The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
Codex Vaticanus 354
Codex Vaticanus, designated by S or 028, ε 1027 called Codex Guelpherbytanus, is a Greek manuscript of the four Gospels which can be dated to a specific year instead of an estimated range. The colophon of the codex lists the date as 949; this manuscript is one of the four oldest New Testament manuscripts dated in this manner, the only dated uncial. The manuscript has complex contents; the codex contains 235 parchment leaves, with complete text of the four Gospels. The text is written in 27 lines per page, 15-17 letters per line, it is written in large and compressed uncial letters. It has no accents; the nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated way. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top. There is a division according to the smaller Ammonian sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains the Epistula ad Carpianum, lists of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, subscriptions at the end of each Gospel, with numbers of stichoi.
It contains many corrections, margin notes predominantly added by hand. It includes neumes, it is one of the oldest manuscript with neumes; the writing is large oblong and compressed, appears Slavic. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type in close relationship to the codices Codex Mosquensis II, Codex Washingtonianus. Kurt Aland placed it in Category V, it belongs to the textual family K1. In Matthew 27:16 it has marginal comment: "In many ancient copies which I have met with I found Barabbas himself called Jesus; the spurious texts of Luke 22:43.44, John 5:4, Pericope Adultera are marked by asterisks as questionable texts. In John 8:1 it reads επορευετο instead of επορευθη; the name of the scribe was Michael, a monk, who finished his work "in the month of March, the fifth day, the sixth hour, the year 6457, the seventh indiction". The manuscript was described by Bianchini, it was collated with some errors by Birch in 1781-1783, but collators in his day noticed orthographical forms.
Tischendorf in 1866 corrected the collation of Birch. Tischendorf states that facsimile of Bianchini was coarsely executed, he made another for himself; the codex is located in Rome. List of New Testament uncials List of New Testament papyri Textual criticism Andreas Birch, Variae Lectiones ad Textum IV Evangeliorum, Haunie 1801, p. IV-V Giovanni Mercati, "Un frammento delle Ipotiposi di Clemente Alessandrino" Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Paleography, Oxford University Press, New York - Oxford, 1991, p. 110 Edward Maunde Thompson, An introduction to Greek and Latin palaeography, Clarendon Press: Oxford 1912, p. 215. Codex Vaticanus 354, S at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism
Eusebian canons, Eusebian sections or Eusebian apparatus known as Ammonian sections, are the system of dividing the four Gospels used between late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The divisions into chapters and verses used in modern texts date only from the 13th and 16th centuries, respectively; the sections are indicated in the margin of nearly all Greek and Latin manuscripts of the Bible, summarized in Canon Tables at the start of the Gospels. There are about 1165 sections: 355 for Matthew, 235 for Mark, 343 for Luke, 232 for John; until the 19th century it was believed that these divisions were devised by Ammonius of Alexandria, at the beginning of the 3rd century, in connection with a Harmony of the Gospels, now lost, which he composed. It was traditionally believed that he divided the four Gospels into small numbered sections, which were similar in content where the narratives are parallel, he wrote the sections of the three last Gospels, or the section numbers with the name of the respective evangelist, in parallel columns opposite the corresponding sections of the Gospel of Matthew, which he had chosen as the basis of his Gospel Harmony.
Now it is believed that the work of Ammonius was restricted to what Eusebius of Caesarea states concerning it in his letter to Carpianus, that he placed the parallel passages of the last three Gospels alongside the text of Matthew, the sections traditionally credited to Ammonius are now ascribed to Eusebius, always credited with the final form of the tables. The Harmony of Ammonius suggested to Eusebius, as he himself tells us in his letter, the idea of drawing up ten tables in which the sections in question were so classified as to show at a glance where each Gospel agreed with or differed from the others. In the first nine tables he placed in parallel columns the numbers of the sections common to the four, or three, or two, evangelists. Mark, John. Mark, Luke. Luke, John. Mark, John. Luke. Mark. John. In the tenth he noted successively the sections special to each evangelist; the usefulness of these tables for the purpose of reference and comparison soon brought them into common use, from the 5th century the Ammonian sections, with references to the Eusebian tables, were indicated in the margin of the manuscripts.
