Pseudoarchaeology—also known as alternative archaeology, fringe archaeology, fantastic archaeology, or cult archaeology—refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the archaeological science community, which reject the accepted datagathering and analytical methods of the discipline. These pseudoscientific interpretations involve the use of artifacts, sites or materials to construct scientifically insubstantial theories to supplement the pseudoarchaeologists' claims. Methods include exaggeration of evidence, dramatic or romanticized conclusions, fabrication of evidence. There is no unified pseudoarchaeological theory or approach, but rather many different interpretations of the past that are jointly at odds with those developed by the scientific community; some of these revolve around the idea that prehistoric and ancient human societies were aided in their development by intelligent extraterrestrial life, an idea propagated by those such as Swiss author Erich von Däniken in books such as Chariots of the Gods? and Italian author Peter Kolosimo.
Others instead hold that there were human societies in the ancient period that were technologically advanced, such as Atlantis, this idea has been propagated by figures like Graham Hancock in his Fingerprints of the Gods. Many alternative archaeologies have been adopted by religious groups. Fringe archaeological ideas such as archaeocryptography and pyramidology have been embraced by religions ranging from the British Israelites to the theosophists. Other alternative archaeologies include those that have been adopted by members of New Age and contemporary pagan belief systems. Academic archaeologists have criticised pseudoarchaeology, with one of the most vocal critics, John R. Cole, characterising it as relying on "sensationalism, misuse of logic and evidence, misunderstanding of scientific method, internal contradictions in their arguments"; the relationship between alternative and academic archaeologies has been compared to the relationship between intelligent design theories and evolutionary biology by some archaeologists.
Various different terms have been employed to refer to these non-academic interpretations of archaeology. During the 1980s, the term "cult archaeology" was used by figures like John R. Cole and William H. Stiebing Jr.. In the 2000s, the term "alternative archaeology" began to be instead applied by academics like Tim Sebastion, Robert J. Wallis, Cornelius Holtorf, Gabriel Moshenka. Garrett F. Fagan and Kenneth Feder however claimed this term was only chosen because it "imparts a warmer, fuzzier feel" that "appeals to our higher ideals and progressive inclinations", they argued that the term "pseudoarchaeology" was far more appropriate, a term used by other prominent academic and professional archaeologists such as Colin Renfrew. Other academic archaeologists have chosen to use other terms to refer to these interpretations. Glyn Daniel, the editor of Antiquity, used the derogative "bullshit archaeology", the academic William H. Stiebing Jr. noted that there were certain terms used for pseudoarchaeology that were heard "in the privacy of professional archaeologists' homes and offices but which cannot be mentioned in polite society".
William H. Stiebing Jr. argued that despite their many differences, there were a set of core characteristics that all pseudoarchaeological interpretations shared. He believed that because of this, pseudoarchaeology could be categorised as a "single phenomenon", he went on to identify three core commonalities of pseudeoarchaeological theories: the unscientific nature of its method and evidence, its history of providing "simple, compact answers to complex, difficult issues", its tendency to present itself as being persecuted by the archaeological establishment, accompanied by an ambivalent attitude towards the scientific ethos of the Enlightenment. This idea that there are core characteristics of pseudoarchaeologies is shared by other academics. Academic critics have pointed out that pseudoarchaeologists neglect to use the scientific method. Instead of testing the evidence to see what hypotheses it fits, pseudoarchaeologists "press-gang" the archaeological data to fit a "favored conclusion", arrived at through hunches, intuition, or religious or nationalist dogma.
