SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ureter

The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In the human adult, the ureters are 25–30 cm long and around 3–4 mm in diameter; the ureter is lined by urothelial cells, a type of transitional epithelium, has an additional smooth muscle layer in the more distal one-third to assist with peristalsis. The ureters are tubular structures 30 cm in adults, that pass from the pelvis of each kidney into the bladder. From the renal pelvis, they descend on top of the psoas major muscle to reach the brim of the pelvis. Here, they cross in front of the common iliac arteries, they pass down along the sides of the pelvis, curve forwards and enter the bladder from its left and right sides at the back of the bladder. The ureters enter the bladder from its back surface, traveling 1.5 - 2 cm before opening into the bladder on its outer back surface at the slit-like ureteric orifices. In the contracted bladder they are about 25 mm apart and about the same distance from the internal urethral orifice.

The junction between the pelvis of the kidney and the ureters is known as the ureteropelvic junction or ureteral pelvic junction, the junction between the ureter and the bladder is known as the ureterovesical junction. At the entrance to the bladder, the ureters are surrounded by valves known as ureterovesical valves, which prevent vesicoureteral reflux. A number of structures pass by, around the ureters on their path down from the kidneys to the pelvis. In females, the ureters pass through the mesometrium and under the uterine arteries on the way to the urinary bladder; the ureter has an arterial supply. The upper part of the ureter closest to the kidney is supplied by the renal arteries; the middle part of the ureter is supplied by the common iliac arteries, direct branches from the abdominal aorta, gonadal arteries. The lower part of the ureter closest to the bladder is supplied by branches from the internal iliac arteries, namely the:Superior vesical artery Uterine artery Middle rectal artery Vaginal arteries Inferior vesical artery There are many connections between the arteries of the ureter in the aventitia, which means damage to a single vessel does not compromise the blood supply of the ureter.

Venous drainage parallels that of the arterial supply. Lymphatic drainage depends on the position of lymphatic vessels in the ureter. Lymph collects in submucosal and advential lymphatic vessels; those vessels closer to the kidney drain into renal collecting vessels. In the lower ureter, lymph may drain into the common iliac lymph nodes, or lower down in the pelvis to the common, external, or internal iliac lymph nodes; the ureters are richly supplied by nerves that form a network of nerves, the ureteric plexus that lies in the adventitia of the ureters. This plexus is formed from a number of nerve roots directly, as well as branches from other nerve plexuses and nerves; the plexus is in the adventitia. The these nerves travel in individual bundles and along small blood vessels to form the ureteric plexus. Sensation supplied is sparse close to the increases closer to the bladder; the primary sensation to the ureters is provided by nerves that come from T12-L2 segments of the spinal cord. Thus pain may be referred to the dermatomes of T12-L2, namely the back and sides of the abdomen, the scrotum or labia majora and upper part of the front of the thigh.

The ureter is lined by urothelium, a type of transitional epithelium, capable of responding to stretches in the ureters. The transitional epithelium may appear as a layer of column-shaped cells when relaxed, of flatter cells when distended. Below the epithelium sits the lamina propria; the lamina propria is made up of loose connective tissue with many elastic fibers interspersed with blood vessels and lymphatics. The ureter is surrounded by two muscular layers, an inner longitudinal layer of muscle, an outer circular or spiral layer of muscle; the lower third of the ureter has a third muscular layer. Beyond these layers sits an adventitia containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, veins. Congenital disorders of the ureter and urinary tract affect 10% of infants; these include duplication of the ureter. The ureters develop from the ureteric buds; this is a duct, derived from mesoderm. Over time, the buds elongate, moving into surrounding mesodermal tissue and divide. Successive divisions from these buds form not only the ureters, but the pelvis and minor calyces, collecting ducts of the kidneys.

The mesonephric duct is connected with the cloaca, which over the course of development splits into a urogenital sinus and the anorectal canal. The urinary bladder forms from the urogenital sinus. Over time, as the bladder enlarges, it absorbs the surrounding parts of the primitive ureters; the entry points of the ureters into the bladder move upwards, owing to the upward migration of the kidneys in the developing embryo. The ureters are

Everybody Loves Raymond (season 6)

This is a list of episodes for the sixth season of Everybody Loves Raymond. On January 22, 2001, it was revealed CBS was about to sign with HBO and Worldwide Pants to renew Everybody Loves Raymond for two more seasons. Starting the sixth season, Heaton was paid $250,000 per episode. In the sixth season, Everybody Loves Raymond increased its average viewers from 21 million in 2000 to 22 million, performing better than usual in viewership. Everybody Loves Raymond topped lists of best fall 2001 series from the Daily Herald and the Orlando Sentinel; the Daily Herald claimed that "every episode has been daring, bold and, above all, hilarious," and the Sentinel stated that "no series had more winning episodes this fall." "The Angry Family" and "Marie's Sculpture" were highlighted in both lists, with "Older Women" highlighted in Sentinel's and "Raybert" praised by the Herald as a new take on a "stale" sitcom setup