Opposite each section was written its number, underneath this the number of the Eusebian table to be consulted in order to find the parallel texts or text. These marginal notes are reproduced in several editions of Tischendorf's New Testament. Eusebius's explanatory letter to Carpianus was very reproduced before the tables; the tables themselves were placed at the start of a Gospel Book, in illuminated copies were placed in round-headed arcade-like frames of which the general form remained remarkably consistent through to the Romanesque period. This form was derived from Late Antique book-painting frames like those in the Chronography of 354. In many examples the tables are the only decoration in the whole book other than some initials. In particular, canon tables, with Evangelist portraits, are important for the study of the development of manuscript painting in the earliest part of the Early Medieval period, where few manuscripts survive, the most decorated of those have fewer pages illuminated than was the case later.
Chronicon This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Ammonian Sections". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. British Library illuminated manuscripts - add "canon tables" to search box for many examples
Codex Tischendorfianus III
Codex Tischendorfianus III – designated by siglum Λ or 039, ε 77 – is a Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 10th century, it is one of few uncial manuscripts of the New Testament with full marginal apparatus. The manuscript was brought from the East by Constantin von Tischendorf, who examined and was the first scholar to collate its text; the manuscript was examined by scholars like Samuel Prideaux Tregelles, Ernst von Dobschütz, Gächler. It is housed in the Bodleian Library; the codex contains the complete text of the Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of John on 157 parchment leaves. The leaves are arranged in quarto, four leaves folded in quires; the text is written in two columns per 23 lines per page. There are no spaces between letters, the words are not separate but written in scriptio continua; the uncial letters are not beautiful and slanting. The letters are characterized by Slavonic uncials; the writing is similar to that of Codex Cyprius.
It has breathings and accents,diaeresis, there is no interrogative sign. The errors of iotacism are rare, it has iota adscriptum. All errors are infrequent and it has good grammar, it has the ornamented headpieces before the decorated initial letters. Before Gospel of Luke it contains subscription to Mark; the nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated way. In the end of each Gospel stands the Jerusalem Colophon; the text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the left margin of the text, their τιτλοι at the top of the pages. The lists of the κεφαλαια are placed before each Gospel. There is a division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections, with a references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains lectionary markings in the margin. The marginal apparatus of the codex is full, indicating two systems of text division and lectionary directions, it has occasional scholia in uncials at the margin, with some critical notes. Before Gospel of Luke stands a subscription to the Gospel of Mark.
It has Jerusalem colophon at the end of each Gospel. At the en of Matthew we read: Gospel according to Matthew: written and corrected from the ancient manuscripts in Jerusalem: those kept in the holy mountain: in 2514 lines and 355 chaptersAt the end of Mark: Gospel according to Mark: written and corrected from the prepared ones in 1056 lines, 237 chaptersAt the end of Luke: Gospel according to Luke: written and corrected in 2677 lines, 342 chaptersAt the end of John: Gospel according to John: written and corrected from the same copies in 2210 lines, 232 chapters; the Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type, but different from typical Byzantine text. It has some Caesarean readings. Tischendorf as the first found some textual affinities to the textual family today known as f13. Tischendorf found its text is of the same type as the manuscripts: Basilensis, Seidelianus I, Seidelianus II, Campianus, Vaticanus 354, Mosquensis II. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family Ir.
It is close to the textual family E. Kurt Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents textual family Kx in Luke 10 and Luke 20. In Luke 1 its text is mixed. According to Tischendorf in John 5:1-36 in 17 places it 13 times agrees with Alexandrinus, twice with Vaticanus, one with Ephraemi, one with G H M U V, it contains the questionable text of the Pericope Adulterae, but at the margin of verse 8:11 it has questionable scholion: τα οβελισμενα εν τισιν αντιγραφαις ου κειται, ουδε Απολιναριου εν δε τοις αρχαις ολα μνημονευουσιν της περικοπης ταυτης και οι αποστολοι παντες εν αις εξεθεντο διαταξεσιν εις οικοδομην της εκκλησιας. It contains text of Luke 22:43-44 and John 5:4, but text of John 5:4 is marked by an obelus as a doubtful. In Luke 1:28 – αυτην + ευηγγελισατο αυτην και, the reading is supported by the codices: Minuscule 164, Minuscule 199, 262, 899, 1187, 1555, 2586. In Luke 3:22 after γενεσθαι added phrase προς αυτον, as the codices Minuscule 13, Minuscule 69, Minuscule 119, Minuscule 229, Minuscule 262.
