy tanks, knocking out two of them. Despite a broken wrist and two other serious wounds to his right and left hands he moved forward and engaged the tank crew who were trying to escape. Not until he had accounted for all of them did he consent to leave to his wounds dressed. A month earlier, during operations on the Tiddim Road, Ganju Lama's regiment had surprised a party of Japanese and killed several of them, he was awarded the Military Medal for his part in the action. Strangely though, this award was announced in the London Gazette after his Victoria Cross, appearing on 3 October 1944 a month later. After India gained its independence, he joined the Indian 11th Gorkha Rifles, retiring in 1968, when he became a farmer in Sikkim, he was appointed honorary ADC to the President of India for life. He died at Gangtok following a battle with cancer on 1 July 2000, aged 75.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at The Gurkha Museum in Winchester, England along with those of other Gurkhas. List of Brigade of Gurkhas recipients of the Victoria Cross Obituary of Ganju Lama, VC, The Daily Telegraph, 3 July 2000 Ganju Lama Captain Ganju Lama Ganju Lama at Find a Grave

Audi Y Zentimiento

Audi Castillon Portales, known by her stage name Audi Y Zentimiento, is an American singer-songwriter. Starting in the early 2000s, Castillon was nominated for Tejano Music Awards for Best New Female Artist and Best New Group, she was nominated for Tejano Globe Awards for Best New Female Artist, Best Online Popularity and Best New Group. She started her own Record Company Audi Y Audi LLC, she has performed at multiple venues as an artist in, Nebraska and Colorado. "Maria Concepcion Castillon" was born on July 1, 1971 in Fort Collins, CO. Audi and her brothers Eloy Castillon, Elias Castillon II, Nephews Lonnie Castillon and Elias Castillon III, formed the group "Destino" in 1992; the following year, "Destino" had gone through Drummers and after about 3 years the family decided to stop the band. Audi left in 1995, continued with another band "Fifth Generation"; the following year, Audi left the band in favor of playing with "Heavenbound" Christian Rock Latin Rock Band where Castillon stayed for about 15 years.

Still havint Tejano in her heart she decided to work on a project with Grupo Dominazion De Abdon Espinoza Jr came the opportunity for Audi to record her first Audi Y Zentimiento album with Grammy Award winners Max Baca Y Los Texmaniacs. She was nominated in the first stages for Tejano Music Awards for Best new Artist, Best Duo, Best New Group. In 2013, Castillon signed a recording contract with Escogido Records in hopes of a More Diverse, Tejano, Conjunto album / image. Castillon is working on her new album titled: " Este Amor Puro ". Castillon writes songs that are featured on her albums. In 2011, Max Baca Y Los Texmaniacs, Gabriel Zavala, Ram Herrera Josh Baca, Rick Fuentes, Rebecca Valadez joined her in the recording of her album "Donde Andaras". 6 of her singles on, Donde Andaras, peaked at number 1 on the Tejano Music Charts. Her newest album, Este Amor Puro, will release early 2014, with producers such as Shelly Lares, Grammy Award Winners Max Baca Y Los Texmaniacs, Rick Fuentes & More.

Her Ballada/Mariachi Rendition "Demasiado Tarde" featuring, Joanna Castillon peaked at number 1 on the Tejano Music Charts Her latest single, "Este Amor Puro", peaked at number 1 on the Tejano Music Charts. All of her single releases have been aired on Tejano Y Mas, Univision Radio, Tejano in the mixx, KXTN Tejano & Proud,, BNET Radio,, Tejano Gold Radio, & More! Donde Andaras Simplemente Audi Official website

First Baptist Church (Augusta, Georgia)

First Baptist Church of Augusta is a Southern Baptist church in Augusta, Georgia. The original location is now a historical site; the current church building is located on Walton Way. According to the earliest church records, the Baptists Praying Society was established when In the year 1817, Jesse D. Green, a layman, was active in gathering together the few scattered Baptists in Augusta, after holding one or more preliminary meetings, the brethren and sisters, to the number of eighteen, had drawn up and adopted a covenant, to which they affixed their names. In May 1817, they met in the court house for worship. A few years in 1820, Rev, Wm. T. Brantly was chosen for the pastoral office, he undertook erecting a brick house at 802 Greene St. at a cost of $20,000. It was dedicated on May 6, 1821; the Southern Baptist Convention was formed at a meeting May 1845 in this church, marking the separation between Northern and Southern Baptists before the American Civil War over issues of slavery and governance.

