SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Urethra

In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body of both females and males. In human females and other primates, the urethra connects to the urinary meatus above the vagina, whereas in marsupials, the female's urethra empties into the urogenital sinus. Females use their urethra only for urinating, but males use their urethra for both urination and ejaculation; the external urethral sphincter is a striated muscle. The internal sphincter, formed by the involuntary smooth muscles lining the bladder neck and urethra, is innervated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system; the internal sphincter is present both in females. In the human male, the urethra is about 8 inches long and opens at the end of the external urethral meatus; the urethra provides an exit for urine as well as semen during ejaculation. The urethra is divided into four parts in men, named after the location: There is inadequate data for the typical length of the male urethra.

In the human female, the urethra is about 1.9 inches to 2 inches long and exits the body between the clitoris and the vagina, extending from the internal to the external urethral orifice. The meatus is located below the clitoris, it is placed behind the symphysis pubis, embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina, its direction is obliquely downward and forward. The proximal 2/3rds is lined by transitional epithelium cells while distal 1/3rd is lined by stratified squamous epithelium cells; the urethra consists of three coats: muscular and mucous, the muscular layer being a continuation of that of the bladder. Between the superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, the female urethra is surrounded by the urethral sphincter. Somatic innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve; the epithelium of the urethra starts off as transitional cells. Further along the urethra there are pseudostratified columnar and stratified columnar epithelia stratified squamous cells near the external urethral orifice.

There are small mucus-secreting urethral glands, that help protect the epithelium from the corrosive urine. The urogenital sinus may be divided into three component parts; the first of these is the cranial portion, continuous with the allantois and forms the bladder proper. In the male the pelvic part of the sinus forms the prostatic urethra and epithelium as well as the membranous urethra and bulbo urethral glands. Part of the vagina in females is formed from the pelvic part; the urethra is the vessel. During urination, the smooth muscle lining the urethra relaxes in concert with bladder contraction to forcefully expel the urine in a pressurized stream. Following this, the urethra re-establishes muscle tone by contracting the smooth muscle layer, the bladder returns to a relaxed, quiescent state. Urethral smooth muscle cells are mechanically coupled to each other to coordinate mechanical force and electrical signaling in an organized, unitary fashion; the male urethra is the conduit for semen during sexual intercourse.

It serves as a passage for urine to flow. Urine is removed before ejaculation by pre-ejaculate fluid – called Cowper's fluid – from the bulbourethral gland. Hypospadias and epispadias are forms of abnormal development of the urethra in the male, where the meatus is not located at the distal end of the penis. In a severe chordee, the urethra can develop between the scrotum. Infection of the urethra is urethritis, said to be more common in females than males. Urethritis is a common cause of dysuria. Related to urethritis is so called urethral syndrome Passage of kidney stones through the urethra can be painful, which can lead to urethral strictures. Injuries to the urethra Cancer of the urethra. Foreign bodies in the urethra are uncommon, but there have been medical case reports of self-inflicted injuries, a result of insertion of foreign bodies into the urethra such as an electrical wire; as the urethra is an open vessel with a lumen, investigations of the genitourinary tract may involve the urethra.

Endoscopy of the bladder may be conducted by the urethra, called cystoscopy. Urine cytology. During a hospital stay or surgical procedure, a catheter may be inserted through the urethra to drain urine from the bladder; the length of a male's urethra, the fact it contains a prominent bend, makes catheterization more difficult. The integrity of the urethra can be determined by a procedure known as retrograde urethrogram. Perineal urethra Vulvovaginal health Urethral sponge Sexual stimulation: Urethral sounding and Urethral intercourse Urethrorrhagia Urethrotomy Internal urethral orifice Histology at KUMC epithel-epith07 "Male Urethra"

Bronson Ray

T. Bronson Ray was a Southern Baptist minister who administered the church's foreign mission board becoming its Executive Secretary. Ray was born 14 August 1868 in Garrard Co.. Kentucky, the son of William Ray, a physician, his wife Nancy Jane. Ray married Maude Wayts in 1897, she died in 1909 Ray married Davie Bruce Jasper. They had a daughter. Ray died 1 January 1934. Ray received his secondary education at the Elliott Institute, Kentucky, in normal school in Lebanon, Ohio, he earned an M. A. from Georgetown College, Kentucky in 1895, received the degree of Th. M. from the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary of Louisville, Kentucky in 1898. In 1909 his alma mater, Georgetown College, awarded him a D. D. Ray was ordained in Georgetown, Kentucky in 1893, he was Pastor of the Clear Creek Baptist Church near Versailles and Pastor at the Immanuel Baptist Church in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1906 Ray became Educational Secretary of the Foreign Missions Board in Richmond, where his duties consisted of "editing books suitable for mission classes and writing books on mission subjects."

He continued with this work for the rest of his life becoming Executive Secretary of the Foreign Missions Board in 1928. In spite of a lifelong career in the foreign missions field, Ray is known to have travelled abroad only once, in 1910, to Brazil, an experience he wrote a book about. Highway of Mission Thought Southern Baptist Foreign Missions Brazilian Sketches Works by Bronson Ray at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bronson Ray at Internet Archive

Let Me Down Easy (Bettye LaVette song)

"'Let Me Down Easy'" is a 1965 song recorded by American soul singer Bettye LaVette. Written by Dee Dee Ford and released by Calla Records, the song peaked at number 20 on the Billboard Hot Rhythm and Blues Singles chart. Dee Dee Ford, a singer who teamed up with Don Gardner on the top-20 single "I Need Your Lovin'" in 1962, wrote "Let Me Down Easy" three years using her real name Wrecia Holloway; the song, a torch ballad, was performed by Bettye LaVette, arranged by Dale Warren, produced by Gardner. New York independent label Calla Records released the track as a single and it reached number 20 on the Billboard Hot Rhythm and Blues Singles chart. LaVette performed it on a 1965 episode of Shindig! and on the 2012/13 Hootenanny show presented by Jools Holland. A 1965 Billboard review of "Let Me Down Easy" complimented the song's "driving beat" and LaVette's "outstanding wailing vocal performance." In 2006, music journalist Bill Friskics-Warren described it as "a gloriously anguished record aggravated by nagging syncopation, astringent strings, a stinging blues guitar break".

Ladies of Soul author David Freeland wrote that "the record featured her most soulful performance to date–miles away from the youthful impetuosity of'My Man', recorded just three years earlier. The fade, in which she shouted'Please! Please!' was effective." Freeland added that the song highlighted LaVette's "blistering intensity modulated by moments of deep, heartfelt reflection."Allmusic's Jason Ankeny remarked that the song is "a staple of the Northern soul scene and the countless anthologies it's yielded", said it is LaVette's "masterpiece, a blisteringly poignant requiem for romance gone bad distinguished by its unique, tangolike rhythm and sweeping string arrangement." Holly Gleason of Relix called it a "seminal" song "which many consider to be one of the great soul sides of all time". In a 2013 Metro Times article, writer Brett Callwood said of the song: "LaVette’s voice soars one minute and purrs the next, each word dripping off her tongue. Performed live, the song sounds better today than it did".

LaVette re-recorded "Let Me Down Easy" in 1969 for Karen Records, a small New York independent label. The remade version, which incorporated funk guitars similar to those on early Funkadelic records, was released as a single; the song is a highlight of her live shows, as featured in the album Let Me Down Easy In Concert, recorded in Germany in 1999. It has been covered by The Spencer Davis Group on The Second Album,Inez and Charlie Foxx on At Memphis & More,Paloma Faith on Fall to Grace. and Paolo Nutini on Caustic Love