In Luke 3:27 it reads ζορομβαβελ for ζοροβαβελ. John 1:28 it reads Βηθεβαρα, supported by minuscule 346. In John 8:7 and in 8:10 it reads αναβλεψας instead of ανακυψας, the readings are supported by the manuscripts: Codex Nanianus, textual family f13, 700. Majority of the manuscripts read: Ιησους και μηδενα θεασαμενος πλην της γυναικος or: Ιησους. In John 8:57 it has singular reading τεσσερακοντα instead of πεντηκοντα, it creates textual group Λ. The group was ide
Codex Cyprius, designated by Ke or 017, ε 71, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the four Gospels, on parchment. It was variously dated in the past it is dated to the 9th century, it was brought from Cyprus to Paris. Sometimes it was called Codex Colbertinus 5149; the words are written continuously with stichometrical points. It is one of the few uncial manuscripts with complete text of the four Gospels, it is one of the more important late uncial manuscript of the four Gospels; the text of the codex was examined by many scholars. It represents the Byzantine text-type, typical for the majority of manuscripts, but it has numerous peculiar readings; the manuscript was examined by many palaeographers and textual critics since the end of the 17th century until to half of the 20th century. Although its text is not estimated by present textual critics and a full collation of its text was never made or published, it is cited in editions of the Greek New Testament; the codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels.
The entire work is arranged on 267 parchment leaves. The leaves each measure 26 centimetres by 19 centimetres, in a quarto format with four leaves to each quire; the text itself is written in brown ink in one single column per page. Each page contains 16 to 31 lines because the handwriting is irregular and varies in size, with some pages having letters that are quite large; the style of handwriting of the codex bears a striking general resemblance to that of three Gospel lectionaries of the 10th and 11th centuries: Lectionary 296, ℓ 1599, ℓ 3. The letters and words are not separated from one another. There is frequent insertion of a point as a mark of interpunction; this has been supposed to occur in an ancient stichometrical style of writing. A dot is always used to denote the end of the stichos; the uncial letters of this codex are large, not round, compressed. In some of the pages letters are large, it contains lectionary markings on the margin, Synaxarion on pages 1–18, with Menologion, the Eusebian Canon tables on pages 19–28.
It contains subscriptions after each of three first Gospels. In Matthew: ευαγγελιον κατα ματθαιον ΣΤΙ ΑΒΨ το κατα ματθαιον ευαγγελιον υπ αυτου εν ιεροσολυμοις μετα χρονους η της του χριστου αναληψεως. In Mark: ευαγγελιον κατα μαρκον ΣΤΙ ΔΨ το κατα μαρκον ευαγγελιον εξ δοτη μετα χρονους δεκα της του χριστου αναληψεωςIn Luke: ευαγγελιον κατα λουκαν ΣΤΙ ΑΒΩ το κατα λουκαν ευαγγελιον εξεδοτη μετα χρονους ιε της του χριστου αναληψεως, it has rough breathing, smooth breathing, accents from the original scribe, but omitted or incorrectly placed. The breathings are indicated by ⊢ and ⊣, these signs were used in the codices from the 9th and 10th century. Errors of itacism are frequent; the text is divided according to the Ammonian Sections, whose numbers are given at the left margin of the text, but a references to the Eusebian Canons are absent. There was not another division according to the κεφαλαια in the original codex, though it has their τιτλοι at the top of the pages, tables of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel.
The numbers of the κεφαλαια were added by a hand. The nomina sacra are written with the first letter and last letter; the last letter is dependent upon case. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Together with Codex Petropolitanus belongs to the family Π, in close relationship to the Codex Alexandrinus. According to Tregelles, textual critic, it has many good and valuable readings, but according to another textual critic Kenyon the text of the codex has not remarkable value, because the manuscript is late. According to Gregory, textual critic, it has older than Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden, textual critic, who designated codex by ε 71, classified it to the textual family Iκa and provenance of this text associated with Jerusalem. According to Silva Lake, textual critic, the text of the codex is a somewhat dilute form of family Π, with a large number of peculiar readings, most of which are either misspellings or careless and ignorant mistakes. An educated scribe could hardly have produced the variants in Mark 4:1.
The readings which it does not share with other representatives of Family Π are supported outside that family and they seem to be connected with the late Alexandrian group, but the number of the Alexandrian readings is not high and according to Silva they are rather result of accident than influence of a foreign text-type. Kurt Aland placed its text in Category V; the text of the codex is cited in 27th edition of Novum Testamentum Graece of Nestle-Aland. According to the Claremont Profile Method it belongs to the textual family Πa in Luke 1, Luke 10, Luke 20; the profile of this group is following: Luke 1: 1, 4, 12, 14, 30, 34, 41, 44.
