The user interface, in the industrial design field of human-computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, process controls; the design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as ergonomics and psychology. The goal of user interface design is to produce a user interface which makes it easy and enjoyable to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result; this means that the operator needs to provide minimal input to achieve the desired output, that the machine minimizes undesired outputs to the human. User interfaces are composed of one or more layers including a human-machine interface interfaces machines with physical input hardware such as keyboards, game pads and output hardware such as computer monitors and printers.
A device that implements an HMI is called a human interface device. Other terms for human-machine interfaces are man-machine interface and when the machine in question is a computer human-computer interface. Additional UI layers may interact with one or more human sense, including: tactile UI, visual UI, auditory UI, olfactory UI, equilibrial UI, gustatory UI. Composite user interfaces are UIs that interact with two or more senses; the most common CUI is a graphical user interface, composed of a tactile UI and a visual UI capable of displaying graphics. When sound is added to a GUI it becomes a multimedia user interface. There are three broad categories of CUI: standard and augmented. Standard composite user interfaces use standard human interface devices like keyboards and computer monitors; when the CUI blocks out the real world to create a virtual reality, the CUI is virtual and uses a virtual reality interface. When the CUI does not block out the real world and creates augmented reality, the CUI is augmented and uses an augmented reality interface.
When a UI interacts with all human senses, it is called a qualia interface, named after the theory of qualia. CUI may be classified by how many senses they interact with as either an X-sense virtual reality interface or X-sense augmented reality interface, where X is the number of senses interfaced with. For example, a Smell-O-Vision is a 3-sense Standard CUI with visual display and smells; the user interface or human–machine interface is the part of the machine that handles the human–machine interaction. Membrane switches, rubber keypads and touchscreens are examples of the physical part of the Human Machine Interface which we can see and touch. In complex systems, the human–machine interface is computerized; the term human–computer interface refers to this kind of system. In the context of computing, the term extends as well to the software dedicated to control the physical elements used for human-computer interaction; the engineering of human–machine interfaces is enhanced by considering ergonomics.
The corresponding disciplines are human factors engineering and usability engineering, part of systems engineering. Tools used for incorporating human factors in the interface design are developed based on knowledge of computer science, such as computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages. Nowadays, we use the expression graphical user interface for human–machine interface on computers, as nearly all of them are now using graphics. There is a difference between a user interface and an operator interface or a human–machine interface; the term "user interface" is used in the context of computer systems and electronic devices. Where a network of equipment or computers are interlinked through an MES -or Host to display information. A human-machine interface is local to one machine or piece of equipment, is the interface method between the human and the equipment/machine. An operator interface is the interface method by which multiple pieces of equipment that are linked by a host control system are accessed or controlled.
The system may expose several user interfaces to serve different kinds of users. For example, a computerized library database might provide two user interfaces, one for library patrons and the other for library personnel; the user interface of a mechanical system, a vehicle or an industrial installation is sometimes referred to as the human–machine interface. HMI is a modification of the original term MMI. In practice, the abbreviation MMI is still used although some may claim that MMI stands for something different now. Another abbreviation is HCI, but is more used for human–computer interaction. Other terms used are operator interface terminal; however it is abbreviated, the terms refer to the'layer' that separates a human, operating a machine from the machine itself. Without a clean and usable interface, humans would not
Anomaly is the seventh studio album by American Christian hip hop artist Lecrae, released on September 9, 2014, through Reach Records. The album features appearances from Crystal Nicole, Kari Jobe, For King & Country, along with label-mate Andy Mineo. Anomaly met with a positive critical reception, the song "Nuthin", released for streaming as a single on July 1, 2014, was nominated for the 2014 BET Hip Hop Awards in the best Impact Track category; the album fared well commercially, debuting at No. 1 on the Billboard 200 with over 88,000 copies sold. It debuted at No. 1 on the Top Gospel Albums chart, marking the first time that any artist has topped both the 200 and Gospel charts. Anomaly won Rap/Hip Hop Album of the Year at the 2015 GMA Dove Awards, Rap, Hip Hop Gospel CD of the Year at the 2015 Stellar Awards. Two songs earned a nomination for the 2015 Grammy Awards. Anomaly is the seventh studio album by Lecrae, follows up his 2013 mix-tape Church Clothes 2 and 2012 studio album Gravity. Gravity debuted at No. 3 on the Billboard 200, selling over 72,000 copies during its first week, won both Best Gospel Album at the 2013 Grammy Awards and Best Rap/Hip Hop Album at the 2013 Dove Awards.
