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Urolagnia is a paraphilia in which sexual excitement is associated with the sight or thought of urine or urination. The term has origins in the Greek language. Golden shower is slang for the practice of urinating on another person for sexual pleasure. Urolagnia is a paraphilia. During the activity, urine may be consumed or the person may bathe in it. Other variations include arousal from wetting or seeing someone else urinate in their pants or underclothes, or wetting the bed. Other forms of urolagnia may involve a tendency to be sexually aroused by smelling urine-soaked clothing or body parts. In many cases, a strong correlation or conditioning arises between urine smell or sight, the sexual act. For some individuals the phenomenon arousal from infantilism. Urolagnia is sometimes associated with, or confused with, arousal from having a full bladder or a sexual attraction to someone else experiencing the discomfort or pain of a full bladder a sadomasochistic inclination. Golden shower: A shower or stream of urine is directed onto another person or persons.

Clothes wetting: The person is sexually aroused by wetting one's clothing or observing another person doing so. That person prefers to stage the wetting so that his/her legs become soaked with urine; the warm sensation felt when urine trickles on the body seems to give relaxing and pleasurable feelings to the person. In many cases, that person is aroused by smelling body parts that have a urine scent. Others get aroused by wet themselves; some prefer a particular type of clothing to urinate. Exhibitionism: Becoming noticeably desperate or wetting oneself with the express purpose of being seen by strangers. Practitioners have described going to public places such as a park; some intend to create situations. Human urinal: Within the BDSM community, some individuals desire to be used as a human urinal and some desire to use a human urinal; the submissive is strictly forbidden from placing their lips directly on the body of the dominant so the practice involves them receiving much of the spray all over their face and body.

One other, less common variation of this kink involves the dominant partner urinating inside the submissive partner's vagina or anus, followed up by the submissive partner ejecting the urine from their orifice. Omorashi: The act of holding one's own urine until the need to urinate is urgent, making another hold in their urine, or watching another person with an urgent need to urinate; this fetish sometimes originates from childhood memories of needing, or of seeing another needing, to urinate. Arousal may be triggered by seeing facial expressions of that person, it can be heightened by the person saying that they have to urinate. The arousal from being desperate comes from the sensation of having a full bladder. Pussing: British expression for an activity involving a consenting couple where the male partner watches the woman urinate otherwise undetected in a semi-public place a toilet cubicle at a pub, restaurant, theatre/cinema, club, etc; the strategies and tactics that are used to smuggle one of the couple into and out of the toilet undetected are as important or as important as the urination.

The activity is done by itself or as a part of or prelude to other activities which many times involve sex. Voyeurism: Seeing another urinate without the person's knowledge either through video taping by a hidden camera, or by lurking in locations where people are urinating or are to have an urge to urinate. Jennifer Eve Rehor of San Francisco State University points out that such data as exists on what she calls "unconventional" or "kink" sexual behavior is problematic because of the way that it has been collected, through criminal and clinical case studies. Behavior that appears neither in criminal trials nor in clinical studies is therefore under-reported. Rehor therefore surveyed 1,764 female participants in "kink" behavior in 2010–11, receiving 1,580 valid responses. What Rehor calls "urine play" is infrequent, with only 36.52% of her sample reporting having done it or having had it done to them. In contrast, 93.99% of her sample reported having done spanking or having had it done to them, 61.96% reported having used or been exposed to feathers/fur.

It is impossible to extrapolate Rehor's data onto the general population, but her study does give a guide to prevalence in the North American BDSM community. In Channel 4’s 2017 nationwide Great British Sex survey, watersports was ranked ninth in popularity among sexual fetishes in the UK. Chuck Berry: American musician, featured urinating on a woman in a sex tape, was sued for videotaping dozens of women in the bathroom of a restaurant he owned. Havelock Ellis: British sexologist, impotent until at age sixty he discovered that he was aroused by the sight of a woman urinating. Albert Fish: an American serial killer known as The Grayman, The Boogeyman, he wrote several letters to widows with want-ads in The New York Times and described in detail women urinating on him, inside of him, in cups so that he could drink it. He forced children to drink urine. Ashley MacIsaac: Nova Scotian fiddler and singer. In 1996 he spoke with a Maclean's interviewer m

Henwood v Municipal Tramways Trust

Henwood v Municipal Tramways Trust, was a significant Australian court case, decided in the High Court of Australia on 30 June 1938. The case was an influential decision in the law of negligence and is an authority for the proposition that the unlawful act of the deceased did not absolve the Trust from civil liability for its negligence. Henwood, while riding the tram, was stuck his head out the window; this breached a bylaw made by the tram authority as a safety precaution, he was struck twice by standards outside the tram. It was held that although he was breaking the law, he was still under the protection of the law, as such the Tramways Trust was liable for negligence in allowing him to be struck. "It was there held that there is no general rule denying to a person, doing an unlawful act the protection of the general law imposing upon others duties of care for his safety."This makes more sense when you look at another example, again mentioned by Finnegan P, of an occupier who shoots someone breaking into the house, such as Revill v Newbery, where the defendant shot the plaintiff, breaking and entering.

