An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
The Peenestrom is a gut, strait or river in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is 20 kilometres long and is the westernmost connection of the Szczecin Lagoon with the Baltic Sea, it is therefore one of the three distributaries of the Oder
A seaside resort is a resort town or resort village, or resort hotel, located on the coast. Sometimes it is an accredited title, only awarded to a town when the requirements are met. Where a beach is the primary focus for tourists, it may be called a beach resort. In Roman times, the town of Baiae, by the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy, was a resort for those who were sufficiently prosperous. Mersea Island, in Essex, England was a seaside holiday destination for wealthy Romans living in Colchester; the development of the beach as a popular leisure resort from the mid-19th century was the first manifestation of what is now the global tourist industry. The first seaside resorts were opened in the 18th century for the aristocracy, who began to frequent the seaside as well as the fashionable spa towns, for recreation and health. One of the earliest such seaside resorts was Scarborough in Yorkshire during the 1720s; the first rolling bathing machines were introduced by 1735. In 1793, Heiligendamm in Mecklenburg, Germany was founded as the first seaside resort of the European continent, which attracted Europe's aristocracy to the Baltic Sea.
The opening of the resort in Brighton and its reception of royal patronage from King George IV extended the seaside as a resort for health and pleasure to the much larger London market, the beach became a centre for upper-class pleasure and frivolity. This trend was praised and artistically elevated by the new romantic ideal of the picturesque landscape. Queen Victoria's long-standing patronage of the Isle of Wight and Ramsgate in Kent ensured that a seaside residence was considered as a fashionable possession for those wealthy enough to afford more than one home; the extension of this form of leisure to the middle and working class began with the development of the railways in the 1840s, which offered cheap and affordable fares to fast growing resort towns. In particular, the completion of a branch line to the small seaside town Blackpool from Poulton led to a sustained economic and demographic boom. A sudden influx of visitors arriving by rail provided the motivation for entrepreneurs to build accommodation and create new attractions, leading to more visitors and a rapid cycle of growth throughout the 1850s and 1860s.
The growth was intensified by the practice among the Lancashire cotton mill owners of closing the factories for a week every year to service and repair machinery. These became known as wakes weeks; each town's mills would close for a different week, allowing Blackpool to manage a steady and reliable stream of visitors over a prolonged period in the summer. A prominent feature of the resort was the promenade and the pleasure piers, where an eclectic variety of performances vied for the people's attention. In 1863, the North Pier in Blackpool was completed becoming a centre of attraction for elite visitors. Central Pier was completed with a theatre and a large open-air dance floor. Many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines because the all-covering beachwear of the period was considered immodest. By the end of the century the English coastline had over 100 large resort towns, some with populations exceeding 50,000; the development of the seaside resort abroad was stimulated by the well developed English love of the beach.
The French Riviera alongside the Mediterranean had become a popular destination for the British upper class by the end of the 18th century. In 1864, the first railway to Nice was completed, making the Riviera accessible to visitors from all over Europe. By 1874, residents of foreign enclaves in Nice, most of whom were British, numbered 25,000; the coastline became renowned for attracting the royalty of Europe, including Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. In the United States, early seaside resorts in the late 1800s catered to the wealthy class and city businessmen. Cape May, New Jersey became one of the first coastal resorts in the United States, when regular steamboat traffic on the Delaware River began after the War of 1812. Early visitors to Cape May included Henry Clay in 1847, Abraham Lincoln in 1849. By 1880, Henry Flagler extended several rail lines southward down the Atlantic coastline of the United States, enticing the northern upper-class families south to subtropical Florida; the Florida East Coast Railway brought northern tourists to St. Augustine in greater numbers, by 1887 Flagler began construction of two large ornate hotels in St. Augustine, the 540-room Ponce de Leon Hotel and the Hotel Alcazar, bought the Casa Monica Hotel the next year.
Continental European attitudes towards gambling and nudity tended to be more lax than in Britain, British and French entrepreneurs were quick to exploit the possibilities. In 1863, the Prince of Monaco, Charles III and François Blanc, a French businessman, arranged for steamships and carriages to take visitors from Nice to Monaco, where large luxury hotels and casinos were built; the place was renamed Monte Carlo. Commercial seabathing spread to other areas of the United States and parts of the British Empire such as Australia, where surfing became popular in the early 20th century. By the 1970s cheap and affordable air travel was the catalyst for the growth of a global tourism market. Recreational fishing and leisure boat pursuits have become lucrative, traditional fishing villages are well positioned to take advantage of this. For example, Destin, on the coast of Florida, has evolved from an artisanal fishing village into a seaside resort dedicated to tourism with
Szczecin Lagoon, Stettin Lagoon, Bay of Szczecin, or Stettin Bay Oder lagoon, is a lagoon in the Oder estuary, shared by Germany and Poland. It is separated from the Pomeranian Bay of the Baltic Sea by the islands of Wolin; the lagoon is subdivided into the Wielki Zalew in the East. An ambiguous historical German name was Frisches Haff, which exclusively referred to the Vistula Lagoon. From the South, the lagoon is fed by several arms of the Oder river and smaller rivers like Ziese, Zarow and Ina. In the North, the lagoon is connected to the Baltic Sea's Bay of Pomerania with the three straits Peenestrom, Świna and Dziwna, which divide the mainland and the islands of Usedom and Wolin; the lagoon covers an area of 687 km², its natural depth is an average 3.8 metres, 8.5 metres at maximum. The depth of shipping channels however can exceed 10.5 metres. Thus, the lagoon holds about 2.58 km3 of water. The annual average water temperature is 11 °C.94% of the water loads discharged into the lagoon are from the Oder river and its confluences, amounting to an average annual 17 km3 or 540 m3 per second.