The commercial version of Church Clothes 2 debuted at No. 21 on the Billboard 200, selling over 15,000 copies, while the free version was downloaded over 150,000 times on Datpiff.com. Lecrae revealed that he had considered collaborating with Kendrick Lamar, Kanye West, Elle Varner and Nipsey Hu$$le, but decided to work on his own, he said "it feels like a first album because it's just me being me and giving my own perspective". Lecrae worked with several producers including Gawvi, Ace Harris and Alex Medina, he worked with Symbolyc One and Track a Dot. He described the production as "not just simple beats, a couple singles have that going on, but for the most part, it’s intricate." In May 2014, Reach Records held two limited pre-release listening sessions, one session at Stonecrest Mall in Atlanta and another at Strght and Nrrw in Jacksonville, Florida for the song "Nuthin'" from Lecrae's upcoming album, the title of which at that time had yet to be revealed. On June 3, 2014, Lecrae announced the title of the album, Anomaly, as well as the album's release date set as August 2014.
He said: "Conceptually, it’s about how I deviate from the norm just being a product of Hip-Hop, but yet staying true to who I am and what I’m about though the culture is going its own route. It’s saying ‘Man, I don’t care. I’ll be different.’ Lecrae began a trending hashtag with the album's name, allowing people to express their own story and individuality, ending their short pieces with the hashtag "#Anomaly". The likes of Lakers' point guard Jeremy Lin and Oakland Raiders' defensive end Justin Tuck have contributed to this growing social media campaign. Lecrae explained their involvement: On June 20, Lecrae unveiled the artwork of the album, which shows the face of the rapper in 3D. In July, Lecrae tweeted that the album's release would be pushed back to September 9, unveiled the track listing. On July 22, Lecrae released a video explaining the album's title. On September 18, 2014 Lecrae was a guest on NBC's The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon where he performed several times throughout the show with The Roots.
Lecrae launched the Anomaly tour in support of the album, accompanied by DJ Promote. Started on October 3, 2014, the tour ran through November 21, stopping at 30 cities throughout the United States, it included a stop in Phoenix, Arizona at the annual charity concert Bubba's Bash, sponsored by golfer Bubba Watson, which featured, in addition to Lecrae and his tour roster, the artists Britt Nicole, Thi'sl, Judah Smith. The tour met with such success that three more stops were added before it concluded on November 21. In January 2015, Lecrae announced a second leg of the tour that started in April 2015. Critics viewed Anomaly favorably. David Jeffries, writing for AllMusic, rated the album four stars out of five, concluding that "Crafty and smart man and with Anomaly following a series of albums crafted and smart, he now enters the hallowed halls of the consistent with all his charisma intact."Writing for Vibe, Juan Vidal positively reviewed the album: "On his newest offering, Lecrae sounds more aware than ever.
Aware of his place and of the stories he's been charged to tell. He establishes himself as an outsider who doesn't quite fit in anywhere, treading the thin grey line between the sacred and secular. Over heavy synths and sharp, cracking drums, he flexes with a newfound lyrical prowess. Lecrae's fast-paced flow does the work of complementing many of the bursting choruses, which are bigger and more pronounced than they've been on any of his previous releases, and much can be said about his voice this time around, which he's learned to stretch and manipulate to great effect."Rachel Chesbrough of XXL noted that Lecrae's "ability to tell a story is on point, his delivery never falters once, his detailed wordplay, however literal, does acrobatics in terms of rhyme scheme. Anomaly may not break out of its niche, but it’s objectively admirable, his established fan base will love it."The Christian Post reporter Vincent Funaro wrote: "Lecrae shows growth on this album lyrically and seems to have perfected the writing style he began with the original Church Clothes mixtape, moving away from Christian theology and closer to content that people from all walks of life can relate to.
