Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina was a ruler of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia, the last ruler of the 1st Dynasty of Lagash. He assumed the title of king, claiming to have been divinely appointed, upon the downfall of his corrupt predecessor, Lugalanda, he is best known for his reforms to combat corruption, which are sometimes cited as the first example of a legal code in recorded history. Although the actual text has not been discovered, much of its content may be surmised from other references to it that have been found. In it, he exempted orphans from taxes, he participated in several conflicts, notably a losing border conflict with Uruk. In the seventh year of his reign, Uruk fell under the leadership of Lugal-Zage-Si, énsi of Umma, who annexed most of the territory of Lagash and established the first reliably documented kingdom to encompass all of Sumer; the destruction of Lagash was described in a lament, which stressed that "the men of Umma... committed a sin against Ningirsu....
Offence there was none in Urukagina, king of Girsu, but as for Lugal-Zage-Si, governor of Umma, may his goddess Nisaba make him carry his sin upon his neck". Lugal-Zage-Si himself was soon defeated and his kingdom was annexed by Sargon of Akkad. Urukagina's code has been hailed as the first recorded example of government reform, seeking to achieve a higher level of freedom and equality, it limited the power of the priesthood and large property owners, took measures against usury, burdensome controls, theft and seizure. He the word "freedom", appears for the first time in recorded history. Despite these apparent attempts to curb the excesses of the elite class, it seems elite or royal women enjoyed greater influence and prestige in his reign than previously. Urukagina expanded the royal "Household of Women" from about 50 persons to about 1500 persons, renamed it the "Household of goddess Bau", gave it ownership of vast amounts of land confiscated from the former priesthood, placed it under the supervision of his wife, Shasha.
In his second year of reign, Shasha presided over the lavish funeral of his predecessor's queen, an important personage in her own right. In addition to such changes, two of his other surviving decrees, first published and translated by Samuel Kramer in 1964, have attracted controversy in recent decades. First, he seems to have abolished the former custom of polyandry in his country, on pain of the woman taking multiple husbands being stoned with rocks upon which her crime is written. Second is a statute stating that "if a woman says to a man, her mouth is crushed with burnt bricks." No comparable laws from Urukagina addressing penalties for adultery by men have survived. The discovery of these fragments has led some modern critics to assert that they provide "the first written evidence of the degradation of women"; some insight into Sumerian values can be gained from praise poems written for kings. While the kings may not always live up to this praise they show the type of achievements that they wished to be remembered by.
Extracts below praise Urukagina who appears as a social reformer, getting rid of gross abuses of power that had taken hold in Lagash. Since time immemorial, since life began, in those days, the head boatman appropriated boats, the livestock official appropriated asses, the livestock official appropriated sheep, the fisheries inspector appropriated.... The shepherds of wool sheep paid a duty in silver on account of white sheep, the surveyor, chief lamentation-singer, supervisor and foremen paid a duty in silver on account of young lambs... These were the conventions of former times! When Ningirsu, warrior of Enlil, granted the kingship of Lagash to Urukagina, selecting him from among the myriad people, he replaced the customs of former times, carrying out the command that Ningirsu, his master, had given him, he removed the head boatman from control over the boats, he removed the livestock official from control over asses and sheep, he removed the fisheries inspector from control.... He removed the silo supervisor from control over the grain taxes of the guda-priests, he removed the bureaucrat responsible for the paying of duties in silver on account of white sheep and young lambs, he removed the bureaucrat responsible for the delivery of duties by the temple administrators to the palace.
The... administrators no longer plunder the orchards of the poor. When a high quality ass is born to a shublugal, his foreman says to him, "I want to buy it from you"; when the house of an aristocrat adjoins the house of a shublugal, the aristocrat says to him, "I want to buy it from you". My house is a large container—fill it with barley for me!," or whether he does not let him buy it from him, that aristocrat must not strike at him in anger. He cleared and cancelled obliga
Richard Burleson is an American former motorcycle enduro racer. He is considered one of the top competitors in AMA history, winning a record eight consecutive Enduro National Championships, his domination of the national enduro series earned him the nickname King Richard. Burleson was inducted into the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 1999 and was named an AMA Legend in 2016. Born in Johnson City, Burleson began his competitive career riding in motocross events in the late 1960s, he joined the professional ranks in 1970 entering the 1970 Trans-AMA motocross series which featured visiting European riders who dominated the sport at the time. Burleson finished fourth overall and was the highest placed American rider, garnering the title of motocross national champion in the days before the AMA had a dedicated national championship series. Burleson began competing in enduro events and found that he enjoyed that form of competition, he would go on to win a record setting eight consecutive enduro national championships as well as earning eight consecutive gold medals representing the United States in the International Six Days Trial.