Codex Boreelianus, Codex Boreelianus Rheno-Trajectinus, designated by Fe or 09 in the Gregory-Aland numbering and ε 86 in von Soden numbering, is a 9th century uncial manuscript of the four Gospels in Greek. The manuscript, written on parchment, is full of lacunae, many of which arose between 1751 and 1830; the codex was named Boreelianus after Johannes Boreel. The text of the codex with numerous alien readings; some of its readings do not occur in any other manuscript. According to the present textual critics its text is not a important manuscript, but it is quoted in all modern editions of the Greek New Testament; the manuscript was brought from the East at the beginning of the 17th century. It was in private hands for over 100 years. Since 1830 it has been housed at the Utrecht University; the codex contains the text of the four Gospels, on 204 parchment leaves of size 28.5 × 22 cm, with numerous lacunae. The text of the existing codex begins with Matthew 9:1 and ends with John 13:34. Luke is more incomplete.
In 1751 Wettstein remarked that the codex started at Matthew 7:6 and that only the folia with Matthew 8:25 and Mark 11:6–16 were missing. It means. At present, lacunae of the manuscript include: Matthew 1:1–9:1; the leaves are kept in loose quires. The text is written in late uncial script, in two columns per page, with 19 lines per column, in large uncial letters. Palaeographically the writing is close to the Codex Seidelianus I; the letters Η, Μ, Ν, Π, are square, the letters Ε, Θ, Ο, Σ, Φ have a round shape. The letters Δ, Ε, Θ, Ο, Ψ in cruciform, are of the form characteristic for the late uncial script. Φ is bevelled at both ends. The letters were written by an ` careful' hand; the nomina sacra are written in an abbreviated way: ΘΣ for θεος, ΙΣ for Ιησους, ΧΣ for χριστος, ΚΣ for κυριος, ΥΣ for υιος, ΣΗΡ for σωτηρ, ΣΡΑ for σωτηρια, ΣΡΙΟΣ for σωτηριος, ΟΥΝΟΣ for ουρανος, ΟΥΝΙΟΣ for ουρανιος, ΠΝΑ for πνευμα, ΠΗΡ for πατηρ, ΜΗΡ for μητηρ, ΑΝΟΣ for ανθρωπος, ΣΤΡΣ for σταυρος, ΔΑΔ for δαβιδ, ΙΗΛ for ισραηλ, ΙΛΗΜ for ιερουσαλημ, etc.
The words at the end of lines are sometimes abbreviated too. It uses typographic ligatures; the codex has a lot of like hiatus and N ephelkystikon. The error of iotacism occurs infrequently; the breathings and accents are given and correctly. The breathings are indicated by sigla ⊢ and ⊣ used in codices from the 9th and 10th century. In some cases breathings are given incorrectly; the text is divided according to the Ammonian Sections, with the usual number of sections, are written on the left margin, but there are given without references to the Eusebian Canons. There is no division according to the κεφαλαια, but the τιτλοι are given at the top of the pages, sometimes at the bottom; the capitals at the beginning of the sections stand out in the margin to indicate new sections (as in codices Alexandrinus and Basilensis. Although there is no division according to the κεφαλαια, the tables of the κεφαλαια are placed before each Gospel, it has some lectionary markings at the margin. The headpieces are decorated, with headings written in red.
The Ammonian sections are written in red. The pages are numbered. At the top left of the first page of most quires in Gospel of Matthew, Arabic quire numbers are found. There are several different correctors, among which the "first hand" worked on the codex, but the total number of corrections is not high. Special features The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type, but with a number of singular readings. According to Bruce M. Metzger it is typical Byzantine text. According to Kurt and Barbara Aland it agrees with the Byzantine standard text 156 times, 78 times with the Byzantine when it has the same reading as the original text, it does not support the "original" text against the Byzantine. It has 11 distinctive readings. Alands placed it in Category V of New Testament manuscripts, it is not a important codex, but it is an important witness of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it as Ki. According to the Claremont Profile Method it has mixed Byzantine text in Luke 1.