He seems comfortable in his new space and raps more as a person following
Education in Puerto Rico is overseen by the Department of Education of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Education Council. The Department oversees all elementary and secondary public education while the Council oversees all academic standards and issues licenses to educational institutions wishing to operate or establish themselves in Puerto Rico. Instruction in Puerto Rico is compulsory between the ages of five and 18, which comprises the elementary and high school grades. Students in Puerto Rico may attend either private schools; as of 2013, the island had 1,460 public schools, 764 private schools, 606,515 K-12 students, 64,335 vocational students, 250,011 university students. Because of damage caused by Hurricane Maria in 2017, a shrinking population, deteriorating infrastructure, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis, 283 schools were closed in Puerto Rico by 2018; the literacy rate of the Puerto Rican population is 93%. According to the 2000 Census, 60.0% of the population attained a high school degree or higher level of education, 18.3% has a bachelor's degree or higher.
The first school in Puerto Rico was the Escuela de Gramática. The school was established by Bishop Alonso Manso in 1513, in the area where the Cathedral of San Juan was to be constructed; the school was free of charge and the courses taught were Latin language, history, art and theology. The concept of public school wasn't used on the island until 1739. At the time, attendance was compulsory until age 9. Public Education was organized into 500 centers by 1897; the Foraker act of 1900 established the commissioner of education in Puerto Rico and created the department of public education. The commissioner of education was appointed by the President of the United States; the commissioner of education led efforts to impose US culture on the people in Puerto Rico. The education system was designed using guidelines set forth by the United States. English-language instruction was imposed on schools, until 1939 where Spanish was made the official language of instruction. English is taught as a second language beginning from first grade and continuing straight through senior year of High School.
Following principles of the US constitution, separation of church from state, public school education became independent of religious instruction. The teaching of US history, replacing Puerto Rican historical figures with American ones, reciting the pledge of allegiance, the celebrating American holidays were means to Americanize students on the island. Americanization was meant to generate support for US colonialism; the United States trained both US and Puerto Rican teachers in education. Puerto Rican teachers were sent to the United States to receive training. In the island, US teachers would train Puerto Rican teachers. By 1913, the US government had invested 14 million dollars on public education in the island and 1,050 schools had been built in rural areas. Laws passed in 1899 required education in Puerto Rico to consist of a public system for ages six to eighteen, to limit the student/teacher ratio to 50:1, to be coed; the 1900 Department of Public Instruction became the Department of Education in 1989.
The educational system in Puerto Rico consists of seven categories. These categories are based on the educational levels covered: Some Puerto Rican schools, most notably in rural areas, offer kinder to ninth grade at the same institution and are referred to as Segunda Unidad. Other schools offer seventh grade to twelfth grade at the same institution and are referred to as Nivel Secundario; the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico grants the right to an education to every citizen on the island. To this end, public schools in Puerto Rico provide free and secular education at the elementary and secondary levels; the public school system is funded by the commonwealth and is operated by the Puerto Rico Department of Education. The department employs over 45 thousand teachers of which 32,000 have full-time tenureships and are organized under several independent unions, including the Puerto Rico Teachers Association and the Teachers' Federation of Puerto Rico; the remaining teachers contracted on a yearly basis.
Preschool education and services are free for low income families with private daycares being common and within walking distance in urban areas. Primary and secondary education is compulsory and free regardless of income through more than 1,400 public schools. Ten public schools are considered prestigious locally. All of them being magnet schools, which graduate the highest scores on the island of the College Board's PEAU. Two examples of these are CIMATEC and CROEM which focus on science and mathematics. Public schools in Puerto Rico are subject to the federal laws of the United States; the NCLB, No Child Left Behind Act included Puerto Rico until president Obama approved a waiver on October 22, 2013. Education Department spokeswoman Yolanda Rosaly told The Associated Press on May 5, 2017 that 27,000 students will be moved, as a result of 184 public school planned closings; the economic crisis in Puerto Rico drove the decision to close the schools, which officials have said will save millions of dollars.
Governor Ricardo Rossello proposed a radical education reform bill in February 2018