A historical marker was erected in 1956 outside the church by the Georgia Historical Commission It is inscribed as follows: In March 1817, eight men and two women meeting in an Augusta home formed "The Baptist Praying Society of Augusta" - the forerunner of the First Baptist Church. Two months the society was constituted a church under the leadership of the first minister, Wm. T. Brantley, this property was purchased in 1870. A church on this site was dedicated May 26, 1821. In 1845, after serious friction arose in the national Triennial Convention, 327 delegates from eight southern states and the District of Columbia met here to form the Southern Baptist Convention; this building was erected in 1902. In 1975 the congregation moved to a new church on a site in Augusta on Walton Way, they sold their former church building to the Southern Baptist Non-Profit Historical Society. The Southern Baptist Convention erected an identification marker on the grounds in 1984, noting this as the site of the convention's founding.

By 2003, the building was owned by the Southern Baptist Restoration Foundation. The Southern Bible Seminary had started using the building to hold classes; the list of pastors of this church are: Wm. T. Brantly James Shannon C. D. Mallory W. J. Hard Wm T. Brantly, Jr. N. J. Foster C. B. Jannett Dr. J. G. Binney J. E. Ryerson Dr. A. J. Huntington J. H. Cuthbert James Dixon M. B. Wharton W. W. Landrum Dr. Lansing Burrows Dr. Sparks W. Melton Dr. M. Ashby Jones Dr. William Vines Dr. Edward L. Grace Dr. Fredrick Smith Dr. R. Paul Caudill Dr. A. Warren Huyck Dr. Robert Jackson Robinson Dr. George Balentine Dr. Charles Bugg Dr. Timothy Owings Dr. Greg DeLoach Dr. Will Dyer Isabella Jordan, A Century of Service Anna Olive Jones, History of the First Baptist Church, Georgia, 1817–1967 OCLC 3638114 Supplement to the History, 1967–1992 OCLC 32522529 Official First Baptist Church website

Hacienda Itzincab Cámara

Hacienda Itzincab Cámara is located in the Tecoh Municipality in the state of Yucatán in southeastern Mexico. It is one of the properties; the name is a combination of Spanish terms. Itzincab is a word from the Mayan language meaning brother of the earth and Cámara was the Spanish surname of one of the former owners, but the word "cámara" means chamber. Various spellings have been used in relation to the hacienda. On coins from 1888 the spelling was Yɔincab. In 1910 the name changed from Isincab to Idzincab. Take Calle 42 south from Mérida crossing the Periférico and continuing 21 km. At a "y" on an unnamed road, turn proceed 2.5 km to the hacienda. An alternate route is to take highway 18 from Mérida to Tecoh. After reaching Tecoh, turn right on Calle 27 for 8 km; the hacienda was purchased in around 1860 by Camilo G. Cámara; as early as 1898, Cuban workers were being used on the farm. In 1905, salary reports show 22 of the workers were from the newly arrived Korean indentured servants. In 1910, the owner Gonzalo Cámara Zavala, son of the previous owner, opened a rural school on the estate.

It was one of the first schools in the area. In the 1930s with the land reforms passed under the agrarian acts the size of the hacienda was reduced. In 1934, the family retained 211 hectares. By 1981 only 14 hectares were still part of the hacienda and when the Cámara family sold the property in 1996, the property had 4 hectares of land remaining, it was sold in 1996 to a group of private investors. It is a private hacienda available to rent for weddings and photography sessions. On the southern boundary of the property is the oldest building on the hacienda, which has pilasters supporting transverse arches with rudimentary carvings. Nearby, an arch in the Yucatecan Moorish style with neoclassical adaptations, which faces south, appears to confirm the original entrance to the estate; the architecture is reminiscent of the colonial style, with the front portico having three arches supported by pillars accessed by a large stone staircase flanked by iron rails. Many of the rooms have original stenciling on the walls, as can be seen in the master bedroom and oratory.

In addition there is a pantry, lobby, interior corridor with arches, a wine cellar and dining room. On the southwest corner of the property is the small house. South of the main entrance are the remains of what was a chapel, which has no roof, it still retains its chancel, altar and steeple. All of the henequen plantations ceased to exist as autonomous communities with the agrarian land reform implemented by President Lazaro Cardenas in 1937, his decree turned the haciendas into collective ejidos, leaving only 150 hectares to the former landowners for use as private property. Figures before 1937 indicate populations living on the farm. After 1937, figures indicate those living in the community, as the remaining Hacienda Itzincab Cámara houses only the owner's immediate family. According to the 2005 census conducted by the INEGI, the population of the city was 377 inhabitants, of whom 190 were men and 187 were women. Bracamonte, P and Solís, R. Los espacios Ed. UADY, Mérida, 1997. Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, "Los municipios de Yucatán", 1988.

