In the Hebrew Bible, the Urim and the Thummim are elements of the hoshen, the breastplate worn by the High Priest attached to the ephod. They are connected with divination in general, cleromancy in particular. Most scholars suspect that the phrase refers to a set of two objects used by the high priest to answer a question or reveal the will of God; the Urim and the Thummim first appear in Exodus 28:30, where they are named for inclusion on the breastplate to be worn by Aaron in the holy place. Other books 1 Samuel, describe their use in divination. Urim traditionally has been taken to derive from a root meaning lights. In consequence and Thummim has traditionally been translated as "lights and perfections", or, by taking the phrase allegorically, as meaning "revelation and truth", or "doctrine and truth"; the latter use was defended in modern Catholic interpretations by connecting Urim and Thummim from the roots ירה and אׇמַן. Thummim is considered to be derived from the consonantal root ת.מ.ם, meaning innocent, Many scholars now believe that Urim derives from the Hebrew term אּרּרִים, meaning "curses", thus that Urim and Thummim means "cursed or faultless", in reference to the deity's judgment of an accused person.
Assyriologist William Muss-Arnolt connected the singular forms—ur and tumm—with the Babylonian terms ūrtu and tamītu, meaning "oracle" and "command", respectively. According to his theory the Hebrew words use a pluralis intensivus to enhance their apparent majesty, not to indicate the presence of more than one. Along these lines the urim and thummim are hypothesized to derive from the Tablets of Destiny worn by Marduk on his breast according to Babylonian religion). 1 Samuel 14:41 is regarded by biblical scholars as key to understanding the Thummim. In the version of this passage in the Masoretic Text, it describes Saul and Jonathan being separated from the rest of the people, lots being cast between them. In the Septuagint, a previous verse uses a phrase, translated as "inquired of God", significant as the grammatical form of the Hebrew implies that the inquiry was performed by objects being manipulated; the description of the clothing of the Hebrew high priest in the Book of Exodus portrays the Urim and Thummim as being put into the sacred breastplate, worn by the high priest over the Ephod.
Where the biblical text elsewhere describes an Ephod being used for divination, scholars presume that it is referring to use of the Urim and Thummim in conjunction with the Ephod, as this seems to be intimately connected with it. In all but two cases, the question is one, answered by a simple "yes" or "no". There is no description of the form of the Urim and Thummim in the passage describing the high priest's vestments, a number of scholars believe that the author of the passage, which textual scholars attribute to the priestly source, was not entirely aware of what they were either; the passage does describe them as being put into the breastplate, which scholars think implies they were objects put into some sort of pouch within it, while out of view, one was chosen by touch and withdrawn or thrown out. Considering the scholars' conclusion that Urim means "guilty" and Thummim means "innocent", this would imply that the purpose of the Urim and Thummim was an ordeal to confirm or refute suspected guilt.
According to classical rabbinical literature, in order for the Urim and Thummim to give an answer, it was first necessary for the individual to stand facing the dressed high priest, vocalise the question and in a simple way, though it was not necessary for it to be loud enough for anyone else to hear it. The Talmudic rabbis argued that Thummim were words written on the sacred breastplate. Most of the Talmudic rabbis, Josephus, following the belief that Urim meant "lights", argued that divination by Urim and Thummim involved questions being answered by great rays of light shining out of certain jewels on the breastplate.
Hoshino Gakki Co. Ltd. is a Japanese manufacturer of musical instruments. It is the owner of the Ibanez Tama drum brand names; the Hoshino company was founded in 1908 by Matsujiro Hoshino as the Hoshino Shoten bookstore which sold books and sheet music and gradually over the years began to import musical instruments into Japan. Matsujiro was succeeded by Yoshitaro Hoshino. From 1929 Hoshino imported Spanish guitars of Salvador Ibáñez é Hijos, resident in Valencia, which company was bought in 1933 by Telesforo Julve from Valencia. In 1935, Hoshino began manufacturing their own stringed instruments, using the name Ibanez Salvador shortened as "Ibanez"; the company had little presence in the Western world until the mid-1960s. In 1957 Hoshino Gakki manufactured what would be considered the first of the modern era Ibanez guitars. In 1962, Junpei Hoshino, Yoshitaro's son, opened the Tama Seisakusho factory to manufacture electric guitars and amplifiers; the Tama Seisakusho factory produced a line of guitars that included clones of several popular guitars, including the Martin Dreadnought.