Different pseudoarchaeological groups hold a variety of basic assumptions which are unscientific: the Nazi pseudoarchaeologists for instance took the cultural superiority of the ancient Aryan race as a basic assumption, whilst Judeo-Christian fundamentalist pseudoarchaeologists conceive of the Earth as being less than 10,000 years old and Hindu fundamentalist pseudoarchaeologists believe that the Homo sapiens species is much older than the 200,000 years old it has been shown to be by archaeologists. Despite this, many of pseudoarchaeology's proponents claim that they reached their conclusions using scientific techniques and methods when it is demonstrable that they have not. Academic archaeologist John R. Cole believed that most pseudoarchaeologists do not understand how scientific investigation works, that they instead believe it to be a "simple, catastrophic right versus wrong battle" between contesting theories, it was because of this failure to understand the scientific method, he argued, that the entire pseudoarchaeological approach to their arguments was faulty.
He went on to argue that most pseudoarchaeologists do not consider alternative explanations to that which they want to propagate, that their "theories" were just "notions", not having sufficient supporting evidence to allow them to be considered "theories" in the scientific, academic meaning of the word. Lacking scientific evidence, pseudoarchaeologists use othe
Archaeoastronomy is the interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures". Clive Ruggles argues it is misleading to consider archaeoastronomy to be the study of ancient astronomy, as modern astronomy is a scientific discipline, while archaeoastronomy considers symbolically rich cultural interpretations of phenomena in the sky by other cultures, it is twinned with ethnoastronomy, the anthropological study of skywatching in contemporary societies. Archaeoastronomy is closely associated with historical astronomy, the use of historical records of heavenly events to answer astronomical problems and the history of astronomy, which uses written records to evaluate past astronomical practice. Archaeoastronomy uses a variety of methods to uncover evidence of past practices including archaeology, astronomy and probability, history; because these methods are diverse and use data from such different sources, integrating them into a coherent argument has been a long-term difficulty for archaeoastronomers.
Archaeoastronomy fills complementary niches in landscape cognitive archaeology. Material evidence and its connection to the sky can reveal how a wider landscape can be integrated into beliefs about the cycles of nature, such as Mayan astronomy and its relationship with agriculture. Other examples which have brought together ideas of cognition and landscape include studies of the cosmic order embedded in the roads of settlements. Archaeoastronomy can be applied to all time periods; the meanings of the sky vary from culture to culture. It is the need to balance the social and scientific aspects of archaeoastronomy which led Clive Ruggles to describe it as: "... field with academic work of high quality at one end but uncontrolled speculation bordering on lunacy at the other". In his short history of'Astro-archaeology' John Michell argued that the status of research into ancient astronomy had improved over the past two centuries, going'from lunacy to heresy to interesting notion and to the gates of orthodoxy.'
Nearly two decades we can still ask the question: Is archaeoastronomy still waiting at the gates of orthodoxy or has it gotten inside the gates? Two hundred years before Michell wrote the above, there were no archaeoastronomers and there were no professional archaeologists, but there were astronomers and antiquarians; some of their works are considered precursors of archaeoastronomy. Late in the nineteenth century astronomers such as Richard Proctor and Charles Piazzi Smyth investigated the astronomical orientations of the pyramids; the term archaeoastronomy was first used by Elizabeth Chesley Baity in 1973, but as a topic of study it may be much older, depending on how archaeoastronomy is defined. Clive Ruggles says that Heinrich Nissen, working in the mid-nineteenth century was arguably the first archaeoastronomer. Rolf Sinclair says that Norman Lockyer, working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, could be called the'father of archaeoastronomy'. Euan MacKie would place the origin later, stating: "...the genesis and modern flowering of archaeoastronomy must lie in the work of Alexander Thom in Britain between the 1930s and the 1970s".
In the 1960s the work of the engineer Alexander Thom and that of the astronomer Gerald Hawkins, who proposed that Stonehenge was a Neolithic computer, inspired new interest in the astronomical features of ancient sites. The claims of Hawkins were dismissed, but this was not the case for Alexander Thom's work, whose survey results of megalithic sites hypothesized widespread practice of accurate astronomy in the British Isles. Euan MacKie, recognizing that Thom's theories needed to be tested, excavated at the Kintraw standing stone site in Argyllshire in 1970 and 1971 to check whether the latter's prediction of an observation platform on the hill slope above the stone was correct. There was an artificial platform there and this apparent verification of Thom's long alignment hypothesis led him to check Thom's geometrical theories at the Cultoon stone circle in Islay with a positive result. MacKie published new prehistories of Britain. In contrast a re-evaluation of Thom's fieldwork by Clive Ruggles argued that Thom's claims of high accuracy astronomy were not supported by the evidence.