Kurjack, Edward y Silvia Garza, Atlas arqueológico del Estado de Yucatán, Ed. INAH, 1980. Patch, Robert, La formación de las estancias y haciendas en Yucatán durante la Ed. UADY, 1976. Peón Ancona, J. F. "Las antiguas haciendas de Yucatán", en Diario de Yucatán, Mérida, 1971


Viluppuram is a Municipality and the administrative headquarters of Viluppuram district, the largest district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Located 61 kilometres south east of a Tiruvannamalai and 45 kilometres north west of Cuddalore; the city serves as a major railway junction, National Highway 45 passes through it. With agriculture as its main source of income, As of Government of India 2014 data, Viluppuram had a population of 96253 and the city's literacy rate has been recorded as 90.16% by Census 2011. In 1919, Viluppuram was constituted as a municipality, which today comprises 42 wards, making it the largest town and municipality in Viluppuram district. In 1677, Shivaji took Gingee area with the assistance of Golkonda forces. In 18th century, both the English and French acquired settlements in South Arcot. During the Anglo-French rivalry, the entire district was turned into a war land. After some time, the entire area came under the control of East India Company, it remained under British authority till 1947.

Viluppuram is located in 11° 56' N 79° 29' E., in the far southeast part of India, situated 160 kilometres south of Chennai, 160 kilometres north of Trichy, 177 kilometres east of Salem, 40 kilometres west of Pondicherry shares the seashore of the Bay of Bengal. The area contains metamorphic rocks formed by pressure and heat belonging to the granite-like gneiss family. There are three major groups of sedimentary rocks, layers of particles that settled in different geological periods. Kalrayan Hills forest park is located 116 kilometres to the west and Gingee Hills forest park 50 kilometres to the north; the Thatagiri Murugan Temple is about 191 kilometres to the southeast in Senthamangalam with the Lord Siva temple in Koppampatti 153 kilometres southwest of the town. As of the 2011 census, Viluppuram municipality was divided into 44 wards for which elections are held every five years and had a population of 96,253 of which 47,670 were male and 48,583 female. Politically, Viluppuram is part of the Villuppuram Lok Sabha constituency and the Viluppuram State Assembly constituency.

The municipality was established in 1919 and was upgraded to a second-grade municipality in 1953, the first-grade municipality in 1973, a selection grade municipality in 1988. It has an area of 8.36 square kilometres. The town is divided into 44 wards; the municipal council is composed of 44 ward councilors and is headed by a chairperson elected by voters of the town. Councilors-elect a vice-chairperson among themselves while the executive wing is headed by a commissioner, assisted by a team of officials including the health officer, municipal engineer, town planning officer, revenue officer and other staff. Viluppuram is connected by roads to the rest of the state; the major national highways of the town are: NH 45, which connects Chennai to Theni, via Viluppuram – Tiruchirapalli – DindigulPeriyakulam. NH 45A, which connects Viluppuram to Nagapattinam via Pondicherry and Cuddalore. NH 234, which Connects Villupuram to Mangalore via Thiruvannamalai – VelloreGudiyatham. NH 45C, which connects Vikravandi to Thanjavur via PanrutiNeyveliKumbakonam and intersects with NH 45A in Koliyanur, about 5 km from Viluppuram city.

Viluppuram has a railway station. It was first built under the British; the Viluppuram Railway Junction at Viluppuram serves as the distribution point of rail traffic from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu, towards the southern part of the state. It is one of the important junctions in Southern Railway. Five railway lines branch out of Viluppuram: Fully Electrified Double BG line towards Chennai Beach via Chengulpattu Junction. Electrified Double BG line towards Tiruchirapalli Junction via Vridhachalam Junction and Ariyalur. Called "Chord Line" to Tiruchirapalli. Non electrified BG line towards Tiruchirapalli Junction via Cuddalore Port Junction, Mayiladuthurai Junction and Thanjavur Junction. Called Main Line. Electrified BG line towards Katpadi Junction via Vellore Cantonment. Electrified BG line to Pondicherry; the nearest airport is Pondicherry Airport at Pondicherry, in Puducherry 40 km from Viluppuram. Pondicherry Airport is connected to Bangalore by commercial airlines; the nearest major airport is the Chennai International Airport 147 km from the town.

Since the town is landlocked, the weather in Viluppuram is humid and hot. It relies on the monsoon for rain during October and December. Summers are hot, temperatures can get up to 40 °C. Winters are moderate with temperatures ranging between 30 and 35 °C Viluppuram has a tropical climate. In winter, there is much less rainfall in Viluppuram than in summer; this climate is considered to be Aw according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. The average annual temperature is 28.4 °C in Viluppuram with average annual rainfall of 1,046 millimetres. The driest month is March, with 6 millimetres of rainfall. With an average of 222 millimetres per annum, the most precipitation falls in October; the warmest month of the year is May, with an average temperature of 32.0 °C. January has the lowest average temperature of the year at 24.6 °C The difference in precipitation between the driest month and the wettest month is 216 millimetres (