Evelyn Sharp (suffragist)

Evelyn Jane Sharp was a key figure in two major British women's suffrage societies, the militant Women's Social and Political Union and the United Suffragists. She helped became editor of Votes for Women during the First World War, she became a tax resister. An established author who had published in The Yellow Book, she was well known for her children's fiction. Evelyn Sharp, the ninth of eleven children, was born on 4 August 1869. Sharp's family sent her to a boarding school for just two years, yet she passed several university local examinations. In 1894, against the wishes of her family, Sharp moved to London, where she wrote and published several novels including All the Way to Fairyland and The Other Side of the Sun. In 1903 Sharp, with the help of her friend and lover, Henry Nevinson, began to find work writing articles for the Daily Chronicle, the Pall Mall Gazette and the Manchester Guardian, a newspaper that published her work for over thirty years. Sharp highlights the importance of Nevinson and the Men's League for Women's Suffrage: "It is impossible to rate too the sacrifices that they and H. N. Brailsford, F. W. Pethick Lawrence, Harold Laski, Israel Zangwill, Gerald Gould, George Lansbury, many others made to keep our movement free from the suggestion of a sex war."Sharp's journalism made her more aware of the problems of working-class women and she joined the Women's Industrial Council and the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies.

In the autumn of 1906 Sharp was sent by the Manchester Guardian to cover the first speech by actress and novelist Elizabeth Robins. Sharp was moved by Robins' arguments for militant action and she joined the Women's Social and Political Union; the impression she made was profound on an audience predisposed to be hostile. From that moment I was not to know again for 12 years, if indeed again, what it meant to cease from mental strife. Evelyn's mother, concerned at her daughter having joined the WSPU made her promise not to do anything that would result in her being imprisoned. Although she wrote in Votes for Women about Elsie Howey, dressed as Joan of Arc, a girl on a white horse leading a procession of hundreds of suffragettes to a meeting at the Aldwych Theatre on 17 April 1909 as representing "a battle against prejudice, as ancient as it is modern", befriended suffragette Helen Craggs and others, Sharp did keep her promise for five years, until her mother absolved her from that promise in November 1911.

Although I hope you will never go to prison, still, I feel I cannot any longer be so prejudiced, must leave it to your better judgment. I have been unhappy about it and feel I have no right to thwart you, much as I should regret feeling that you were undergoing those terrible hardships, it has caused you as much pain as it has me, I feel I can no longer think of my own feelings. I cannot write more, but you will be happy now, won't you. (Jane Sharp, letter to her daughter Evelyn became active in the militant campaign, that month she was imprisoned for fourteen days. My opportunity came with a militant demonstration in Parliament Square on the evening of November 11, provoked by a more than cynical postponement of the Women's Bill, implied in a Government forecast of manhood suffrage. I was one of the many selected to carry out our new policy of breaking Government office windows, which marked a departure from the attitude of passive resistance that for five years had permitted all the violence to be used against us.

Sharp in March 1912 acted as go-between for the leaders of WSPU taking a cheque for £7,000 to be authorised by Christabel Pankhurst to transfer funds to the personal account of Hertha Ayrton to avoid confiscation after the Scotland Yard raid on the Clement's Inn offices. Sharp was an active member of the Women Writers' Suffrage League. In August 1913, in response to the government tactic of keeping prisoners that would hunger strike until they were too weak to be active by means of the Cat and Mouse Act, permitting their re-arrest as soon as they were active, Sharp was chosen to represent the WWSL in a delegation to meet with the Home Secretary, Reginald McKenna and discuss the Cat and Mouse Act. McKenna was unwilling to talk to them and when the women refused to leave the House of Commons, Mary Macarthur and Margaret McMillan were physically ejected and Sharp and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence were arrested and sent to Holloway Prison. With Nevinson, the Pethick-Lawrences, the Harbens, the Lansburys, Dr Louisa Garrett Anderson, Evelina Haverfield and Lena Ashwell, Sharp was a founder member of the United Suffragists which opened to men and women and attracting members from NUWSS and WSPU disillusioned with tactics of each of these groups, on 14 February 2014.

Unlike most members of the women's movement, Sharp was unwilling to end the campaign for the vote during the First World War. When she continued to refuse to pay income tax she was arrested and all of her property confiscated, including her typewriter. A pacifist, Sharp was active in the Women's International League for Peace during the war, she would record: Personally, holding as I do the enfranchisement of women involved greater issues than could be involved in any war supposing that the objects of the Great War were those alleged, I cannot help regretting that any justification was given f