Thom's legacy remains strong, Krupp wrote in 1979, "Almost singlehandedly he has established the standards for archaeo-astronomical fieldwork and interpretation, his amazing results have stirred controversy during the last three decades." His influence endures and practice of statistical testing of data remains one of the methods of archaeoastronomy. The approach in the New World, where anthropologists began to consider more the role of astronomy in Amerindian civilizations, was markedly different, they had access to sources that the prehistory of Europe lacks such as ethnographies and the historical records of the early colonizers. Following the pioneering example of Anthony Aveni, this allowed New World archaeoastronomers to make claims for motives which in the Old World would have been mere speculation; the concentration on h
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, two miles west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet high, seven feet wide and weighing around 25 tons; the stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds. Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC; the surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC. One of the most famous landmarks in the United Kingdom, Stonehenge is regarded as a British cultural icon, it has been a protected Scheduled Ancient Monument since 1882 when legislation to protect historic monuments was first introduced in Britain. The site and its surroundings were added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986.
Stonehenge is managed by English Heritage. Stonehenge could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. Deposits containing human bone date from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug, continued for at least another five hundred years; the Neolithic Britons who built the monument are genetically distinct from the Modern British. There is evidence to suggest that over 90% of the Neolithic British DNA was overturned by a population from the Lower Rhine characterized by the Bell Beaker culture, who spoke an Indo-European language, it is not known if warfare, disease or just continuous large scale immigration caused their replacement. The Oxford English Dictionary cites Ælfric's tenth-century glossary, in which henge-cliff is given the meaning "precipice", or stone, thus the stanenges or Stanheng "not far from Salisbury" recorded by eleventh-century writers are "supported stones". William Stukeley in 1740 notes, "Pendulous rocks are now called henges in Yorkshire...
I doubt not, Stonehenge in Saxon signifies the hanging stones." Christopher Chippindale's Stonehenge Complete gives the derivation of the name Stonehenge as coming from the Old English words stān meaning "stone", either hencg meaning "hinge" or henen meaning "hang" or "gallows" or "instrument of torture". Like Stonehenge's trilithons, medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them, rather than the inverted L-shape more familiar today; the "henge" portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as henges. Archaeologists define henges as earthworks consisting of a circular banked enclosure with an internal ditch; as happens in archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarian use. Because its bank is inside its ditch, Stonehenge is not a henge site. Despite being contemporary with true Neolithic henges and stone circles, Stonehenge is in many ways atypical—for example, at more than 24 feet tall, its extant trilithons' lintels, held in place with mortise and tenon joints, make it unique.
Mike Parker Pearson, leader of the Stonehenge Riverside Project based at Durrington Walls, noted that Stonehenge appears to have been associated with burial from the earliest period of its existence: Stonehenge was a place of burial from its beginning to its zenith in the mid third millennium B. C; the cremation burial dating to Stonehenge's sarsen stones phase is just one of many from this period of the monument's use and demonstrates that it was still much a domain of the dead. Stonehenge evolved in several construction phases spanning at least 1500 years. There is evidence of large-scale construction on and around the monument that extends the landscape's time frame to 6500 years. Dating and understanding the various phases of activity is complicated by disturbance of the natural chalk by periglacial effects and animal burrowing, poor quality early excavation records, a lack of accurate, scientifically verified dates; the modern phasing most agreed to by archaeologists is detailed below. Features mentioned in the text are shown on the plan, right.