The International Six Days Trial is a form of off-road motorcycle Olympics, the oldest annual competition sanctioned by the FIM, dating back to 1913. In all, Burleson won 60 AMA National Enduro events during his career. After retiring from racing in 1982, Burleson remained active in the sport, starting a mail order motorcycle accessory business and helped design a line of off-road riding apparel, he was inducted into the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 1999. Burleson is married to Jill Burleson and they reside in Traverse City, Michigan, they have a son Jon-Erik and daughter Lindsay Kate. Jon-Erik Burleson is president of KTM North America and was appointed to that position in 2005. Dick Burleson at the Motorcycle Hall of Fame Northern Express Weekly article on the life of Dick Burleson
The Johan Cruyff Arena is the main stadium of the Dutch capital city of Amsterdam and the home stadium of the association football club AFC Ajax since its opening. Built from 1993 to 1996 at a cost equivalent to €140 million, it is the largest stadium in the country; the stadium was known as the Amsterdam Arena until the 2018–19 football season, when it was renamed in honour of legendary Dutch footballer Johan Cruyff who died in March 2016. It was one of the stadiums used during Euro 2000, held the 1998 Champions League and 2013 Europa League finals; the stadium will host three group stage matches and one match in the round of 16 of the Euro 2020. Both international and Dutch artists have given concerts in the stadium, including Coldplay, Take That, Celine Dion, Michael Jackson, André Hazes, David Bowie, AC/DC, One Direction, The Rolling Stones, Beyoncé and Rihanna; the dance event Sensation was held in the stadium every year, up until the final edition in 2017. The stadium has a retractable roof combined with a grass surface.
It has a capacity of 54,990 people during football matches, of 68,000 people during concerts if a centre-stage setup is used. It held UEFA five-star stadium status, superseded by a new system of classification. Amsterdam was one of six cities. In 1986, a new Olympic stadium was designed, with an athletics track, it was to be built in the area of Strandvliet in Amsterdam Zuidoost. After Amsterdam lost the bid to Barcelona in October 1986, the plans for the new stadium were abandoned. In 1987, the Stichting Amsterdam Sportstad was established, which made new plans for a sports stadium with an all-seated capacity of 55,000. In 1990, a new design was made based on both previous designs, with a football field, an athletics track, covered by a roof. By this time, AFC Ajax needed a new stadium, as their previous home ground, De Meer, was far too small for most of Ajax's games. For several years, Ajax had moved its more important games to Olympisch Stadion. Once more, the design was altered – the athletics track was removed, the capacity was reduced to 50,000 seats, the fixed roof was replaced by a retractable roof.
In 1992, the Government of Amsterdam authorised the plans for the stadium with a Transferium where people could transfer from their car to various forms of public transportation. In 1993, the Government of Amsterdam changed the development plan of the location and gave a permit to build the stadium; the first pile of the deep foundation of the stadium was placed on 26 November 1993. The construction work, undertaken by Ballast Nedam and Royal BAM Group, took three years; the highest point of the building was reached on 24 February 1995, after the roof construction was raised. The fly-over from the public road to the parking facilities was opened on 13 March 1996; the stadium received 180,000 visitors during the construction work, until the stadium was closed from 1 July 1996 until the opening ceremony. The stadium was opened on 14 August 1996 by Queen Beatrix. Queen Beatrix opened the stadium by making a curtain fall inside the stadium; this revealed the world's largest painting De Zee of 80 by 126 metres.
Two-dimensional ships were placed on the sea representing the clubs in the Eredivisie. Tina Turner opened the stadium with three concerts with 160,000 people in the arena, from her world breaking Wildest Dreams Tour. Trijntje Oosterhuis sang composed for the opening ceremony by John Ewbank. An eight-day torch relay with 375 runners over 1400 kilometres through the Netherlands reached the stadium; the first runner was Johan Cruyff starting in the old stadium De Meer, the last runner was Frank Rijkaard arriving in the new stadium. After the grass was revealed and the roof opened, an inaugural football match was played between AFC Ajax and Milan; the construction of the stadium cost an equivalent of €140 million. The stadium combines a retractable roof with a grass surface; this caused some problems in the beginning: the grass rolls would not grow in the shade of the open roof and had to be replaced up to four times a year. In September 2015, plans were presented to renovate the stadium's facade; the renovation should provide better quality and service to visitors by widening the walkway rings around the stadium, creating more room for the visitors and for new facilities.
As a result, the outside of the stadium transforms from a concave shape to a convex shape, drastically altering its appearance. The renovation is planned to be completed in 2020, when 4 matches of the UEFA Euro 2020 championship will be played in the Arena. Construction works started in June 2017; the first phase is to renovate the east side of the stadium, where construction of the new facade was completed in April 2018. On 25 April 2017, it was announced that the Amsterdam Arena would be renamed to "Johan Cruijff Arena" in memory of Ajax legend Johan Cruyff; that year, on 9 August, it was stated that the name change would take place on 25 October 2017. However, this was postponed as that date proved to be infeasable due to the many matters that needed to be settled, such as arranging compensation for possible