The defendant, or the occupier, was held liable for criminal damages though it was in defence of his home. In that case the plaintiff was held liable for trespass. Municipal Tramways Trust

Television advertising workflow

TV advertising delivery describes the process of getting an ad to air on television. The workflow involves the advertisers, creative agencies, post-production houses, media agencies, advertising delivery specialists & broadcasters. With global advertising spend more than doubling its growth rate from 2.6% to 5.7% from 2013 to 2014, with a study by ZenithOptimedia finding that TV advertising still accounts for 39.6% of adspend in 2014, television advertising and its workflow is a thriving and growing industry. With the increase of online streaming and Video on Demand, 86% of TV programs in the UK are still watched on television in 2015. In recent years, the use of tapes in global ad delivery has been dwindling, with most deliveries now being file-based or cloud-based. Large creative agencies & post houses such as Framestore, MPC, The Mill & Envy have spoken about how they have invested in digital workflows to accommodate this progress: Increased digital integration and new digital advertising formats will continue to fuel the demand for digital content and bespoke solutions In 2007, Sky, the UK's largest pay TV service, was accepting 80% of its advertising intake digitally.

Simon Cox, the CEO of IMD predicted the move to complete digital delivery within a few years. The move to tapeless delivery is not only taking hold in the UK: In India, suppliers have created platforms which focus on digital deliveries citing time and cost efficiencies as well as the aim to reduce the carbon footprint of an ad delivery. Ad Spending in India is predicted to grow 39% in 2016 In Singapore, technology company eBUS developed a digital delivery platform to increase speed of delivery and to minimise the chance for human error The increase of multiscreen viewing is growing all the time. In 2014, Forbes found that 48% of people globally are looking at another device whilst watching TV during prime-time; the result has been that advertisers have been challenged with how to maintain the effectiveness of their campaigns despite the constant distractions from other smart devices. AOL found that when a viewer is distracted by another screen, the recall rate on a TV advert drops from 83% to 23% with nearly 60% of US viewers engaged in another screen whilst watching TV.

There are variations in this workflow, with some organisations choosing to take on more than one part of the workflow. However, the usual components and duties are as follows: Advertiser/Brand The beginning of every ad on TV begins with the brand or advertiser, they will have a product that will initiate the process. Creative agency The brand will work with a Creative Agency to create the visuals & script for the ad; this step involves the development of the campaign and the actualisation of the project Post production house The post production house will edit & finish the ad Media Agency The media agency will handle the booking and organisation of the airtime booking for the ad. Advertising Distribution Specialists Due to the number of legal and technical specifics that are required, most broadcasters will only accept deliveries from a small number of specialists across the world; these specialists deliver the ads to online destinations. Due to the technical and regional nuances involved, TV advertising delivery can be difficult: Ads must adhere to their local advertising regulations.

The final step in getting an advert to air is most gaining clearance from relevant governing bodies and delivering the ad to broadcasters—though this is dependent on regional requirements. Different regions around the world require levels of clearance before an ad can be approved for broadcast; this is related to legal requirements as stated by relevant governing bodies. Ads pertaining to certain industries are most regulated and are subject to strict guidelines which need approving. In Britain, the body that governs clearance on ads is Clearcast, they pre-approve a majority of television advertising that goes to air against a set of criteria ranging from taste to technical constraints. Similar bodies are found in other regional markets and the same consideration must be given when producing all creative for television advertising, they check whether ads are adhering to Ofcom guidelines such as harmful flashing which can affect viewers with photosensitive epilepsy. Different regions require ads supplied in various different technical specifications –these may affect audio levels regulation & aspect ratio.