Archaeologists have found four, or five, large Mesolithic postholes, which date to around 8000 BC, beneath the nearby old tourist car-park in use until 2013. These held pine posts around two feet six inches in diameter, which were erected and rotted in situ. Three of the posts were in an east-west alignment. Another Mesolithic astronomical site in Britain is the Warren Field site in Aberdeenshire, considered the world's oldest Lunar calendar, corrected yearly by observing the midwinter solstice. Similar but sites have been found in Scandinavia. A settlement that may have been contemporaneous with the posts has been found at Blick Mead, a reliable year-round spring one mile from Stonehenge. Salisbury Plain was still wooded, but 4,000 years during the earlier Neolithic, people built a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball and long barrow tombs in the surrounding landscape. In 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus was built 2,300 feet north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees and develop the area.
A number of other overlooked stone or wooden structures and burial mounds may date as far back as 4000 BC. Charcoal from the ‘Blick Mead’ camp 1.5 miles from Stonehenge has been dated
The River Boyne is a river in Leinster, the course of, about 112 kilometres long. It rises at Trinity Well, Newberry Hall, near Carbury, County Kildare, flows towards the Northeast through County Meath to reach the Irish Sea between Mornington, County Meath, Baltray, County Louth. Salmon and trout can be caught in the river, surrounded by the Boyne Valley, it is crossed just west of Drogheda by the Boyne River Bridge, which carries the M1 motorway, by the Boyne Viaduct, which carries the Dublin-Belfast railway line to the east. The catchment area of the River Boyne is 2,695 km2; the long term average flow rate of the River Boyne is 38.8 cubic metres per second. Despite its short course, the Boyne has historical and mythical connotations; the Battle of the Boyne, a major battle in Irish history, took place along the Boyne near Drogheda in 1690 during the Williamite war in Ireland. It passes through the ancient town of Trim, Trim Castle, the Hill of Tara, the Hill of Slane, Brú na Bóinne, Mellifont Abbey, the medieval town of Drogheda.
In the Boyne Valley can be found other historical and archaeological monuments, including Loughcrew, Celtic crosses, castles. This river has been known since ancient times; the Greek geographer Ptolemy drew a map of Ireland in the 2nd century which included the Boyne, which he called Βουουινδα or Βουβινδα. During the High Middle Ages, Giraldus Cambrensis called it the Boandus. In Irish mythology it is said that the river was created by the goddess Boann, according to F. Dinneen, lexicographer of the Irish Gaelic language, Boyne is an anglicised form of the name. In other legends, it was in this river where Fionn mac Cumhail captured Fiontán, the Salmon of Knowledge; the Meath section of the Boyne was known as Smior Fionn Feidhlimthe. The Boyne Navigation is a series of canals running parallel to the main river from Oldbridge near Drogheda to Navan. Owned by An Taisce and derelict, the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland are restoring the navigation to navigable status; the canal at )Oldbridge which runs through the battle of the Boyne Site was the first to be restored.
A rock with indications of being Prehistoric art was found in August 2013. Cliadh O’Gibne reported through the Archaeological Survey of Ireland that a boulder with geometric carvings had been found in Donore, County Meath; the Boyne Fishermen's Rescue and Recovery Service, near Drogheda, County Louth, were doing one of their regular operations to remove shopping trolleys from the Boyne, in May 2013, when they discovered an ancient log boat, which experts believe may be 5000 years old. Initial examination by an underwater archaeologist, suggests it could be rare because, unlike other log-boats found here, it has oval shapes on the upper edge which could have held oars. Investigations were on-going as of 2013. In 2006, the remains of a Viking ship were found in the river bed in Drogheda during dredging operations; the vessel is to be excavated. See Annals of Inisfallen AI770.2 The battle of Bolg Bóinne against the Uí Néill, by the Laigin. HMS Boyne Salmon fishing on the River Boyne, from Salmon Ireland A canoeing and kayaking guide to the River Boyne, from Irish Whitewater
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon. When the object enters the atmosphere, various factors such as friction and chemical interactions with the atmospheric gases cause it to heat up and radiate that energy, it becomes a meteor and forms a fireball known as a shooting star or falling star. Meteorites vary in size. For geologists, a bolide is a meteorite large enough to create an impact crater. Meteorites that are recovered after being observed as they transit the atmosphere and impact the Earth are called meteorite falls. All others are known as meteorite finds; as of August 2018, there were about 1,412 witnessed falls that have specimens in the world's collections. As of 2018, there are more than 59,200 well-documented meteorite finds. Meteorites have traditionally been divided into three broad categories: stony meteorites that are rocks composed of silicate minerals.
