Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation and distribution networks. Urban planning deals with physical layout of human settlements; the primary concern is the public welfare, which includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation and use of the environment, as well as effects on social and economic activities. Urban planning is considered an interdisciplinary field that includes social science and design sciences, it is related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks and other urban areas. Urban planning is referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide. Urban planning guides orderly development in urban and rural areas. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources and agricultural land and conserving areas of natural environmental significance.
Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations and management. Enforcement methodologies include governmental zoning, planning permissions, building codes, as well as private easements and restrictive covenants. Urban planners work with the cognate fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, public administration to achieve strategic and sustainability goals. Early urban planners were members of these cognate fields. Today urban planning is a independent professional discipline; the discipline is the broader category that includes different sub-fields such as land-use planning, economic development, environmental planning, transportation planning. There is evidence of urban planning and designed communities dating back to the Mesopotamian, Indus Valley and Egyptian civilizations in the third millennium BCE. Archeologists studying the ruins of cities in these areas find paved streets that were laid out at right angles in a grid pattern.
The idea of a planned out urban area evolved. Beginning in the 8th century BCE, Greek city states were centered on orthogonal plans; the ancient Romans, inspired by the Greeks used orthogonal plans for their cities. City planning in the Roman world was developed for public convenience; the spread of the Roman Empire subsequently spread the ideas of urban planning. As the Roman Empire declined, these ideas disappeared. However, many cities in Europe still held onto the planned Roman city center. Cities in Europe from the 9th to 14th centuries grew organically and sometimes chaotically, but in the following centuries some newly created towns were built according to preconceived plans, many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. From the 15th century on, much more is recorded of the people that were involved. In this period, theoretical treatises on architecture and urban planning start to appear in which theoretical questions are addressed and designs of towns and cities are described and depicted.
During the Enlightenment period, several European rulers ambitiously attempted to redesign capital cities. During the Second French Empire, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, under the direction of Napoleon III, redesigned the city of Paris into a more modern capital, with long, wide boulevards. Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century; the industrialized cities of the 19th century grew at a tremendous rate. The evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming evident as a matter of public concern; the laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian era, was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged. Around 1900, theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age, by providing citizens factory workers, with healthier environments; the following century would therefore be globally dominated by a central planning approach to urban planning, not representing an increment in the overall quality of the urban realm.
At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning began to be recognized as a profession. The Town and Country Planning Association was founded in 1899 and the first academic course in Great Britain on urban planning was offered by the University of Liverpool in 1909. In the 1920s, the ideas of modernism and uniformity began to surface in urban planning, lasted until the 1970s. Many planners started to believe that the ideas of modernism in urban planning led to higher crime rates and social problems. Urban planners now focus more on diversity in urban centers. Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, behavioral relationships, assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning. There are eight procedural theories of planning that remain the principal theories of planning procedure today: the rational-comprehensive approach, the incremental approach, the transactive approach, the communicative approach, the advocacy approach, the equity approach, the radical approach, the humanist or phenomenological approach.
Technical aspects of urban planning involve th
The Williams FW33 was a Formula One racing car developed by Williams F1 for the 2011 Formula One season. It was driven by Brazilian veteran Rubens Barrichello and 2010 GP2 Series champion and rookie driver Pastor Maldonado; the car was shaken down at Silverstone on 28 January 2011, made its full on-track debut at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo in Valencia, Spain, on 1 February 2011 in an interim testing livery. The definitive livery was released on 24 February, adding white and red to the existing dark blue in a design directly inspired by the Rothmans livery used from 1994 to 1997. During the course of the season, it became clear that the car was much less competitive than the Williams FW32 as the car tended to lack pace and struggled in races. Both drivers retired from the first two races of the season. In the next three races, both drivers failed to score any points; this made it the worst start to a season in the history of the Williams team. Monaco saw an improvement in the team's fortunes, it could have been a double points finish for the team, but Maldonado retired after a collision with Lewis Hamilton, but was classified in 18th place after finishing more than 90% of the race.
The same result occurred in the chaotic 2011 Canadian Grand Prix where Barrichello finished 9th and Maldonado again retired after he spun off during the race. No more points were to come for the team until Spa, where Maldonado scored his first point with tenth place; this turned out to be the FW33's final point in F1. † Driver failed to finish the race, but was classified as they had completed >90% of the race distance
ESIEE Management is a French business school created in 1995. ESIEE Management is operated by the Paris Chamber of Commerce, it is located in the east of Paris in Marne-la-Vallée. The school is part of the ESIEE network of graduate schools. ESIEE Management is a business school for high tech projects where management and technologies are inseparable. Courses are based on learning the knowledge of a technical subject; the academic disciplines and the 10 months of internship allow graduate students to be effective in companies. The possibility to spend the third year in a foreign country gives the opportunity to students to pursue an international career; the academic specializations are: Management and Biotechnology or Bioindustry:This specialisation gives the opportunity to students to acquire knowledge in life sciences. Management and Computer Science or Digital Communications:This specialization was created to respond to the need for versatility in the fields of data processing, telecommunications and finance.
Management and Advanced Materials or Integrated Engineering:This specialization takes place in the automobile and aeronautics field and associated services to accompany the major changes to these industries. ESIEE Management is one of the French Grandes écoles, as such it requires passing a selective entrance examination. Students are admitted to ESIEE Management with a technical degree. Admission in the first year is possible after two years of university. International accreditationsThe ESIEE Management is accredited by the Conférence des Grandes Ecoles and by the Chapitre des écoles de management, it confers a master's degree. The ESIEE Management has signed partnership agreements with foreign universities; the school is a member of the Erasmus Programme, the European Union's Socrates Programme and it is a partner of the CREPUQ, the official body in charge of student exchanges concerning universities in Quebec and Canada. Some of the partners of the school are: - Université du Québec à Montréal - Université Laval - Engineering College of Copenhagen - Turku School of Economics and Business Administration - Politecnico di Milano - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México - Inholland University of Applied Sciences in Alkmaar - University of Exeter - University of Liverpool Research is a priority to the management school.
First, it contributes to the increase of knowledge and in management as in the other scientific disciplines, competitive research is a key factor to economic development, which supports innovation. ESIEE Management has a search Committee, made up of teacher-researchers; this committee is in charge of orientating the research and evaluates the work in adequacy with the research goals of the ISTM. The research programs offer the students academic and practical lessons based on academic research and observation of companies. Created in 1983, the Campus Descartes city is the largest center for higher education and research of the East of Paris, it is composed of 18 high education establishments such as the École des Ponts ParisTech, Engineers 2000, the university of Marne-the-Valley and of course its school of technology, ESIEE Paris. More than 15,000 students work in this area and the campus is located at 20mn from the heart of Paris by RER; the students have quality facilities including a gymnasium covering 2000 m², a weight training room and a climbing wall.
More than 20 sport activities are offered, among them, martial arts, tennis and volleyball. BDE: Students' Union in charge of the organization of social activities and sports events. Energie ISTM: Junior Enterprise managed by students who offer consulting services to companies, related to their field of studies. 4L Trophy: Humanitarian association. Education in France Grandes Écoles http://www.esiee-management.fr/