The words before the bracket are the readings of the Textus Receptus, the words after are the readings of the codex. The words before the bracket are the readings of the Kr, the words after are the readings of the codex. H. Deane, a paleographer, in 1876 dated the manuscript to the 8th century and Gregory to the 9th century; as of 1995, it is dated by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research to the 9th century. The Code
An asterisk. It is so called. Computer scientists and mathematicians vocalize it as star. In English, an asterisk is five-pointed in sans-serif typefaces, six-pointed in serif typefaces, six- or eight-pointed when handwritten, it is used to censor offensive words, on the Internet, to indicate a correction to a previous message. In computer science, the asterisk is used as a wildcard character, or to denote pointers, repetition, or multiplication; the asterisk derives from the two thousand year old character used by Aristarchus of Samothrace called the asteriskos, ※, which he used when proofreading Homeric poetry to mark lines that were duplicated. Origen is known to have used the asteriskos to mark missing Hebrew lines from his Hexapla; the asterisk evolved in shape over time, but its meaning as a symbol used to correct defects remained. In the Middle Ages, the asterisk was used to emphasize a particular part of text linking those parts of the text to a marginal comment. However, an asterisk was not always used.
One hypothesis to the origin of the asterisk is that it stems from the five thousand year old Sumerian character dingir, though this hypothesis seems to only be based on visual appearance. When toning down expletives, asterisks are used to replace letters. For example, the word'fuck' might become'f**k','f*ck' or even'****'. Vowels tend to be censored with an asterisk more than consonants, but the intelligibility of censored profanities with multiple syllables such as b*ll*cks or uncommon ones is higher if put in context with surrounding text. In colloquial usage, an asterisk is used to indicate that a record is somehow tainted by circumstances, which are putatively explained in a footnote referenced by the asterisk; the usage of the term in sports arose after the 1961 baseball season in which Roger Maris of the New York Yankees broke Babe Ruth's 34-year-old single-season home run record. Because Ruth had amassed 60 home runs in a season with only 154 games, compared to Maris's 61 over 162 games, baseball commissioner Ford Frick announced that Maris's accomplishment would be recorded in the record books with an explanation.
In fact, Major League Baseball had no official record book at the time, but the stigma remained with Maris for many years, the concept of a real or figurative asterisk denoting less-than-official records has become used in sports and other competitive endeavors. A 2001 TV movie about Maris's record-breaking season was called 61* in reference to the controversy; the controversy over season length in relation to home run records had somewhat subsided by the time Hank Aaron broke Ruth's career home run record in 1974. Maris's single season mark was broken in 1998 by Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa, who both broke it in under 154 games. McGwire's record of 70 home runs was eclipsed by Barry Bonds, who set the current mark of 73 home runs in the 2001 season. However, these players' accomplishments were soon questioned after evidence surfaced suggesting all three might have been taking advantage of MLB's then-lax policies related to the use of performance-enhancing drugs. Fans were critical of Bonds and invoked the asterisk notion during the 2007 season, as he approached and broke Hank Aaron's career home run record.
Opposing fans would hold up signs bearing asterisks whenever Bonds came up to bat. After Bonds hit his record-breaking 756th home run on August 7, 2007, fashion designer and entrepreneur Marc Ecko purchased the home run ball from the fan who caught it, ran a poll on his website to determine its fate. On September 26, Ecko revealed on NBC's Today show that the ball will be branded with an asterisk and donated to the Baseball Hall of Fame; the ball, marked with a die-cut asterisk, was delivered to the hall on July 2, 2008 after Marc Ecko unconditionally donated the artifact rather than loaning it to the hall as intended. In recent years, the asterisk has come into use on baseball scorecards to denote a "great defensive play." By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the association of baseball and its records with doping had become so notorious that the term "asterisk" had become associated with doping in sport. In February 2011 the United States Olympic Committee and the Ad Council launched an anti-steroid campaign called "Play Asterisk Free" aimed at teens.
The campaign, whose logo uses a heavy asterisk, first launched in 2008 under the name Don't Be An Asterisk. In cricket, it signifies a total number of runs scored by a batsman without losing his wicket. Where only the scores of the two batsmen that are in are being shown, an asterisk following a batsman's score indicates that he is due to face the next ball to be delivered; when written before a player's name on a scorecard, it indicates the captain of the team. It is used on television when giving a career statistic during a match. For example, 47 * in a number of matches column means. In computer science, the asterisk is used in regular expressions to denote zero or more repetitions of a pattern. In the Unified Modeling Language, the asterisk is used to denote zero to many classes. In some command line interfaces, such as the Unix shell and Microso