At the time they were manufacturing Star Drums, available in either the Imperial or Royal models. Hoshino Gakki stopped making guitars at the Tama Seisakusho factory in 1966 and from on contracted outside guitar factories which in the mid 1960s consisted of Guyatone. Beginning in the 70's guitars were exclusively manufactured by FujiGen which remains one of the main sources for Japanese Ibanez guitars. 1908: The Hoshino Shoten bookstore company is founded by Matsujiro Hoshino. Selling books and sheet music they start to import musical instruments. 1929: The Hoshino company starts Hoshino Gakki Ten Inc. and starts to import Salvador Ibáñez acoustic guitars from Spain. 1935: Hoshino Gakki Ten begins their own production of "Ibanez Salvador" branded Spanish guitars. 1945: The Hoshino Gakki Ten factory was destroyed by World War II bombing. 1955: Hoshino Gakki Ten builds new headquarters in Nagoya Japan and becomes an export only business. 1957: Hoshino Gakki Ten starts making the first modern era Ibanez branded guitars.
1962: Hoshino Gakki Ten opens the Tama Seisakusho factory. 1966: Hoshino Gakki Ten starts to use outside manufacturers for guitars and amplifiers but continues to manufacture drums themselves. 1969: Hoshino Gakki Ten starts to use the FujiGen Gakki guitar factory to make most of the Ibanez branded guitars. The headstock logo on Ibanez guitars is changed from a metal logo to a more modern decal logo. 1971: Hoshino Gakki Ten starts a U. S. distribution channel named Elger, in Bensalem, PA 1972: Hoshino Gakki Ten launches its own line of Ibanez effect pedals. The Ibanez effect pedals were licensed from the Nisshin Onpa Company. 1973: Hoshino Gakki partners with Chesbro Music Company to distribute Ibanez and Tama to Western U. S. 1974: The Tama brand name is used for the drums produced by Hoshino Gakki Ten. 1975: The Artist range with original guitar designs by Hoshino Gakki Ten, Kanda Shokai and FujiGen Gakki is launched. 1980: The Elger name is changed to Hoshino USA Inc. 1981: Hoshino changes company name from Hoshino Gakki Ten to Hoshino Gakki and starts Hoshino Gakki Mfg. 1982: Hoshino Gakki starts Hoshino Gakki Hanbai for the Japanese domestic market.
1987: Hoshino Gakki starts Hoshino Los Angeles office. Late 1980s: Hoshino Gakki starts using Korean guitar manufactures as well as Japanese guitar manufactures and in years uses Chinese and Indonesian guitar manufacturers. 1990: Hoshino Gakki starts Hoshino Los Angeles Branch. 2005: Hoshino Gakki starts Qingdao Representative Office in China. 2009: Hoshino Gakki ends partnership with Chesbro Music Company, takes on sole U. S. distributorship. Hoshino Gakki History Telesforo Julve Official website Tom Tanaka Interview NAMM Oral History Library
Death was an American death metal band from Orlando, founded in 1983 by guitarist and vocalist Chuck Schuldiner. Death is considered to be among the most influential bands in heavy metal and a pioneering force in the extreme metal subgenre of death metal, their debut album, Scream Bloody Gore, has been regarded as the first death metal record. Death had a revolving lineup, with Schuldiner being the sole consistent member; the group's style progressed, from the raw sound on its first two albums to a more sophisticated one in its stage. The band ceased to exist after Schuldiner died of glioma and pneumonia in December 2001, but remains an enduring influence on heavy metal. Founded in 1983 by Chuck Schuldiner under the original name of Mantas in Orlando, Death was among the more known early pioneers of the death metal sound, along with California's Possessed. In the late 80s, the band was both a part of and integral in defining the death metal scene which gained international recognition with the release of albums by a number of area acts.
Together with Kam Lee, Rick Rozz, Schuldiner started to compose songs that were released on several rehearsal tapes in 1984. These tapes, along with the Death by Metal demo, circulated through the tape-trader world establishing the band's name. In 1984, Schuldiner dissolved Mantas and started a new band under the name Death. Tim Aymar, in an article written in December 2010, states that Chuck Schuldiner renamed the band Death in order to turn his experience of the death of his brother Frank years earlier into "something positive", its members again included Kam Lee. Another demo was released, called Reign of Terror. In 1985, the Infernal Death tape was released. Rick Rozz was out of the band by early 1985. Kam Lee played with Scott Carlson and Matt Olivo and guitarist of the band Genocide for a short time. However, Kam had some "personal problems". Olivo and Carlson left soon afterward. Schuldiner moved to the San Francisco Bay Area and recruited Dirty Rotten Imbeciles drummer Eric Brecht recorded the Back from the Dead demo.