This means that one ad may need to be transcoded to various different formats in order to satisfy different broadcaster's expectations. Specifications can vary from broadcaster to broadcaster introducing further complexity to an advertising campaign. AdvertisingList of advertising agenciesTelevision advertisement

Józef Kos

Józef Kos was one of the last surviving veterans of the First World War and one of the oldest people in Poland at the time of his death. He was an ethnic Kashubian. In 1918 he served for the German Empire in the German Army during the last year of the war. In Kashubia Kos attended a German language school when he was a child living in the small village of Bontsch. In this time it was in part of the German Empire. In summer 1918, just before Kos turned 18 years old, the German Army sent him to train in Rastenburg in East Prussia, he and the other troops trained for three months before they began a march to Belgium, on Germany's western front, in order to deploy to the English Channel. After many weeks of marching at 40 kilometers per day, the war ended before reaching their destination. On his journey back to Poland, he witnessed the chaos in Germany as the country went through revolution and people stealing food just to have something to eat, he and other troops were given the opportunity to serve as border guards in the city of Danzig, which became a free city after the war, but he declined the offer and went home.

In 1920 Kos was a volunteer for Poland in the Polish-Soviet War, which secured Poland's independence. When Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, Kos was one of many Polish men that were rounded up and sent to Stalag XIII-D Nuremberg-Langwasser, a prisoner-of-war camp used by Germany and located in Nuremberg, he was interned for a half, at which time the civilians from Kashubia were released. His wife and two daughters were waiting to greet him at the train station in Sierakowice, when he arrived back home. Kos started learning his trade as a shoemaker when he was 14 years old, retired in 1965, he enjoyed bee-keeping after his retirement, some people credited his longevity to his daily healthy consumption of honey. Kos married his wife Agnieszka née Jelinski in 1935, they had 5 daughters, at the time of his death 7 grandchildren and 12 great-grandchildren. Before he married, as a bachelor, Kos bought a home in Sierakowice that he would live in for the rest of his life. Kos died after several weeks of illness at the age of 106, just a few days before Easter.

Services were delayed until after Easter, in order to allow for the many interested people to view his coffin, displayed at the St. Marcin's Church in Sierakowice. Józef Kos biography and 104th birthday, Wiadomosci Sierakowickie Józef Kos biography and 105th birthday, Wiadomosci Sierakowickie Józef Kos 106th birthday, Wiadomosci Sierakowickie Józef Kos death notice and biography, Wiadomosci Sierakowickie Józef Kos death notice and biography, Józef Kos death notice, Express Kaszubski

Ørland Church

Ørland Church is a parish church in Ørland municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is located along the Trondheimsfjorden, it is the main church for the Ørland parish, part of the Fosen prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros. The white, stone church was built in a long church style before the year 1342, it has been renovated several times after fires. It has preserved medieval walls; the wooden structure of the church was rebuilt in 1855 after a fire the year before. The church was renovated was in 1916 and 1960; the most recent design is by the architect Carl Riiber. The church seats about 330 people; the 2-foot thick walls are whitewashed stone. None of the original furnishings remain. List of churches in Trøndelag Ørland Kirke Norske Kirkebygg

Fresno State–San Jose State football rivalry

The Fresno State–San Jose State football rivalry is a college football rivalry between the Fresno State Bulldogs football team of California State University and the San Jose State Spartans football team of San José State University. The two teams play annual scheduled contests as Mountain West Conference opponents. Since 1921, Fresno State and San Jose State have shared conference affiliation in numerous athletics conferences including the California Coast Conference, Far Western Conference, California Collegiate Athletic Association, Big West Conference, the Western Athletic Conference; the rivalry is rooted in the two schools' close proximity to one another in the state of California. The city of Fresno is located 150 miles south of San Jose. Both institutions are members of the California State University system. Additionally, Fresno State and San Jose State are both located in geographical valleys. Fresno is located in the agricultural San Joaquin Valley while San Jose is located in the Santa Clara Valley, now more known as Silicon Valley.

The locations of the two schools account for the names Valley Battle for the Valley Trophy. As of 2019, Fresno State leads the series 42-38-3. San Jose State led the series from 1949 to 2001, but Fresno State tied it at 32–32–3 with a victory in 2002 and recaptured the lead in 2003; the Bulldogs and Spartans first played each other in 1921. The rivalry took a one-year break in 2012 after conference realignment temporarily separated the two schools, with Fresno State moving to the Mountain West Conference while San Jose State stayed in the Western Athletic Conference, it resumed as a conference rivalry in 2013 when San Jose State joined the Mountain West, is assured of being an annual matchup since both schools are in the West Division. Beginning in 2013, the winner of the game is awarded the Valley Trophy. List of NCAA college football rivalry games