All other confluences contribute a combined annual 1 km3. Since no reliable data for an inflow from the Baltic Sea exist, the combined inflow is an estimated 18 km3 from a catchment area of 129,000 km2, residing in the lagoon for an average 55 days before being discharged into the Pomeranian Bay; the nutrients thereby transported into the lagoon have made it hypertrophic to eutrophic. The straits Peenestrom, Świna and Dziwna are responsible for 17%, 69%, 14% of the discharge, respectively; the average salinity is between 0.5 and 2 psu, yet at times more salt water penetrates through the Świna locally raising the salinity to 6 psu. Szczecin Świnoujście Police Ueckermünde Wolin Usedom Nowe Warpno In 1880, the Kaiserfahrt channel on Usedom was opened, a water route with a depth of 10 metres connecting the lagoon with the Baltic Sea by bypassing the eastern part of the Swine, allowing large ships to enter the lagoon and the seaport of Stettin quicker and safer; the canal 12 km long and 10 metres deep, was dug by the German Empire between 1874 and 1880, during the reign of the first Kaiser Wilhelm after whom it was named.
The work resulted in a new island named Kaseburg being cut off from Usedom. After 1945, the areas east of Oder Neisse line became part of Poland, including the former German seaport cities of Stettin and Swinemünde on the western bank of the river Oder; the Kaiserfahrt was renamed Piast Canal, after the Polish Piast dynasty. The German-Polish border divides the bight called Neuwarper See near Rieth, Luckow; the lagoon has served as an important fishing grounds for centuries, as a major transportation pathway since the 18th century, as a tourist destination since the 20th century. Today the lagoon offers a selection of passenger ship tours, a wide range of water sports and some notable beaches. Tourists can discover winegrowing, the narrow-gauge railway, castles, many hiking and cycling routes and a small village reviving the life of the former Slavic settlements; the lagoon suffers from heavy pollution from the Oder river, resulting in eutrophication. High concentrations of aluminium and iron sediments have been found in the river causing rapid algae growth inside the lagoon.
However, long-term nutrient concentrations show a high inter-annual variability and have declined during recent years. The southern shore of the lagoon belongs to the Am Stettiner Haff Nature Park, its northern shore and the island of Usedom to the Usedom Island Nature Park. To the west is the Anklamer Stadtbruch Nature Reserve and, within it, the Anklamer Torfmoor, a protected wetland, renaturalising after being used for peat extraction. Curonian Lagoon Vistula Lagoon Glasby GP, Szefer P, Geldon J, Warzocha J. "Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from Szczecin Lagoon and the Gdansk Basin, Poland". Sci. Total Environ. 330: 249–69. Doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.004. PMID 15325172
Kachliner See is a lake in Usedom, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. At an elevation of 0 m, its surface area is 1.00 km²
The Peene Valley is a landscape in West Pomerania in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. It covers the area on either side of the river Peene in the districts of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte and Vorpommern-Greifswald as the river makes its way from Lake Kummerow past the towns of Dargun, Loitz, Jarmen, Gützkow and Anklam to its mouth on the Peenestrom; the landscape of the Peene Valley has been little impacted by industry and other human activities and has a large variety of animal and plant species. It is therefore a nature area of statewide importance and much of the region is subject to nature and landscape conservation measures, it has a core zone of about 20,000 hectares and a total area of about 45,000 hectares and is thus the largest contiguous fen region of Europe. Thanks to its wilderness and intact nature, the river Peene and its valley is referred to as "the Amazon of the North". Mike Stegemann, Frank Hennicke: Errichtung und Sicherung schutzwürdiger Teile von Natur und Landschaft mit gesamtstaatlich repräsentativer Bedeutung.
Projekt: Peenetal/ Peene-Haff-Moor, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In: Natur und Landschaft. Issue 7/8, 1991. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, p. 287–294, ISSN 0028-0615. Barbara Havenstein, Frank Hennicke, Mike Stegemann, Jens Kulbe, Zweckverband „Peenetal-Landschaft“ Anklam: Natur- und Wanderführer Peenetal. Hoffmann-Druck GmbH, Wolgast 1998. Erich Hoyer: Naturführer Insel Usedom. Mit Haffküste, Ueckermünder Heide und unterem Peenetal. Verlag Erich Hoyer, Galenbeck 2001, ISBN 3-929192-13-6. Frieder Jelen: Ein Nationalpark im Peenetal. Wird eine Vision Wirklichkeit? In: Nationalpark. Wildnis - Mensch - Landschaft. 1/2006. Verein der Freunde des Ersten Deutschen Nationalparks Bayerischer Wald e. V, p. 4–7. Peene Valley landscape major nature conservation project BfN: Peenetal Information by the Federal Nature Conservation Office Förderverein „Naturschutz im Peenetal“ Official website of the preservation society