Modern classification schemes divide meteorites into groups according to their structure and isotopic composition and mineralogy. Meteorites smaller than 2 mm are classified as micrometeorites. Extraterrestrial meteorites are such objects that have impacted other celestial bodies, whether or not they have passed through an atmosphere, they have been found on the Mars. Meteorites are always named for the places they were found a nearby town or geographic feature. In cases where many meteorites were found in one place, the name may be followed by a number or letter; the name designated by the Meteoritical Society is used by scientists and most collectors. Most meteoroids disintegrate. Five to ten a year are observed to fall and are subsequently recovered and made known to scientists. Few meteorites are large enough to create large impact craters. Instead, they arrive at the surface at their terminal velocity and, at most, create a small pit. Large meteoroids may strike the earth with a significant fraction of their escape velocity, leaving behind a hypervelocity impact crater.
The kind of crater will depend on the size, degree of fragmentation, incoming angle of the impactor. The force of such collisions has the potential to cause widespread destruction; the most frequent hypervelocity cratering events on the Earth are caused by iron meteoroids, which are most able to transit the atmosphere intact. Examples of craters caused by iron meteoroids include Barringer Meteor Crater, Odessa Meteor Crater, Wabar craters, Wolfe Creek crater. In contrast relatively large stony or icy bodies like small comets or asteroids, up to millions of tons, are disrupted in the atmosphere, do not make impact craters. Although such disruption events are uncommon, they can cause a considerable concussion to occur. Large stony objects, hundreds of meters in diameter or more, weighing tens of millions of tons or more, can reach the surface and cause large craters, but are rare; such events are so energetic that the impactor is destroyed, leaving no meteorites. Several phenomena are well documented during witnessed meteorite falls too small to produce hypervelocity craters.
The fireball that occurs as the meteoroid passes through the atmosphere can appear to be bright, rivaling the sun in intensity, although most are far dimmer and may not be noticed during daytime. Various colors have been reported, including yellow and red. Flashes and bursts of light can occur. Explosions and rumblings are heard during meteorite falls, which can be caused by sonic booms as well as shock waves resulting from major fragmentation events; these sounds can be heard with a radius of a hundred or more kilometers. Whistling and hissing sounds are sometimes heard, but are poorly understood. Following passage of the fireball, it is not unusual for a dust trail to linger in the atmosphere for several minutes; as meteoroids are heated during atmospheric entry, their surfaces experience ablation. They can be sculpted into various shapes during this process, sometimes resulting in shallow thumbprint-like indentations on their surfaces called regmaglypts. If the meteoroid maintains a fixed orientation for some time, without tumbling, it may develop a conical "nose cone" or "heat shield" shape.
As it decelerates the molten surface layer solidifies into a thin fusion crust, which on most meteorites is black. On stony meteorites, the heat-affected zone is at most a few mm deep. Reports vary. Meteorites from multiple falls, such as Bjurbole, Tagish Lake, Buzzard Coulee, have been found having fallen on lake and sea ice suggesting that they were not hot when they
A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin
Uriel is one of the archangels of post-exilic rabbinic tradition, of certain minor Christian traditions. In apocryphal and occult works, Uriel has been equated with Urial, Uryan, Vretil, Suriel, Phanuel, Jacob and Raphael; the angels mentioned in the older books of the Hebrew Bible are without names. Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias asserted that all of the specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon. Of the seven archangels in the angelology of post-exilic Judaism, only two of them, the archangels Michael and Gabriel, are mentioned by name in the canonized Jewish scriptures, in the Book of Daniel in particular, one of the youngest books in the Tanakh. Raphael features prominently in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit; the Book of Tobit is accepted as scriptural by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church. Where a fourth archangel is added to the named three, to represent the four cardinal points, Uriel is the fourth.
