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Uruk

Uruk was an ancient city of Sumer, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq. Uruk is the type site for the Uruk period. Uruk played a leading role in the early urbanization of Sumer in the mid-4th millennium BC. At its height c. 2900 BC, Uruk had 50,000–80,000 residents living in 6 km2 of walled area. The legendary king Gilgamesh, according to the chronology presented in the Sumerian king list, ruled Uruk in the 27th century BC; the city lost its prime importance around 2000 BC, in the context of the struggle of Babylonia against Elam, but it remained inhabited throughout the Seleucid and Parthian periods until it was abandoned shortly before or after the Islamic conquest of 633–638. William Kennett Loftus visited the site of Uruk in 1849 and led the first excavations from 1850 to 1854; the Arabic name of Babylonia, which became the name of the present-day country, al-ʿIrāq, is thought to derive from the name Uruk, via Aramaic and via Middle Persian transmission.

In Sumerian the word uru could mean "city, village, district". In myth and literature, Uruk was famous as the capital city of Gilgamesh, hero of the Epic of Gilgamesh, it is believed Uruk is the biblical Erech, the second city founded by Nimrod in Shinar. In addition to being one of the first cities, Uruk was the main force of urbanization and state formation during the Uruk period, or'Uruk expansion'; this period of 800 years saw a shift from small, agricultural villages to a larger urban center with a full-time bureaucracy and stratified society. Although other settlements coexisted with Uruk, they were about 10 hectares while Uruk was larger and more complex; the Uruk period culture exported by Sumerian traders and colonists had an effect on all surrounding peoples, who evolved their own comparable, competing economies and cultures. Uruk could not maintain long-distance control over colonies such as Tell Brak by military force. Geographic factors underpin Uruk's unprecedented growth; the city was located in the southern part of Mesopotamia, an ancient site of civilization, on the Euphrates river.

Through the gradual and eventual domestication of native grains from the Zagros foothills and extensive irrigation techniques, the area supported a vast variety of edible vegetation. This domestication of grain and its proximity to rivers enabled Uruk's growth into the largest Sumerian settlement, in both population and area, with relative ease. Uruk's agricultural surplus and large population base facilitated processes such as trade, specialization of crafts and the evolution of writing. Evidence from excavations such as extensive pottery and the earliest known tablets of writing support these events. Excavation of Uruk is complex because older buildings were recycled into newer ones, thus blurring the layers of different historic periods; the topmost layer most originated in the Jemdet Nasr period and is built on structures from earlier periods dating back to the Ubaid period. According to the Sumerian king list, Uruk was founded by the king Enmerkar. Though the king-list mentions a king of Eanna before him, the epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta relates that Enmerkar constructed the House of Heaven for the goddess Inanna in the Eanna District of Uruk.

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh is king of the city. Uruk went from the Early Uruk period to the Late Uruk period; the city was formed. The temple complexes at their cores became the Eanna District and the Anu District dedicated to Inanna and Anu, respectively; the Anu District was called'Kullaba' prior to merging with the Eanna District. Kullaba dates to the Eridu period. There are different interpretations about the purposes of the temples. However, it is believed they were a unifying feature of the city, it seems clear that temples served both an important religious function and state function. The surviving temple archive of the Neo-Babylonian period documents the social function of the temple as a redistribution center; the Eanna District was composed of several buildings with spaces for workshops, it was walled off from the city. By contrast, the Anu District was built on a terrace with a temple at the top, it is clear Eanna was dedicated to Inanna from the earliest Uruk period throughout the history of the city.

The rest of the city was composed of typical courtyard houses, grouped by profession of the occupants, in districts around Eanna and Anu. Uruk was well penetrated by a canal system, described as, "Venice in the desert." This canal system flowed throughout the city connecting it with the maritime trade on the ancient Euphrates River as well as the surrounding agricultural belt. The original city of Uruk was situated southwest of the ancient Euphrates River; the site of Warka is northeast of the modern Euphrates river. The change in position was caused by a shift in the Euphrates a

Kashif Ibrahim

Kashif Ibrahim is a former Pakistani cricketer. Ibrahim was a right-handed batsman, he was born at Sindh Province. Ibrahim made his first-class debut for Karachi Whites against Rawalpindi in 1996/97 season. Ibrahim represented Karachi Whites in 17 first-class matches, Karachi in a single and Karachi Blues in 3, he represented Pakistan National Shipping Corporation in 9 first-class matches between 1999/00. In final first-class match came in the 2000/01 season for Karachi Whites against Rawalpindi. In total, from 1996/97 to 2000/01 he played 30 first-class matches. In these matches he scored a total of 447 runs at a batting average of 16.44, with high score of 48. With the ball he took 74 wickets at a bowling average of 27.14, with 5 five wicket hauls, one of which resulted in his best figures of 5/25. Ibrahim mde his debut in List A cricket for Karachi Blues in the 1996/97 season against Bahawalpur. Ibrahim represented the 3 Karachi teams in List A cricket 11 times from the 1996/97 to 1998/99 season.

In addition, he represented Pakistan National Shipping Corporation in 4 matches during the 1999/00 season. His final List-A match in Pakistan came for the Corporation against Pakistan International Airlines in September 1999. During the 2000 English cricket season, Ibrahim played a 2 List A matches for the Sussex Cricket Board in the 2000 NatWest Trophy against Herefordshire. and Berkshire, which marked his final List A match. In his total of 17 List A matches, he scored 226 runs at an average of 45.20, with a 2 half centuries and a high score of 63. With the ball he took 22 wickets at an average of 28.45, with a best figures of 3/28. Kashif Ibrahim at Cricinfo Kashif Ibrahim at CricketArchive

David Caprio

David A. Caprio is an American attorney and a former Rhode Island State Representative from District 34, he was first elected on December 21, 1999. In 2010, Caprio was defeated in a September primary election, he is the son of Joyce and the Chief of the Providence Municipal Court Judge Frank Caprio and the brother of former Rhode Island State Treasurer Frank T. Caprio, his paternal grandfather had immigrated from Italy. Representative Caprio attended Bishop Hendricken High School, graduating in 1985, he went on to Boston College, graduating with a Bachelor of Science in 1989. He holds degrees from the University of Southern Europe. David Caprio works as an attorney for the Providence law firm Caprio and Caprio and is an active real estate investor with holdings in Florida, Newport and Barrington, Rhode Island. Representative David Caprio was named to the House Finance Committee. David Caprio ran a'Green Campaign' including purchasing carbon offsets for his mobile campaign headquarters, printing all campaign materials on recycled paper, purchasing offsets for his personal residence.

David was endorsed by the Sierra Club, the SEIU, the American Federation of Teachers. His campaign utilized new media extensively including Facebook, multiple campaign videos posted on YouTube, web based advertising. On September 9, 2008, David defeated his primary opponent Ryan P. Drugan by a 42% margin. Representative Caprio did not have a general election opponent so he returned to the State House for his fifth term beginning 6 January 2009