However, Chuck was not happy with this incarnation of Death and moved back to Florida without a band. In 1986, Schuldiner got an invitation from early Canadian thrash metal band Slaughter to play on their album, which he accepted, moving to Canada. However, this only lasted two weeks, he returned to the States, he returned to Florida moved back to the San Francisco Bay Area again, where he joined with 17-year-old drummer Chris Reifert. They recorded the Mutilation demo, which led to a deal with Combat Records, owned by Important Distribution, that enabled them to record the first LP. Scream Bloody Gore was released in 1987 considered a genre template for death metal; the band had a second guitar player, John Hand, but he did not appear on the album. By this time Schuldiner had moved back to Florida, splitting with Reifert who had chosen to remain in California, where he went on to form Autopsy. There, Schuldiner teamed up with former bandmate Rick Rozz and two members of Rozz's band Massacre, Terry Butler and Bill Andrews.
In 1988, that line-up recorded Leprosy. After much touring in support of the album, including a quick and ill-planned tour of Europe, Rick Rozz was fired in 1989. After a tour of Mexico featuring guitarist Paul Masvidal, a replacement was found in James Murphy, with whom the third album Spiritual Healing was recorded in Tampa in the summer of 1989. Murphy left the band quickly. By this time Schuldiner abandoned the "gore" lyrical theme for more social critique and melody was added to the band's sound. In 1990, on the eve of a European tour, Schuldiner decided against traveling, claiming at the last minute that he felt the tour was not adequately organized. Andrews and Butler continued with the tour of Europe as'Death' to fulfill the band's contractual obligations, recruited roadies Walter Trachsler and Louie Carrisalez to replace Schuldiner, much to Schuldiner's shock and disgust. Schuldiner took legal action and Butler and Andrews were fired from the band. Schuldiner abandoned the idea of a band set-up altogether and began working with session musicians only.
Schuldiner hired Steve Di Giorgio and recruited Sean Reinert and Paul Masvidal from underground Florida band Cynic. In 1991, Death released Human, considered a more technical and progressive album than their previous works, incorporating complex rhythms and song structures. Human was Death's best-selling album yet, receiving many accolades and some MTV play for the group's first video, directed by David Bellino, for the track "Lack of Comprehension". Due to obligations with his primary band Sadus, Di Giorgio was forced to depart after the recording of Human and new bassist Skott Carino did Death's extensive world tour, from October 1991 until March 1992, in addition to appearing in the music video for "Lack of Comprehension". Schuldiner fired his manager Eric Greif after Spiritual Healing but settled and re-hired him before the recording of Human. Although there were at least two lawsuits between Greif and Schuldiner, Schuldiner was characteristically mellow in an interview with Thrash'n Burn about what the writer referred to as his "gruesome collaboration" with Greif: "We just came to the conclusion that it was stupid just fighting all the time, taking each
John Pope was alderman of the 10th Ward of the City of Chicago until 2015. He was first elected in 1999 and served four terms, the last of which ended in 2015 when he lost an election to Alderman Susan Sadlowski Garza in 2015. A lifelong resident of the 10th Ward, Pope attended Mount Carmel High School, he earned his undergraduate degree from Wabash College in Indiana. Pope worked for several years in Chicago’s budget department, serving as Director of Demolition in the Building Department and Director of Conservation, before joining Mayor Richard M. Daley’s staff as Daley's assistant. Pope was first elected in 1999 after defeating business owner Robert Wisz to succeed the retiring John Buchanan. Pope was elected to his second term in 2003, when he ran unopposed, again in 2007, he was again reelected in 2011. Pope lost reelection to Susie Sadlowski Garza in 2015; as an alderman, Pope served on a number of committees: Buildings. In January 2008, Pope hired a former Streets and Sanitation worker, using a payroll account available to aldermen with no scrutiny, on a list of employees who should not be re-hired, as he had resigned after the city recommended firing him for allegations of sexually harassing a co-worker.