Uriel is listed as the fourth angel in Christian Gnostics, by Gregory the Great, in the angelology of Pseudo-Dionysius. However, the Book of Enoch distinguishes the two angels. Uriel means "God is my Light", whereas Phanuel means "Turn to God". Uriel is the third angel listed in the Testament of the fourth being Sabrael. Uriel appears in the Second Book of Esdras found in the Biblical apocrypha in which the prophet Ezra asks God a series of questions and Uriel is sent by God to instruct him. According to the Revelation of Esdras, the angels that will rule at the end of the world are Michael, Uriel, Gabuthelon, Zebuleon and Arphugitonos; the last five listed only nowhere else in apocryphal or apocalyptic works. In Christian apocryphal gospels Uriel plays a role, differing between the sources, in the rescue of Jesus' cousin John the Baptist from the Massacre of the Innocents ordered by King Herod, he carries John and his mother Saint Elizabeth to join the Holy Family after their Flight into Egypt.
Their reunion is depicted in Leonardo da Vinci's Virgin of the Rocks. Uriel is identified as a cherub and the angel of repentance, he "stands at the Gate of Eden with a fiery sword", or as the angel who "watches over thunder and terror". In the Apocalypse of Peter he appears as the angel of repentance, graphically represented as being as pitiless as any demon. In the Life of Adam and Eve, Uriel is regarded as the spirit of the third chapter of Genesis, he is identified as one of the angels who helped bury Adam and Abel in Eden. Stemming from medieval Jewish mystical traditions, Uriel has become the angel of Sunday, the angel of poetry, one of the holy sephiroth. Uriel is depicted as the destroyer of the hosts of Sennacherib, he checked the doors of Egypt for lamb's blood during the plague. He holds the key to the Pit during the End Times, led Abraham to the west. In modern angelology, Uriel is identified variously as a seraph, regent of the sun, flame of God, angel of the divine presence, presider over Tartarus, archangel of salvation, and, in scriptures, identified with Phanuel.
He is depicted carrying a book or a papyrus scroll representing wisdom. Uriel is a patron of the arts. In the Byzantine Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, Uriel is commemorated together with the other archangels and angels with a feast day of the "Synaxis of the Archangel Michael and the Other Bodiless Powers" on November 8 of the liturgical calendar. In addition, every Monday throughout the year is dedicated to the angels; the Anglicans and Coptic Christians of Ethiopia and Eritrea venerate archangel Uriel. According to the latter, 11 July is his feast day. In Thomas Heywood's Hierarchy of Blessed Angels, Uriel is described as an angel of the earth. Heywood's list is of the angels of the four winds: Uriel, Michael and Gabriel, he is listed as an angel of the four winds in the medieval Jewish Book of the Angel Raziel which lists him as Usiel. At the Council of Rome of 745, Pope St. Zachary, intending to clarify the Church's teaching on the subject of angels and curb a tendency toward angel worship, condemned obsession with angelic intervention and angelolatry, but reaffirmed the approval of the practice of the reverence of angels.
This synod struck many angels' names from the list of those eligible for veneration in the Church of Rome, including Uriel. Only the reverence of the archangels mentioned in the recognised Catholic canon of scriptures, namely Michael and Raphael, remained licit. In the 16th century, archangel Uriel appeared before the Sicilian friar Antonio Lo Duca and told him to build a church in the Termini area. Lo Duca told pope Pius IV about the apparition, the pope asked Michelangelo to design the church, it is the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, located at the Esedra Plaza. In the first half of the 11th century, Bulgarian followers of the du