Urban legend

An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a genre of folklore comprising stories circulated as true as having happened to a friend or family member with horrifying or humorous elements. These legends can be entertainment, but concern mysterious peril or troubling events, such as disappearances and strange objects, they may be moralistic confirmation of prejudices or ways to make sense of societal anxieties. Urban legends are most circulated orally, but can be spread by any media, including newspapers, e-mail and social media; some urban legends have passed through the years with only minor changes to suit regional variations. Recent legends tend to reflect modern circumstances: for instance, the common legend of a person being ambushed and anesthetized, only to wake up and realize that they are now missing a kidney, surgically removed for transplantation; the term "urban legend," as used by folklorists, has appeared in print since at least 1968. Jan Harold Brunvand, professor of English at the University of Utah, introduced the term to the general public in a series of popular books published beginning in 1981.

Brunvand used his collection of legends, The Vanishing Hitchhiker: American Urban Legends & Their Meanings to make two points: first, that legends and folklore do not occur in so-called primitive or traditional societies, second, that one could learn much about urban and modern culture by studying such tales. Many urban legends are framed as complete stories with plot and characters; the compelling appeal of a typical urban legend is its elements of mystery, fear or humor. They serve as cautionary tales; some urban legends are morality tales that depict someone a child, acting in a disagreeable manner, only to wind up in trouble, hurt, or dead. Urban legends will try to invoke a feeling of disgust in the reader which tends to make these stories more memorable and potent. Elements of shock value can be found in every form of urban legend and are what makes these tales so impactful. Most urban legends will include an element of something, supernatural or paranormal. Many of the most well known tales will try to balance out the normal with the paranormal.

Stories that stray too far into the paranormal aspect are not as regarded as ones that still attempt to keep some sort of basis in reality. As Jan Brunvand points out, antecedent legends including some of the motifs and symbolism of the urtexts can be identified. Cases that may have been at least inspired by real events include "The Death Car"; the urban legend that Coca-Cola developed the drink Fanta to sell in Nazi Germany without public backlash originated as the actual tale of German Max Keith, who invented the drink and ran Coca-Cola's operations in Germany during World War II. The teller of an urban legend may claim it happened to a friend, which serves to personalize and enhance the power of the narrative and distances the teller. Many urban legends depict horrific crimes, contaminated foods, or other situations that would affect many people. Anyone believing such stories might feel compelled to warn loved ones. On occasion, news organizations, school officials and police departments have issued warnings concerning the latest threat.

According to the "Lights Out" rumor, street-gang members would drive without headlights until a compassionate motorist responded with the traditional flashing of headlights, whereupon a prospective new gang-member would have to murder the citizen as a requirement of initiation. A fax received at the Nassau County, Florida fire department was forwarded to police, from there to all city departments; the Minister of Defence for Canada was taken in by the same legend. Myths are believable only in the sense of how many people keep them alive albeit by forwarding a text message or sharing a post on social media platforms. Posting what people believe is true or if the content is provocative under a hashtag can share the content to millions of people worldwide. Once the story containing a story or visual gets embedded in the minds of the viewers, it is hard to get over the primal fear that kicks in once reading the legends. Many urban legends are extended jokes, told as if they were true events. Urban legends include common elements: the legend is retold on behalf of the original witness or participant.

Persistent urban legends maintain a degree of plausibility, such as a serial killer deliberately hiding in the back seat of a car. One such example since the 1970s has been the recurring rumor that the Procter & Gamble Company was associated with Satan-worshippers because of details within its nineteenth-century trademark; the legend interrupted the company's business to the point. The earliest term by which these narratives were known, "urban belief tales", highlights what was thought of as a key property: their tellers regarded the stories as true accounts, the device of the FOAF was a spurious but significant effort at


Mastomys is a genus of rodent in the family Muridae endemic to Africa. It contains these species: Awash multimammate mouse or Awash mastomys Southern multimammate mouse Guinea multimammate mouse Hubert's multimammate mouse Verheyen's multimammate mouse Natal multimammate mouse Dwarf multimammate mouse Shortridge's multimammate mouse The multimammate mice are found in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa, their head-body length is between 10 and 15 cm, their tail length is between 8 and 15 cm, their weight varies between 20 and 80 grams, depending on the species. Domesticated multimammate mice are heavier on average, weighing from 60 to 120 grams. Mastomys species are omnivorous, can live up to 4 years. Systematically, they were long placed in the genus Rattus, they were placed in the genus Mus and they were placed in the genus Praomys. Today, molecular research has discovered that they are a genus of their own and that they are related to Praomys, they are more related to Mus than to Rattus. Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton.

2005. Superfamily Muroidea. Pp. 894–1531 in Mammal Species of the World, a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

Lycée Gustave Flaubert (La Marsa)

Lycée Gustave Flaubert is a French international school in La Marsa, Tunisia. It serves levels sixième of collège until the final year of lycée; the Société du Collège Maurice Cailloux, founded on October 1, 1948 by French officials and farmers, established the school a private boarding school for French children. It was named the Collège Maurice Cailloux in 1952; the school was developed by the architect Tissot. The French government purchased the facility in 1957, it was established as a collège only and was an annex of the Lycée Français de Carthage, which at the time was newly-built. Collège Cailloux was extended to the lycée level when the former Lycée Français de Carthage was given to the Tunisian government in 1961 as part of the independence of Tunisia; the school was renamed Lycée Français de La Marsa, but it was still popularly known as "lycée Cailloux" until it adopted its current official name on May 27, 1998. As of 2015-2016 it had 220 staff. Lycée Gustave Flaubert