Pope defended the hiring, explaining that the worker had resigned without admitting guilt and that he was a hard worker with knowledge about the area. Pope hired the mother of Al Sánchez, leader of the Hispanic Democratic Organization which helped get Pope elected. Sánchez was a former Commissioner of the City of Chicago's Department of Streets and Sanitation who in 2008 had been convicted for rigging city hiring so that Mayor Daley's supporters would be rewarded. In August 2015, mayor Rahm Emanuel appointed Pope as a deputy commissioner in the city's Department of Water Management. City of Chicago
The District Councils' Network is a special interest group in the Local Government Association. It represents 191 of the 192 non-metropolitan district councils in England, representing over 40% of the population and 68% of the land, it is funded by membership subscriptions and its purpose is to "act as an informed and representative advocate for districts to government and other national bodies, based on their unique position to deliver for'local' people". It shares offices with the Local Government Association in Westminster. District Councils were created in 1974 following the restructure of local government in England. District Councils were created alongside County Councils and are responsible for running services such as housing, economic development, waste collection and community services. Following the re-organisation of local government the Association of District Councils was set up in April 1974; this replaced the Rural District Councils Association and Urban District Councils Association as the representative body of non-metropolitan district councils in England.
In March 1997, the ADC was wound up and merged with other local authority organisations to form the Local Government Association. The District Councils’ Network was formed as a special interest group of the LGA to give a distinct voice for District Councils. In 2011, the DCN inherited funds from the defunct ADC; the DCN has a Members' Board consisting of 22 councillors representing the Conservative, Liberal Democrats and independent groups from all areas of the country. As of 2017 this is chaired by Cllr John Fuller, Leader of South Norfolk and was chaired by Cllr Neil Clarke MBE, Leader of Rushcliffe. and Cllr Gary Porter, Leader of South Holland, Lincolnshire. Alongside the DCN Members' Board sits the Chief Executives’ Group made up of District Chief Executives from across the country; the chair of the CEG since 2019 is Chief Executive at Tandridge District Council. The Director of the DCN is Nick Porter; the DCN Assembly meets four times a year including an annual DCN Conference. The DCN provides a voice for district councils to the Local Government Association, Central Government and other national bodies.
This work includes influencing national and local stakeholders. The DCN has worked on a variety of issues; the DCN has released a number of publications on issues affecting district councils in England. In 2015 the DCN commissioned renowned health think-tank The Kings Fund to explore the scope for districts playing a greater preventative role in the public health agenda in a groundbreaking study'A time of challenge and opportunity' and academics from the University of Birmingham's Inlogov to investigate the best way districts should adapt to the English devolution agenda in a report entitled'Building Better Collaboration'. Previous publications have included a joint research project with the independent think tank New Local Government Network on new ways of working; the DCN provide evidence on behalf of District Councils to central government to help shape the direction of policy towards local government. This has included evidence on Community Budgets, Local Enterprise Partnerships, Localisation of Council Tax, Business Rates, Public Health, Welfare Reform and Private Rented Sector Housing.
The DCN host a number of events each year on topics affecting District Councils such as public health and private sector housing. This is a list of non-metropolitan counties and their districts in membership of the District Councils’ Network. Local government in England History of local government in England Local government in the United Kingdom Political make-up of local councils in the United Kingdom#District councils Local Government Association District Councils' Network
Y'Anna Monique Crawley is an American urban contemporary gospel artist and musician. She began her music career in 2009, performing on the Sunday Best on BET, her first studio album, The Promise, was released by Imago Dei Music Group. This album was her breakthrough release upon the Billboard magazine charts. Crawley was born Y'Anna Monique Crawley, on April 11, 1977, in Maryland, she resides in Washington, D. C.. She comes from a long line of musicians, she is related to Julius Cheeks. Crawley became pregnant when she was 17, this caused her to do backup vocal duties for Jennifer Lopez and gospel musician Stephen Hurd. Crawley's music career began in 2009, with appearances on the BET network's signing competition, Sunday Best, where she finished as the season 2 champion, received a recording contract, she released, The Promise, on August 2010, with Imago Dei Music Group. The peaked at number 2 on number 42 on the Independent Albums charts, she would win a Stellar Award for Female Artist of the Year, in 2012.
Crawley has two sons, born 13 years apart. Archive official website NPR Interview Da Gospel Truth review